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«The International Institute of Teacher’s College, Columbia University The INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE of Teachers College, Columbia University, was ...»

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As from the school year 1920-1921, only those students were to be admitted to the universities who could be absolutely trusted in respect of morality and national loyalty, and in only such numbers as would not be detrimental to sound training. Students must apply for admission. The granting or refusal of admission was in the hands of the respective faculties. Besides the postulate of moral rectitude and national loyalty, the intellectual ability of applicants must be taken into consideration, while at the same time care must be exercised that the ratio of students from the minority races living in Hungary should be on a par with their average number of people or at least constitute nine-tenths of it. A recent decree (1928) has greatly facilitated the admission of students.

UNIVERSITY STUDENT ORGANIZATIONS (UNIVERSITY OF BUDAPEST)

Following is a list of the student organizations in the University of Budapest:

1. The Theological Students' School of Hungarian Church Literature. Founded 1831. Object: The training of members in scholarship and literature and publication' of Catholic literature.

2. Relief Society of Law Students. Founded 1861. Object:

Assistance of law students.

3. Relief and Self-Improvement Society of Medical Students.

Object: Assistance of members.

EDUCATION IN HUNGARY

4. Relief and Self-Improvement Society of Pharmacy Students. Founded 1863. Object: Assistance of needy members and developing of scholarship among members.

5. The University Club. Founded 1872. Object: The advancement of scholarly, literary, and artistic endeavours among its members.

6. Relief Society of Philosophy Students. Founded 1873. Object: Assistance of needy philosophy students.

7. The University Hospital Society. Founded 1891. Object:

Assistance of students and graduates of Peter Pazmany and Joseph Technical Universities by grant of medical and hospital attention, in the case of graduates even three years after graduation.

8. Mensa Academica Society. Founded 1894. Object: Assistance of students of Peter Pázmány and Joseph Technical Universities by grant of free board.

9. General University Relief Society. Founded 1898. Object:

To give financial aid to poor students.

10. University Athletic Club of Budapest. Object: To develop athletic sports among its members.

11. Society of Law Students. Object: To deepen interest in law and political science among students.

12. University Society of Natural Sciences. Object: To develop interest in natural sciences.

13. University Shorthand Society. Founded 1903. Object:

To train members in shorthand.

14. University Glee Club. Founded 1906. Object: To develop members in music and singing.

15. University Touring Society. Founded 1909. Object: To stimulate interest in tours and in the beauties of nature.

There are similar organizations in the other universities also.

III. THE ROYAL JOSEPH TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY

HISTORY The Royal Joseph Technical University, the only technical school of university rank in Hungary, has a history of one hundred and forty-four years.

The university in Buda first proposed the foundation of an engineering school in the year 1780. Joseph II in 1782 then

UNIVERSITIES AND RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS 145

established the Institutum, Geomctricum in connection with the Faculty of Philosophy of the university. Thus training of engineers in Hungary has been carried on in the university since 1782, Hungary having in this respect anticipated all other nations.

The Institutum Geometricum functioned within the university until 1850, when it was amalgamated with the Joseph Industrial School, opened in 1845. The united schools in 1856 assumed the rank of a polytechnical school. This school was then reorganized (in 1871) and raised to the rank of a university under its present title. Thus this school has for more than half a century functioned as a university.

In 1901 the university received the right to confer Doctor's degrees {doctor rerum technicarum), and in 1910 it also obtained the privilege of the promotio sub auspiciis regis already described.

ORGANIZATION

The Royal Joseph Technical University is a complete technical school. It is divided into six faculties; architecture, civil engineering, mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, economics, and general. The last faculty trains technical professors and takes care of special students.

The youngest of the faculties is that of economics, established in 1914. In establishing a Faculty of Economics and in the training of economic engineers the Joseph Technical University anticipated all other higher technical schools. In German technical schools the transformation is only now in process.

The aim of the Technical University is to train professional men in the field of technical and economic sciences. Only students with certificates of maturity from a secondary school may be admitted as regular students to the technical faculties. The courses in these faculties last eight semesters; in the Faculty of Economics, two semesters; but here the entrance requirement is completion of a university course. Upon completion of the courses in the various technical faculties—architecture, civil engineering, mechanical engineering, and chemical engineering— students receive diplomas in their respective subjects. Graduates of the Faculty of Economics also receive a diploma. Engineers in any field who successfully pass the examination in economics receive a diploma of economic engineers.





EDUCATION IN HUNGARY

The university has the right to grant Doctor's degrees both in the technical and in the economic faculties. Candidates must first have a diploma. In the Faculty of Economics it is also necessary to produce some sort of original published work or to carry on research work for at least two semesters in some seminar of the Faculty of Economics. The basis of the examination for the doctorate is a dissertation.

Students or graduates from technical schools abroad are admitted on the basis of their previous studies, in so far as these come up to the standard of the university. Differences must be made up either by examination or by class work.

At the head of the Technical University is the Rector.

CURRICULUM At the Technical University there is not the wide freedom of choice found in other universities. Yet here, too, the professors have perfect freedom in what they teach. The professor is one who suam sententiam profitetur, that is, he has the right to discuss his own personal ideas and researches free and unhindered.

In this respect freedom has always existed and still exists in the Technical University. But the freedom of students in the choice of subjects meets with serious obstacles. While in other universities subjects may be freely chosen, in the Technical University one subject grows out of another and it is impossible to master one without the other as a basis. Hence it is necessary to follow a fixed, prescribed course of study arranged progressively. This arrangement has so far met with general satisfaction among both students and professors.

The obligatory subjects in the various faculties are as follows:

Architecture First year—mathematics, descriptive geometry, mechanics, ancient architecture, chemistry, geology, drafting, building construction, applied study of solids.

Second year—applied study of solids, technical physics, building construction, ancient architecture, architecture of the Middle Ages, principles of planning, general mechanics, water colors, drafting, practical perspective, chemical technology.

Third year—building construction, medieval architecture, modern architecture, principles of planning, history of art, iron and

UNIVERSITIES AND RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS 147

reinforced cement construction, elements of geodesy, ornamentation, planning, water colors, design, modelling.

Fourth year—iron and reinforced cement construction, electrotechnics, planning, industrial and business buildings, modern architecture, history of art, ornamentation, design, modelling, economics, architectural hygiene.

Civil Engineering First year—analysis and geometry, descriptive geometry, mechanics, chemistry, experimental physics, geology, drawing, building construction.

Second year—analysis and geometry, mechanics, geodesy, building construction, chemical technology, hydraulic construction, construction of roads and railroads, materials.

Third year—geodesy, building construction, statics of joints, bridge construction, construction of roads and railroads, hydraulic construction, general mechanics, encyclopedia of architectural art.

Fourth year—electrotechnics, bridge construction, railroad construction, hydraulic construction, economics, administrative law.

Mechanical Engineering First year—analysis and geometry, descriptive geometry, mechanics, experiments in solidity, drawing, general mechanics, mechanical drawing, mechanical shop work, chemistry.

Second year—analysis and geometry, mechanics, experiments in solidity, physics, electrotechnics, chemical technology, mechanical drawing, elements of machines, mechanical shop work, metallurgy.

Third year—iron construction, elements of machines, hydraulic machines, compressors and steam turbines, cutting of metals and wood, weaving of fibrous material, administrative law, elements of geodesy, cranes, architectural encyclopédies, mechanical shop work.

Fourth year—calorimeters, electric machines, electromotors, encyclopédies in railroad construction, economics, industrial accounting, electrptechnics, hydraulic machines, compressors and steam turbines, materials and paper-making, cranes, mechanical shop work, locomotives, electric railways.

EDUCATION IN HUNGARY

Chemical Engineering First year—experimental physics, mathematics, chemistry, chemical analysis, mineralogy, general mechanics, mechanical drawing, analytical practice, electrotechnics, glass work, production of organic materials.

Second year—physical chemistry, chemical technology, organic chemistry, technical microscopy, technical mikology, electrotechnics, laboratory work in analytical chemistry, glass blowing, laboratory work in organic chemistry.

Third year—electrochemistry, laboratory work in organic chemistry, agricultural chemistry, machines of chemical industries, batteries, economics, gasometric methods, recent chemical theories, chemistry of foods, laboratory work in chemical technology, architectural encyclopédies.

Fourth year—laboratory work in agricultural chemistry, chemistry of foods, micrological studies in fermentation industries, industrial accounting, laboratory work in electrochemistry.

Economics Economics, administrative law, civil law, finance, criminal law, statistics, transportation, commerce and banking, tariff systems, social politics, state accounting, mining and industries, agriculture, and theoretical economics.

Besides the prescribed courses students of economics are required to take six semester hours of special subjects and a seminar. There are three groups of seminars: (a) economics and finance, (b) statistics and economic politics, and (c) transportation. It is left to the student to choose his seminar. His special subjects, however, must be chosen in fields related to the seminar. The groups of special courses offered are mathematics, natural sciences, technical sciences, economics and law, languages, and practical work in' mechanics.

EXAMINATIONS

Examinations in the obligatory courses are compulsory. No fee is charged unless the examination is taken after the prescribed time. Examinations in subjects requiring laboratory work can be taken only on completion' of the courses and passing of the final examinations. The qualifying examination is

UNIVERSITIES AND RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS 149

written and oral. In the technical faculties there are three groups of qualifying examinations. The time of the first is the last two weeks of the second year when the lectures are finished or the first three weeks of the following year before the lectures begin.

The second qualifying examination may be taken as soon as the student has completed the study of the subjects required for examination. The third examination is taken upon completion of the courses in the university.

SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS

1. The Mensa Technica, started in 1899 by the wives of professors and now maintained by the government and the technical professions, provides board for technical students.

2. The Students' Relief Society, founded in 1862, functions as an agency for assisting poor students. Since the World War it has concentrated its attention in the main upon technical students exiled from the territories separated from Hungary. It maintains a home with accommodation for 204 students.

3. The Centrum Co-operative Association was founded in 1919 to lend material support to students and now maintains a clothing store, barber's shop, and dairy.

4. Athletic associations such as the Athletic and Football Club, the Rowing Club, Rifle Society, and Aviation Society.

5. The Technical University Glee Club, founded in 1896, gives annual recital and from time to time joins the University Glee Club in making extended tours of Europe.

6. The Hungária Fraternity of Technicians, founded in 1919, aims to help technical students meet the requirements of their studies. It gives popular lectures and courses and publishes the Technica, a monthly magazine devoted to technical subjects.

7. The Radio Club, founded in 1924, designs to increase the knowledge of its members in the theoretical and practical science of the radio.

–  –  –

Economic Sciences. This faculty was started to provide the highest possible training in agriculture, commerce, administration, and foreign representation. With it an old desire of Hungarian economic life was fulfilled.



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