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Hungarian economists, economic societies, and congresses since 1872 had been continuously pressing for the establishment of an agricultural school of university rank. And since the nineties of the last century the question of a commercial school of university rank had also been constantly discussed. At the Congress of the Association of Hungarian Economists in 1900 the movement to establish a school was definitely started, and it was aimed to have separate departments for agriculture, commerce, industry, and finance.
This movement was substantially aided by the growing desire to have administrative officers of the State trained in dealing with economic questions in order that they might the better fulfil their task.
After these preliminaries a group of eminent economists sent a memorandum to both houses of Parliament and to the Ministry in 1912. Parliament accepted the idea and instructed the government to take steps to effect the foundation of a university. Organization work at the time was checked by the critical situation of Parliament. It was only after the revolution that something definite could be done and the government in 1920 forthwith established the University Faculty of Economic Sciences. At the same time it was arranged to have teachers of commercial subjects receive their special training in this new school. Work was begun in the school year of 1920-1921.
ORGANIZATION AND AIM
Accordingly four departments are included: agriculture, commerce and training of commercial teachers, administration, and foreign representation' and consular service.
The agricultural department prepares for positions in big agriUNIVERSITIES AND RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS 151 cultural enterprises, the commercial department for industrial, commercial, and transportation concerns, and the teachers' training department for positions as teachers in higher commercial schools. The administration department trains for positions in the civil service of the government, and the foreign representation department, for foreign service.
At present the faculty has 18 chairs and the following institutes to supplement the work of the lecture room: (1) Institute of Agrochemistry, (2) Institute of Plant Growing, (3) Institute of Agrobotany, (4) Institute of Animal Husbandry, (5) Institute of Farming, (6) Institute of Economic Geography, (7) Institute and Experimental Station' in Social Politics, (8) Institute of Agricultural Politics, with special seminars, (9) Oriental Institute, with a museum. The Oriental Institute is undergoing reorganization.
The following seminars are offered: (1) Economics and Social Politics, (2) Economic Politics, (3) Agricultural Enterprises, (4) Agricultural Industry, (5) Agrogeology, (6) Commercial Law, (7) Commercial and Political Arithmetic, (8) Languages.
The department of agriculture possesses an experimental field of over 200 acres of land, fully equipped. The faculty has a library of over 37,700 volumes and 603 maps. Of this number 9,314 books have been placed in the central library, while the remainder are distributed among individual chairs, institutes, and seminars.
To the teaching staff belong those ordinary and extraordinary professors, private docents, lecturers, and instructors whose appointments have previously been approved and confirmed by the Ministry. They are assisted by adjuncts and assistants. At the head of the faculty is the Dean, who is elected from year to year from the members of the staff. At present as administrator and supervisor he exercises the powers of a University Rector. His deputy is the ex-Dean, whose office is filled by the retiring Dean. The direct governing body of the faculty is the meeting of ordinary and extraordinary professors and two representatives of the private docents. The Dean presides. Administration is in' the hands of the Dean, Quaestor, and Business Office.
Students may be ordinary or extraordinary. Ordinary students in the administration and foreign representation departments are those who possess a certificate of maturity from some 152 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY secondary school, and in the agricultural and commercial departments, those who have a certificate of maturity from a secondary school or some commercial or agricultural school of secondary rank. Anyone sixteen years of age with proper educational background may enrol as a special student.
Women may enrol as ordinary students in the departments of agriculture and commerce. Foreign students can become regular students by meeting special requirements. The faculty will accept credits of foreign students provided they are equivalents of the work covered by the courses of the faculty.
In the matter of tuition fees and discipline of students, the same rules prevail as at the Peter Pázmány University.
The diploma of the faculty can be obtained only upon' completion of eight semesters of studies and on passing the stipulated examinations. The following subjects are offered:
Agriculture Agricultural Subjects—(a) agrochemistry, physics, economic botany, bacteriology, economic geology, study of environment, economic zoology, anatomy and physiology of domestic animals, special and general study of plant growing, plant pathology, economic machinery, economic electrotechnics, economic architecture, biology of animal husbandry, animal husbandry, milk production, grape growing and wine producing, measurement and cultivation of soil, agricultural industries, fermentation industries, grafting, pasture lands, forestry, gardening, animal pathology, agricultural enterprising, agricultural finances and accounting; (6) exercises in agrochemistry, agricultural botany, anatomy and physiology of domestic animals, plant growing, animal raising, plant pathology, and agricultural enterprising.
Economics—history of economics, economics, economic politics, land politics, associations and business, statistics, finances, community politics, animal raising.
Legal Subjects—legal encyclopédies, recording deeds, laws, and mortgages, agricultural administration, economic law, political science.
Commerce and Geography—economic geography, commerce and accounting, agricultural commerce.
UNIVERSITIES AND RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS 153Commerce Commercial Subjects—general commerce, commercial bookkeeping, banking and bank bookkeeping, balances, insurance and bookkeeping, public enterprises, international commerce, mathematics, commercial and political arithmetic, prices and values, computations of possibilities, mathematical statistics, differentiation, insurance arithmetic, German, French, or English commercial encyclopédies, commercial exercises in letter writing, bookkeeping, bills, arithmetic, economics, and insurance.
Geography and Merchandise—economic and transportation geography, chemistry of merchandise, commercial geology, mechanics of merchandise, agricultural industries, fermentation industries, iron and metal industry, industry of foodstuffs and articles of luxury, textile industry.
Economics—history of economics, philosophy, economics, economic politics, statistics, finances, transportation, association politics and bookkeeping, commerce and credit, tariff and transportation, insurance, social insurance, social politics.
encyclopédies, Legal Subjects—legal administration encyclopédies, private law, commercial law, law of industrial administration, notes and checks, legal aspects of corporations and associations, financial law, civil law, transportation and naval law, insurance laws, political science.
Languages—German, French, or English language, German, French, or English commercial encyclopédies.
Administration and Foreign Relations Legal Subjects—legal encyclopédies, common law, administration law, private law, criminal law and procedure, police law and procedure, commercial law, agricultural administration, administration of public health, civil law and procedure, financial law, educational law and politics, industrial administration law, political science, international law, Church law, and politics.
Economics—elements of philosophy, history of economics, economics, economic politics, statistics, finances, land politics, tariff and transportation, consumers' league and business, foreign politics, community, city, and social politics as separate courses.
Agricultural Subjects—encyclopédies of plant growing, encyclopédies of animal raising, agricultural enterprises.
154 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY Commercial Subjects—state budgets, commerce, commercial bookkeeping, exercises in bookkeeping, balances, banking and bank bookkeeping.
Geographical and Mercantile Subjects—introduction to economic geography, economic and commercial geography, political geography, mechanics of merchandise, economic geology, agricultural industry, foodstuff industry.
Languages—one nationality language.
Foreign Representation—modern history, diplomatic history, recent peace treaties, foreign politics, international law, French, and another language.
Besides these courses students may take special subjects, lectures, and language courses.
V. LAW SCHOOLS Prior to the increase of the number of universities law schools played a more important part in higher education. Their number, which once exceeded ten, has now decreased considerably.
This was due partly to the fact that the new universities each included a law school in its scheme and partly to the loss of two schools as a result of the Treaty of Trianon and the closing of others because of the necessary decrease of State aid. At present only three law schools are in existence—at Eger, Kecskemét, and Miskolc.
The school at Eger came into being in 1740 as a result of the foundation by Archbishop George Foglár. Today it is maintained by the Archbishop of Eger and is the only Catholic law school in the country.
In the Reformed law school at Kecskemét instruction has been carried on since 1831. It is the only Reformed law school in the country.
The Lutheran law school at Eperjes was started in 1815 and upon the dismemberment of Hungary by the Treaty of Trianon, it was moved to Miskolc, where it functions today as the only Lutheran law school in the country.
These three schools have the following chairs of instruction:
Roman Catholic Law School at Eger. (1) Roman Law; (2) Canon Law, Hungarian Constitution, and History of Law; (3) Politics, Common and International Law; (4) Economics, Statistics, and State Budgets; (5) Hungarian and Austrian Civil
UNIVERSITIES AND RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS 155Law; (6) Criminal Law and Legal Philosophy; (7) Commercial and Civil Law; (8) Administration and Financial Law.
Reformed Law School at Kecskemét. (1) Canon Law, Hungarian Constitution, History of Law, and Modern History; (2) Administration and Financial Law and State Budgets; (3) Introduction to Legal and Political Sciences, Hungarian Common Law, International Law, and Politics; (4) Roman Law, and History of Culture; (5) Legal Philosophy, Punishment, and Ethics;
(6) Economics, Finances, and Statistics; (7) Hungarian and Austrian Civil Law; (8) Commercial Law, and Settlements.
Lutheran Law School at Miskolc. (1) Roman Law; (2) Hungarian Constitution and Legal History, Canon Law, History, and Philosophy; (3) Economics, Finances, and Statistics; (4) Legal Philosophy and Punishment; (5) Administration and Financial Law; (6) Austrian and Hungarian Civil Law, and Mining Laws;
(7) Common Law, Politics, and Introduction to Legal and Political Sciences; (8) Commercial Law and Legal Suits.
During the year 1925-1926 the following numbers of students were in attendance: Eger 180, Kecskemét 534, and Miskolc 369.
The situation of these schools since the increase of the number of universities has become very precarious. They are maintained mainly from a denominational point of view and do not receive State aid. They follow the program of studies offered by the universities, and, although they may give preliminary examinations, final qualifying examinations are given only by the universities.
VI. THEOLOGICAL SEMINARIES
ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCHPrior to the Synod of Trent the training of priests was carried on in the cloistral and monastic schools and after the foundation of universities wealthy students attended foreign universities (Bologna, Padua, Paris, Cracow, and Vienna). The Synod of Trent in 1563 ordered that a seminary be founded in each diocese for the purpose of training priests. The Archbishop of Esztergom, Michael Oláh, founded a seminary in his diocese as early as 1567. He was followed by Peter Pázmány, who established the University oí Nagyszombat with the Faculties of Philosophy and Theology and gave it over to the Jesuits. Subsequently, other seminaries were founded by the various dioceses, 156 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY which in 1784 were merged into two seminaries at Pozsony and Pest. These two schools soon ceased and the old schools were revived; the training of priests continues to this day in separate diocesan seminaries. Higher training for priests is offered at the University of Budapest in connection with the central seminary.
The courses are four years in length and the number of the professors varies between' seven and five. Courses in Christian philosophy, Old and New Testament sciences, apologetics, dogmatics, ethics, Church history, Church law, and pastoral theology are offered in all seminaries. Some seminaries offer courses in religious education, catechetics, homiletics, liturgies, sociology, asceticism, hygiene, and common law.
The language of instruction in strictly theological subjects is Latin and in others, Hungarian. In most of the seminaries the courses are given in alternate years so that the students of two grades listen to common lectures; at Esztergom and Eger the four grades are separated. Every seminary has required semester examinations.
The seminaries are maintained either by themselves by means of funds or by the aid of bishops, archbishops, and endowments.