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Students are taken care of gratis. The various orders maintain their own separate theological schools, in which courses extend over three to seven years.
The Greek Catholic Church, as a result of the Treaty of Trianon, has no seminary, but trains her priests at Budapest or Esztergom.
Hungarian priests and students also may study abroad at the Collegium Germanico-Hungaricum at Rome, the Anselmianum and Papal School of Rome, the Pázmány Institute of Vienna, and the Universities of Innsbruck, Freiburg, and Louvain.
REFORMED CHURCHDismembered Hungary has three Reformed Theological Seminaries—at Budapest, Pápa, and Sárospatak. The fourth, at Debrecen, has been merged in the University as a Faculty of Theology. A fifth, at Kolozsvár, was lost as a result of the dismemberment of Hungary.
The curriculum, courses, and examinations of these Seminaries are determined and controlled by the General Conventus, the supreme administrative organ of the Reformed Church. The
UNIVERSITIES AND RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS 157present curriculum, courses, and order of examinations were fixed by the meeting of 1924.
Only candidates with a maturity certificate from a secondary school are admitted to the Reformed Seminaries, and these are admitted only if they have credits in Latin and Greek. Candidates must be recommended by their teachers of religion in the secondary school. Upon the successful completion of the Seminary and the two qualifying examinations graduates may apply for positions in any congregation of the Reformed Church.
Pastors may apply for positions of teachers of religion in secondary schools only if they have also obtained a special certificate qualifying them to serve in such capacity.
The Seminary course consists of eight semesters, and students attend for an average of thirty semester hours. There are six groups of subjects taught—Old Testament sciences, New Testament sciences, Christian' theology and ethics, history of general and Hungarian Protestantism, practical theology and Church law, and philosophy and education. Students are required to pass examinations in all required subjects. Four semesters of the eight may be spent in Seminaries abroad, but even in this case students are required to take examinations at home in those subjects that were not studied abroad.
Upon the completion of the first four semesters the first examination is taken in New Testament and Old Testament science and literatures, history of Christianity, history of religion and philosophy, and education. After the eighth semester students take their first qualifying examination before a committee of a Synod of the church. The written examination consists of a thesis written upon one of three designated subjects, and a written composition. The subjects of the oral examination are Old and New Testament exegesis, Old and New Testament biblical theology, Christian theology, Christian ethics, and homiletics.
After two years the second qualifying examination may be taken.
The intervening two years may be spent as assistant pastor at home, or one of these may be spent abroad in some Theological Seminary. The second qualifying examination is written and oral. The first includes a longer thesis, a biblical and catechetical exposition, a sermon, and written questions, while the subjects of the oral examination are homiletics, liturgies, catechetics, pastoral theology, home missions, Church law, history of HunEDUCATION IN HUNGARY garian Protestantism, and practical exegesis. Candidates completing these examinations, successfully receive diplomas entitling them to the full privileges of the church.
These Theological Seminaries are maintained by the respective Synods of the church, which also elect the professors for life.
The affairs of each Seminary are administered by special committees and at times by the bishop himself. Students do not pay tuition fees. These institutions provide for students either a refectory or a dormitory or both.
At Budapest and Sárospatak there are seven chairs of instruction and at Pápa, six.
LUTHERAN AND UNITARIAN CHURCHES
Prior to the dismemberment of the country Hungarian Lutherans maintained seminaries at three places—Pozsony, Sopron, and Eperjes, each with a four-year course. They were of equal rank, although the first was maintained by the entire Church and the last twro were maintained by individual Synods.
Of these the school at Eperjes ceased to function in 1919 and the one at Pozsony was forced to seek refuge in Budapest, where it continued its courses. The faculty was composed of two professors from Pozsony and three from Eperjes and their assistants. The school at Sopron continued its activities after the dismemberment of the country. The Lutheran Church, however, having lost more than half of her members, was unable to maintain two schools and thus, after extended discussions, a Faculty of Lutheran Theology was started as an organic part of Elizabeth University of Pécs with six chairs of instruction. The church, however, reserved the right to establish a theological seminary at any convenient time. Thus at present the training of Lutheran ministers is carried on only in this Theological Faculty.
As from 1847 Unitarians trained their ministers at Kolozsvár.
This school, as a result of the dismemberment of Hungary, at present functions in Roumanian territory. Unitarian students from Hungary also study there or at least take the prescribed and qualifying examinations there.
As in other countries, so in Hungary there was no training school for rabbis until the latter part of the nineteenth century.
UNIVERSITIES AND RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS 159For centuries it was the custom for an outstanding rabbi to open a school (yeshivah), in which anyone desiring to study the Talmud was permitted to enrol. This custom prevails in many countries to this day and even in Hungary to some extent. In Hungary, however, the keeping of state records made it necessary to demand a minimum of formal education from rabbis. Accordingly, the position of a rabbi is restricted only to such as have a certificate of at least four years' work done in a middle school and, in the event that State aid is asked, the rabbi must have a certificate of maturity from some secondary school.
The modernization of the training of rabbis was first advanced during the rule of Joseph II. The feeling was current that it was only thus that Jews could be won over to the contemplated program of national culture. Subsequently, the idea was kept alive by Joseph Peter v. Rieger and Friesenhausen David Mayer.
In 1844 an actual bill came before Parliament in this matter, which, however, was defeated in the Upper House because of objectionable details in the law. In 1849 Haynau gave the Jews of the country the option of paying 2,300,000 florins as a war debt for their participation in the war of independence or initiating a school fund of 1,000,000 florin's. The latter plan was selected and this fund became the basis of the rabbinical seminary, which was decided upon in 1868 and formally opened for instruction in 1877.
The National Rabbinical Seminary is under the supervision of the Minister of Public Worship and Instruction, who exercises his supervision through a committee. This committee consists of twelve members from Budapest and twelve from the country at large, functioning in the capacity of a regular organization' with officers and committees chosen from among themselves.
The Seminary consists of two courses—the upper and lower, each five years in length. In the lower school (Gymnasium) are enrolled only students who have completed four years of the Gymnasium or who successfully pass a prescribed entrance examination. There are no enrolment, examination, or tuition fees. Enrolment in the upper course occurs on the basis of a certificate of maturity from the lower institution or from any accredited school of equal rank, together with a prescribed entrance examination in certain theological studies. Students in the upper course must at the same time attend the classes in 160 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY philosophy at the University. The curriculum of the lower course is exactly like that of the humanist Gymnasium, with the exception that the material is extended over five years instead of four, since students are required to take 15 or 16 weekly hours of theological subjects. The certificate of maturity issued by the school is accepted on the par with those issued by other accredited schools.
The theological subjects are taught in two groups:
I. The Hebrew subjects of the lower course: Pentateuch, Hagiographa, Prophets, Hebrew grammar, Aramaic grammar, Talmud Statarie, Talmud Cursorie, Hebrew history, and systematic religion.
II. The Hebrew subjects of the upper course: scriptural exegesis, introduction to scriptures, introduction to Midrash literature, history of scriptural exegesis, exegetical readings, Midrash, Hebrew exercises, Talmud Statarie, Talmud Cursorie, Palestinian Talmud, introduction to the Talmud, liturgies, introduction to the literature of responses, liturgies, and the Hebrew calendar, Hebrew history, historical sources, legal status of the Hebrew denomination, introduction to religion, history of Hebrew philosophy of religion. Hebrew philosophy of religion, Hebrew ethics, readings from Hebrew philosophy, methods of Hebrew instruction, and homiletics.
Students of the upper course take a qualifying examination at the end of the first year and a preliminary examination at the end of the third. The qualifying examination consists of written and oral work. The subjects of the oral examination are the biblical sciences, Talmudic liturgy, Hebrew history, and Hebrew philosophy of religion and its history.
The Hungarian Rabbinical Seminary is the only institution of its kind to have been founded by the state.
ter are the result of the rapid progress of science and of the fact that universities have come to lay the chief stress upon instruction.
Influenced by foreign examples, similar institutions of research gradually grew up in Hungary also. However, no definite policy was pursued and, as a result, no systematic organization could be crystallized in this field. Institutions changed hands from one Ministry to another according to the interest and financial backing they could procure from them. System in the field of scientific research, as in all educational endeavours of the nation, has latterly manifested itself. The Congress of Natural Sciences in January, 1926, also declared itself in favour of research institutions. As a result of this congress, Count Kuno Klebelsberg, Minister of Education, presented a bill in the interest of institutions for scientific research. Among other things he provided for the erection of the Astronomical Observatory oh Sváb Hill, near Budapest. In this bill he advanced the following leading
"For financial reasons small nations must be cautious in the organization of institutions. For this reason we Hungarians can think of founding institutions of research only in fields in which, either because of our location or climate or of our peculiar conditions or some other special reason, we have a trust that we must fulfil. In our country the universities and museums must fulfil the task of conducting researches in the general fields parallel with instruction, and for the establishment of a separate institution of research there must really exist a special, one might say, exceptional right.... Thus we Hungarians possess a great natural treasure, the Balaton, which is the largest fresh water lake in Europe. The biological exploration of this lake is a special duty of Hungarian science. The animal and plant world of Lake Balaton and the vicinity opens up ample opportunities for research, and for this very reason the idea of a limnological station near Lake Balaton very naturally broadens out into that of a Hungarian Institute of Biological Research.... Another great Hungarian specialty is Loránd Eötvös' great invention, the torsion pendulum. The National Congress of Natural Sciences very heartily favoured the idea that an institute of Geophysical Research be founded, the first duty of which should be to conduct experiments with Eötvös' apparatus and to perfect it....
EDUCATION IN HUNGARYSo, we are actually entitled to establish two specifically Hungarian institutions of research—a biological and a geophysical."
THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATORY AT SVAB HILLIn the eighteenth century an observatory functioned in connection with the schools at Nagyszombat and another one at Eger. However, it was the observatory built on Mount Gellért (Budapest) in 1813 that first attracted the attention of Europe, being then used as the model for similar observations in Munich and Naples. Following the war of 1848, the Austrians built a citadel on Mount Gellért, and the observatory was transferred to Ógyalla, being immediately followed by three more at Kalocsa, Heveny, and Kistartal. The last two have since become defunct and the one at Ógyalla has been lost as a result of the dismemberment of the country.
After the Great War, however, the Hungarian government and the city of Budapest set up with great sacrifices an observatory on the Sváb Hill in the neighbourhood of Budapest. It is far more powerful and modern than the old one in both equipment and building, covering 40,000 square meters and situated 487 meters above sea level.