«The International Institute of Teacher’s College, Columbia University The INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE of Teachers College, Columbia University, was ...»
It systematizes the observed facts that are sent in and also conducts atmospheric and geomagnetic researches. In 1886 there were 227 observation stations.
In 1896 the Institute was divided into five departments: (1)
UNIVERSITIES AND RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS 163presidency; (2) observatory; (3) climatology; (4) prognosis;
(5) ombrology. Later the Institute for a time made macroseismic and microseismic observations.
After the War the progress of the Institute was decidedly checked. This was due in part to the cruel peace decree, which deprived the Institute of the most valuable and greater part of the network of observation stations (three-fourths of the stations were lost) and which caused the Meteorological and Geomagnetic Observatories of Ógyalla to fall into foreign hands. It may also be attributed to the existing financial burden's, which resulted from the devaluation of currency, and to the decrease in personnel, which was both voluntary and forced by the circumstances.
THE ROYAL SEISMOLOGICAL OBSERVATORYA special committee to devote itself to the observation of earthquakes was formed by the Geological Society of Hungary in 1881, yet a separate observatory was established only in 1905.
The institution' publishes its microseismic observations weekly and annually and through these publications is in exchange relationship with about three hundred observatories abroad.
THE BARON LORÁND EÖTVÖS GEOPHYSICAL INSTITUTEThe institute owes its existence to the world famed researches conducted by Baron Loránd Eötvös, professor in the University of Budapest, in the field of gravitation. For the determination of changes in gravitation Eötvös designed an exceptionally sensitive instrument, with which fine measurements can be made in the open. Eötvös' instruments make possible the solution of countless theoretical problems in geophysics and serve almost as a magic wand in the practical work of the geologist for exploring the depths of the earth and its useful mineral treasures.
The Baron Loránd Eötvös Geophysical Institute was established in 1919 to further the theoretical researches of Eötvös in the field of gravitation and to conduct practical measurements, the far-reaching significance of which has already manifested itself in the discovery of the nation's natural resources. The Eötvös torsion pendulums, prepared under the supervision of the Geophysical Institute, are being used with great success throughout the world (Japan, Mexico, Texas, England, France, Holland, Italy, Poland, etc.). The result of the measurements taken in 164 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY Hungary is that there is no other country with measurements so detailed, exact, and extending over so large a territory. The same may be said of measurements in geomagnetism. The Eötvös Institute aims to hold the leading rôle in this field of research in the future as well.
The chief organ for geological researches in Hungary for a long time was the Geological Society of Hungary, founded in
1850. The Ministry of Agriculture in 1869 established the Royal Geological Institute with a splendid building in order to conduct a systematic geological survey of the country. The aim of the Institute as expressed in its constitution is: (a) detailed geological survey of the country and acquaintance with fields of agriculture, science, and industry according to their special need with the results of researches; (6) preparation of general and detailed geological maps of the country; (c) the collection of formations on Hungarian soil; id) analysis of the soil, minerals, and stones from the point of view of agriculture, mining, and industry.
The researches of the institute are published in the Geologica Hungarica series. The institute also has a well-equipped chemical laboratory and departments of Mining Geology and Agrogeology.
The institute has prepared the detailed geological map of about three-fourths of Greater Hungary. From the point of view of mining geology it has surveyed the significant mineral fields, published monographs of the coal fields, clay pits, and quarries of Hungary, and thoroughly studied the artesian wells of the great Hungarian plain. From year to year it has served with increasing usefulness in all questions of geological importance.
At the end of the last century it set up a separate agrogeological department for the study of Hungarian soils and on the basis of the complete survey of the country prepared an agrogeological map of the entire country. This department at present is engaged in the study of the sterile regions where soil is saturated with sodium carbonate and of methods of improving them.
The idea of a Hungarian biological station had been advanced in 1892 but was not realized until 1926 when Count Kuno KleUNIVERSITIES AND RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS 165 belsberg laid the cornerstone of one at Tihany on the shore of Lake Balaton. The institute began its work in 1927. Its program includes researches in the field of morphology, devoted primarily to hydrobiological work in the study and description of the fauna and flora of the Balaton and other waters. The program also embraces research experimentation in experimental morphology, heredity, evolutionary morphology, cellular physiology, types, and group morphology. From time to time the staff also conducts courses for secondary school teachers.
THE ROYAL INSTITUTE OF PUBLIC HEALTHThe Royal Institute of Public Health was made possible during the hard times of the country by the generous aid of the Rockefeller Foundation. The institute was opened in 1927.
The task of the institution is to further the practical application of science of public health, to direct the prevention of contagious diseases, to give support to health authorities, and to co-operate in the training of public health officers. Much of the research and experimental work, which hitherto rested upon the university and the hospitals, has now been assumed by this institution.
The.task of training more efficient public health officers has been undertaken by the Institute, and to this end a typical village is selected near Budapest, wehere the problems of public health are studied directly on the field. This is especially desirable inasmuch as most of these health officers will be located in rural communities.
The second substantial field of work of the institution is its laboratory service. This work goes on in four departments—the pathohistological and parasitological, bacteriological, serological, and chemical. Each department carries on researches in its peculiar field and supplies practical information to the general public. The chemical department also has charge of the supervision of drugs throughout the country, taking care that they are prepared according to specifications and properly dispensed; it also makes chemical analysis of waters and foodstuffs from the point of view of public health.
INSTITUTES FOR AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENTATIONThe laboratories of scientific work in agriculture are the institutes of experimentation. Experimental work in Hungary, as 166 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY elsewhere, was connected for a long time with the schools. The first institutional effort of experimentation was the machine experimentation station founded in 1870, which was soon followed by a chemical experimental station and a seed-examining station. These experimental institutions grew rapidly in numbers.
These institutions in the main are located in three places— Budapest with 12 stations, Magyaróvár with 5, and Szeged with 4. All of these are maintained by the state and their work is kept objective and systematized by the Council of Agricultural Experimentation, which also publishes the original scientific results of these institutions. Totaling 33 in' number, these experimental stations are divided into five groups: (1) chemical;
(2) plant growing; (3) animal breeding; (4) plant protection;
(5) technical. To the chemical group belong the National Chemical Institute and Experimental Station in Budapest, twelve experimental stations scattered throughout the country, and the Royal Land Study and Agrochemical Station. In the second group are institutions interested in seeds, plant growing, tobacco, medicinal plants, hemp, flax, grapes, and wines. In the third group are institutions dealing with physiology of animals, wool production, and the milk industry. Among the plant protecting institutions may be found those dealing with the study of insects, birds, plant life, pathology, and plant biochemistry. Among the technical institutions may be counted a machine experimental station, a fermentation station, the experimental station in fish life and water purification, and the National Institute of Agricultural Technic.
THE ROYAL CENTRAL BUREAU OF STATISTICSThe official organ of statistical sciences in Hungary is the Royal Central Bureau of Statistics, which looks back upon a history of fifty years. Its large number of publications embraces all kinds of statistics about Hungary.
The bureau has always been in close touch with scientific institutions abroad and with international statistical organizations. This relationship was facilitated by the fact that the publications of the bureau appear not only in Hungarian but in German and French as well. The bureau has also an exchange relationship with similar bureaus of other countries and has colUNIVERSITIES AND RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS 167 lected about 160,000 volumes on statistics. Members of the statistical bureau of Hungary have always participated actively in international statistical science and have more than once played leading rôles. Statistical congresses have been held in Budapest on three occasions. At the regular meetings of the International Statistical Institute Hungarian statisticians attend in comparatively large numbers, and their scientific work has always been accorded hearty recognition.
THE ROYAL LABORATORY OF MEDICAL PEDAGOGY AND PSYCHOLOGYThe first laboratory in experimental psychology was founded in 1899 by Paul Ranschburg, and it functioned in connection with the Clinic of Mental Pathology and later was taken over by the state.
The principal lines of scientific activity in the laboratory are:
(1) general psychology, in which the Ranschburg phenomenon is the chief problem under study in its various relationships;
(2) research in methods, which takes up the study of different mental abilities and takes measurements with the mnemometer;
(3) study and measurement of the minimum and maximum effect of age and environment on the mental working capacity of a normal man; (4) study of mental functions in connection with progress in school; (5) examinations in medical pedagogy, especially in' mental and moral abnormality from the point of view of education; (6) medico-psychological examination of abnormal, dull, and feeble-minded children and adults from the points of view of pathology, therapeutics, and general psychology in order to determine the forms and causes of feeble-mindedness.
VIII. HUNGARIAN SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTES ABROAD—
INTERNATIONAL CONTACTSTo create closer contacts with the scientific culture of Western nations, to establish Hungarian scientific institutions in centres of learning outside of Hungary, and to organize fellowships to foreign countries, have been some of the cardinal ideas of Hungarian cultural policy prevalent since the Great War. This endeavour is clearly reflected in the law concerning fellowships which Count Klebelsberg presented and supported, urging that it 168 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY is the duty of the country to develop eminent ability by every possible encouragement. Fellowships at home and abroad will serve this high purpose. Fellowships abroad are also expected to link Hungary with the learning of the world and to save her from the dangers of intellectual isolation. To encourage students to pursue studies abroad is merely to revive the custom of the Middle Ages and the first centuries of the modern era when Hungarian young men, eager to learn and increase the largess of their experience, streamed in thousands to the universities of Bologna, Padua, Wittenberg, Halle, and Paris.
The importance of foreign study some time ago moved the Minister to establish a so-called Collegium Hungancum in Vienna, Berlin, Munich, and Rome. These institutions, now secured by a law, are devoted purely to learning. Scholars sent to them are selected on the basis of merit by an impartial "Fellowship Council," composed of the representatives of the various societies of learning, together with fifteen members appointed by the Minister.
The fellowships aim to produce scholars, artists, and professional men, who, upon their return, will enhance the cultural standing of the country. Students receiving fellowships or aid for research are required to submit to the Ministry a detailed report on their studies and on their results, to enlist in the service of the Ministry if asked, and to return the amount received as soon as circumstances permit.
HUNGARIAN INSTITUTIONS OF LEARNING ABROAD
The Hungarian Historical Institute of Rome This institution, started by Bishop William Fraknói in 1888 and placed under the care of a special committee of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, is devoted to the study of classic and Roman philology, history, archaeology, art, and literature principally in their Italian and Hungarian connections. It is also called upon, since the introduction of Italian into the Hungarian secondary schools, to provide teachers of Italian. The Italian government has increased the fellowships to four and at its own expense sends lecturers to the three outlying Hungarian universities. In friendly reciprocation the Hungarian government has also established four fellowships for the study of the
UNIVERSITIES AND RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS 169Italian language in some university other than that at Rome.
The Institute owns a large library and has recently moved into new and larger quarters.