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The Hungarian Institute at Constantinople The Hungarian Institute at Constantinople, founded in 1917 to further research in Turkish and Hungarian relationships, art, language, and archaeology, functioned until 1918 when it was forced by circumstances at how to quit. In that time, however, it had achieved a great deal, as is evidenced by its many publications. Its library at present is under the care of the German Institute of Archaeology at Constantinople.
The Hungarian Scientific Institute at Berlin The starting point of the Hungarian Scientific Institute at Berlin was the establishment of a chair of Hungarian at the University of Berlin in 1916. The appointed professor, Robert Gragger, also established a seminar, which he equipped with an excellent library and for which he later obtained the libraries of the societies of Hungarian students at Berlin and Halle. To date its library contains more than 26,000 volumes. The seminar soon expanded into an institute of scientific research in the field of Hungarian culture and of related races. In 1917 the Association of the Friends of the Hungarian Institute was formed in Berlin with its membership composed of the representatives of the German and Hungarian governments and of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and leading German and Hungarian personalities.
Collegium Hungaricum at Berlin The city of Berlin, with its university, its libraries, and its institutions and the equipment of the Hungarian Scientific Institute, provides scholars with excellent opportunities for research work. Feeling that considerably more could be done if scholars were given a home in which to stay, the Hungarian government in 1923 purchased a three-story building, in which ample opportunity is afforded for association and study. Another building purchased by the Hungarian government offers living quarters for thirty research scholars. The value of the building is enhanced by the fact that it is located in the imEDUCATION IX HUNGARY mediate neighbourhood of the university. It is planned to build several private homes for research workers and to establish a college for girls. The Institute publishes two periodicals— the Ungarische Jahrbücher and the Ungarische Bibliothek.
Vienna Hungarian culture in Vienna had been represented and furthered by the so-called Pazmaneum, and the Theresianum, the former being an institution (still in existence) for preparing Catholic priests and the latter, a scholarship endowment which has recently come under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Public Worship and Instruction. In exchange the Ministry has obligated itself to provide for the schooling of twenty students.
The Hungarian Historical Institute of Vienna. Following the dissolution of the National Corps of Bodyguards to the King in 1919, it occurred to Count Klebelsberg, as the president of the Historical Society, that in order to make the archives of Vienna available for research, a historical institute should be established with the headquarters of the Guards as its headquarters. He realized his plans and today the Institute is located in very comfortable quarters with rooms, a library of more than 3,000 volumes, and a large study hall. It is under the direction of the National Hungarian Association of Museums and publishes its results in the source series of the Hungarian Historical Society.
In 1925 the Institute offered three places for German research workers, in exchange for which Hungarian scholars have been proposed for membership in the Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes and German art and archaeological institutes of Florence and Athens.
Collegium Hungaricum of Vienna. The entire third floor of the Palace of the Guards is devoted to the accommodation, primarily, of Hungarian teachers studying at the University in preparation for teaching German and, secondarily, of any scholars engaged in study or research. There are places for thirty fellowship students.
Five or six rooms of the Palace are to be given over to doctors and scientific students. A Hungarian Institute of Art is also under consideration to be linked with the Deutsch-Ungarisches Barockforschungsinstitut. The Palace of the Guards is a most satisfactory centre for housing these institutions and even for promoting scholarly lectures in its auditorium.
UNIVERSITIES AND RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS 171Dorpat At the time of the reorganization of the state university of Esthonia, several chairs of instruction were offered to Hungarian scholars. The chair of administrative law was consequently filled by a Hungarian professor, who soon organized a Hungarian library at the University, where the Hungarian language is taught by a special lecturer.
Sofia In 1921 Dr. Géza Fehér, who during the War had been connected with the Hungarian Scientific Institute at Constantinople, was commissioned by the government to organize scientific and cultural relations with Bulgaria. Fehér conducted very valuable excavations and in recognition of his work the Bulgarian National Museum has entrusted him to lead further excavations in search of data concerning the Turkish-Bulgarian period.
Paris The French government has manifested great courtesy toward Hungarian scholarship. From 1921 on, it has given from six to twelve fellowships annually to professors and students for the furtherance of scholarly relations. For the school year 1926it offered six fellowships worth as much as 7,500 francs each, besides fourteen fellowships of smaller value.
The question of reviving the chair of Hungarian at the University of Paris, which functioned from 1907 to 1914, was brought up in 1925. A Collegium Hungaricum is also planned. Nothing definite has been accomplished as yet in either case.
The United States The International Education Board, founded by John D.
Rockefeller in 1923, first offered very significant fellowships to Hungarian students in 1924. Hungarian instruction is also conducted in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, at Franklin and Marshall Academy, Franklin and Marshall College, and the Eastern Theological Seminary of the Reformed Church. The chair of Hungarian at the college was established in 1922 by the Reformed Church for the higher education of Hungarian youth in the United States in the language, history, literature, arid culture of their parents to be given parallel with their college course.
172 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY Moreover, the Institute of International Education, the aim of which is to further international education through the exchange of books, students, and professors, has secured a number of exchange fellowships for Hungarian students in American colleges;
in 1929-1930 there were eighteen Hungarian students holding scholarships in American colleges; over against this the Hungarian Ministry of Cults and Public Instruction has offered similar fellowships in Hungarian' universities for American students.
At present there also exists what is called the Jeremiah Smith Foundation, consisting of the salary of Jeremiah Smith for services in the stabilization of Hungarian currency under the auspices of the League of Nations. The income of this foundation is given by the Ministry to graduates of the Royal Joseph Technical University for further study in the United States.
Zurich In 1926 the government purchased a home in Zurich to accommodate Hungarian students in the Technical University.
Stockholm The Hungarian Society was formed in 1920 by Hungarians and their Swedish friends; by means of its cultural department it aims to fulfil the purposes of the Hungarian Institutes in other countries.
England Following the introduction of the English language into the Realgymnasium and Real school, the necessity of establishing relations with schools in England was felt and accordingly, beginning with 1925, fellowship students were sent to the Universities of London, Oxford, and Aberdeen and from 1926, to Cambridge. In the school year 1920-1930 fourteen students were studying in England, nine of whom were spending their second year there. Further developments in this movement are expected.
Finland The relation of the Hungarian nation to the Finns received actual expression in 1925 when a lecturer of the Hungarian language was given a position in the university at Helsinki. The Finn and Est nations look upon Hungary as a stronger and more
UNIVERSITIES AND RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS 173advanced brother and consequently Hungary makes special efforts to maintain and develop mutual relationships. A means to this end is the Finn-Ugor Educational Congress, which has already held three meetings—in Helsinki, Dorpat, and Budapest.
Poland Hungary and Poland are linked together by various historical ties, and their histories cannot be advanced without accessibility to each other's archives. This will best be achieved by a historical library and research institute at Warsaw and a chair of Eastern-European history at Budapest, which are under consideration by scholars of the two nations. At present the lecturer of the Hungarian language at the University of Warsaw is also engaged in lecturing upon Hungarian history.
Leaders of the various Hungarian institutions abroad in' 1924 established the Association of Hungarian Institutes in Foreign Lands.
SCHOLARSHIPS AT HOMEPrior to the Great War there were a great number of scholarships for pupils of secondary schools or higher schools, but owing to the devaluation of Austrian currency following the War, most of them became practically valueless.
The distressing consequences of the War were most keenly felt by the middle class, especially among those employed in state offices. The War and the subsequent devaluation of currency had completely ruined their financial status and rendered them incapable of educating their children out of their own meagre resources. The government felt it its duty to face this situation and lend aid. Since a change in the financial condition of this large class could not be hoped for in a short time, the government decided to create as many scholarships as the national treasury, itself rather weak, could permit.
The law, which was consequently passed, stipulates that these scholarships, ranging from 400 to 1,000 pengős each, are to be distributed to children of publicly employed parents. Scholarships are to be given only to students of secondary schools, universities, or other higher institutions, of good conduct, of average general ability and excellence in some particular field of study. Secondary school students are eligible only upon completion of the 174 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY sixth grade; exceptions to this rule may be made only in the case of students who have manifested unusual ability in their work.
The Ministry determines the number of scholarships to be awarded in the various fields of study; it is desired to strike a happy balance among the various professions. Unless it is withdrawn for lack of merit, the enjoyment of a scholarship lasts until the completion of the course, in many cases even until the Doctor's degree is obtained. If students, following the completion of their course, desire to conduct research work or to pursue further study, they may have the privilege of their scholarship extended for two additional years. All candidates for scholarship must be officially recommended by some faculty, and the name of each student is annually reconsidered by the committee of award.
The continuation school is the second branch of compulsory elementary education. It is designed for children of the agricultural population as an institution for general agricultural instruction. It is of great importance, since 80 per cent of the children of farmers finish their education in it, and it keeps children between the ages of twelve and fifteen under moral and intellectual discipline. It also provides practical and necessary information for the oncoming agricultural generation and cultivates a sensitivity toward agricultural progress.
Its subjects are of two kinds: general and agricultural. The general group includes reading in agriculture, history, civics, natural science, chemistry, and practical arithmetic. Agricultural instruction aims to develop skill in the practical affairs of farm life and to awaken a sensitivity towards progress in agricultural pursuits. The agricultural group of subjects includes agriculture, tree and grape growing, raising of domestic animals, and apiculture for boys, and gardening, growing of flower and medicinal plants, fruit canning, poultry raising, fattening of hogs, sericulture, household economy, and sewing for girls.
The courses extend over three years, wTith each year varying in length from about eight to ten months, according to circumstances. In the winter months from November to March instruction is given during two afternoons and in the summer months during one afternoon of four periods. In winter the instruction is theoretical and in summer practical. Instruction is given in classrooms of the elementary school by the elementary teacher when the regular school is not in session. The maintenance of these schools is the duty of each rural community where 176 EDUCATION IN M UNGARY there are between 40 and 120 children between the ages of 12 and 15.
THE INDEPENDENT FARMING SCHOOLIndependent farming schools are set up in rural communities having 120 or more children between the ages of 12 and
15. These schools are a more developed form of the continuation school and are not to be considered as preparing its students for higher institutions. They aim purely to give practical instruction in and acquaintance with farming. It is compulsory for all children between the ages of twelve and fifteen who do not attend some other institution. Its course extends over three years of ten months each. Instruction in the summer is altogether practical while in the winter, with instruction in certain crafts, it is confined to theoretical work. The subjects taught are religion and ethics, agriculture, raising of domestic animals, milk production, gardening, grape growing and wine production, animal husbandry, bookkeeping, building, economic law, economics, household crafts, needlework, sewing and weaving and such general subjects as reading, writing, composition, geography, history, civics, arithmetic, hygiene, care of infants, and natural science.
SCHOOLS FOR TRAINING FARMERS