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These schools are maintained by the state for the training of young men to be well-trained, up-to-date farmers. There are ten such schools at present. Instruction is primarily practical, while theoretical instruction is given in the sciences. All applicants must have completed their seventeenth birthday and the fourth or sixth grade of the elementary school. The course is two years in length and tuition fee is charged. These schools are well equipped with implements, libraries, maps, charts, and other necessary facilities, including an experimental field of about 300 acres.
These schools aim to train the youth of the villages to meet the special problems of their own oh little farms. They are set up in every district. Instruction is restricted by the characteristic products of the district and is confined to subjects allied with it.
VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS 177
STUDENTS' PHOTOGRAPHIC STUDIO OF THE REAL SCHOOL IN SOPRON (ÖDENBURG)
The theoretical courses given during the winter season are supplemented by practical courses during the summer. The course is of two years' length, and prizes are offered for the finest work produced during the course.
INSTRUCTION IN DAIRY FARMING
1. Occasional courses are given with the purpose of training managers for milk collecting and separating stations. The course is seven days in length for the collectors and fourteen for the separators.
AGRICULTURAL SCHOOL IN SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR
2. Royal Training School for Dairy Farmers. Aim: To train workmen for milk production and cattle breeding. The course is two semesters in length; candidates must be at least seventeen years of age and must have completed at least four elementary grades.
3. Royal Vocational School for Milk Production. The aim of a year's course is partly to train business managers for milk industries and partly to train cheese and butter experts. Candidates for the former course must have completed an Agricultural Academy (see p. 183) and for the latter course the four VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS 179 grades of the middle school and one year of apprenticeship in a milk industry. After two to three years of practical work and a final examination, students become experts in butter and cheese production.
TEACHERS OF AGRICULTURAL SUBJECTSThese teach the agricultural courses in the normal schools and conduct popular lectures in agriculture in surrounding communities. In the 24 districts of the country there is a teaching force of 24.
THE ROYAL AGRICULTURAL SCHOOL FOR GIRLSThe aim of the school, located at Putnok, is to train girls in agriculture, household economics, and business practice for employment in homes and various occupations. The course is three years in length, and girls below twenty years of age who have completed at least four grades of a secondary or middle school are admitted. The curriculum embraces general, agricultural, commercial, and household subjects as well as German, French, singing, music, needlework, and physical training. The training is of rather a practical nature.
There are five other girls' schools of agricultural nature in the country.
THE ROYAL SCHOOL OF FORESTRYThe lack of individuals trained in the care and protection of forests who are not graduates of the College of Forestry and therefore do not demand a high scale of salaries, had been long felt by owners of forests and by the State itself. This obvious need was met in 1918 by the establishment of the Vocational Forestry School, which, on account of Serbian and Roumanian occupations, was unable to get into actual operation until 1924 when it was moved to Esztergom. The school aims to train individuals on a theoretical basis but particularly in the practical side of forestry. The students are chosen on the basis of competition from those who have completed their seventeenth year but have not yet passed the twenty-first year of age and have also finished at least the fourth grade of a middle school and are of sound health and good character. The course is two years in length and is preceded by a year of apprenticeship under a forestry engineer. The subjects taught are mathematics, silviculture, forest protection, principles of forest evaluation and distribution, use of 180 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY forests, forestry constructions, hunting and rifling, laws and administration, elements of agriculture, bookkeeping and office work, drawing, hygiene, and first aid.
SCHOOLS FOE FORESTERS AND GAMEKEEPERSAt present there are two such schools—at Szeged and Esztergom. The course consists of one year of apprenticeship and one year of school work. The school aims to prepare individuals
MUNICIPAL TRADE SCHOOL FOR BOYS AND GIRLS IN DEBRECENfor the care and protection of forests and game. Instruction is decidedly practical and theoretical instruction is closely linked with practical work. The subjects taught are writing and drawing, mathematics, hunting and fishing laws, hygiene, and first aid.
The conditions for entrance are completion of six elementary grades, age between eighteen and twenty-six, and sound health and good character.
the period of foreign occupation, were thoroughly reorganized in
1920. The school has a farm of 142 acres. The aim of the school is to develop the poultry breeding of the country in two directions, namely, by the training of skilled workers and by raising breeding material for the country. The course in the school is one year, and annually ten to fifteen women obtain training there, receiving full and free board. Admission is restricted to those who have completed the middle school and are between the ages of sixteen and thirty.
This institution also engages in cattle, rabbit, and hog raising, apiculture, fruit and grape growing, vegetable growing, and the production of seeds. This gives students an opportunity to obtain practical training in many agricultural pursuits.
VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS FOR VITICULTURE AND VINICULTURE
1. There are schools for viticulture and viniculture at Eger, Kecskemét, Sopron, and Tarcal. The course is two years in length, and the conditions of entrance are the completion of the elementary school and sixteen years of age. The subjects taught are cultivation of vineyards, care of wines, fruit growing, gardening, flower growing, business correspondence, arithmetic, bookkeeping, planimetry, chemistry, plant pathology, physics, botany, study of soils, apiculture, zoology, and agricultural sciences.
The theoretical instruction, given 24 hours a week, is on the level of the third or fourth grade of secondary schools. The aim of the school is to train skilled producers of grapes.
2. Course for Cellarers at Budafok. The course lasts 12 months, and only those who have completed the two-year course at the Vocational School for Viticulture and Viniculture are admitted. The weekly theoretical instruction of 15 hours includes the care of wines, chemistry of wines, bookkeeping, business practices, vintage machinery, diseases of wines, cellar construction, and Hungarian and foreign wine laws.
3. Advanced Course for Grape and Wine Production. This is a full year course of academy ranking. Only such are admitted as have previously completed the University Faculty of Economics, some Academy of Agriculture, the College of Forestry, or some gardening institution after a full secondary school education. This course is one of specialization for individuals of higher economic training. Only 25 are admitted into the course 182 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY annually. Lasting 10 months, the course embraces the cultivation of vineyards, the care of wines, the chemistry of wines, entomology, botany, study of soils, technology of wine production, wine bacteriology, and chemistry of protective materials.
THE ROYAL HORTICULTURAL INSTITUTE, BUDAPESTThe Budapest Horticultural Institute was founded in 1894 with the aim of providing practical training in flower growing and commercial gardening. The conditions of admission are age between sixteen and twenty, at least four grades of the secondary schooling, sound health, and good character. Recently 80 per cent of the students had certificates of maturity from secondary schools. The course, lasting three years, embraces zoology, descriptive geometry, mechanics, climatology, apiculture, botany, drawing, chemistry, cultivation of decorative plants, fruit and vegetable growing, land surveying, study of soils and fertilizers, landscape gardening, plant pathology, conserving, chemical laboratory work, planning of gardens, technological exercises, garden architecture, growing of medicinal plants, commerce, economics, business, agriculture, and seminars in the growing of decorative plants, vegetables, and fruit.
THE HIGHER AGRICULTURAL SCHOOL
Agricultural schools of a secondary grade have long been lacking in Hungary. The desire on the part of parents to provide students who had completed the four grades of a middle or secondary school had increasingly been brought to the attention of the Ministry. Directly before the War the government took steps to establish such a school on the plan of higher industrial and commercial schools. Forestalled by the outbreak of the War, the school was finally set up in 1921. At present there are four such schools with four grades. They aim to give secondary training to students who have completed four grades of a middle or secondary school and desire to follow agricultural pursuits or to take courses preparing for railroad employees, postmasters, notaries, etc. Every school must have at least 35 acres of land for agricultural work. The subjects taught are religion and ethics, Hungarian language and literature, history, geography, natural history, chemistry and mineralogy, physics, mathematics, descriptive geometry, study of the soil, plant cultivation, cultivaVOCATIONAL· SCHOOLS 183 tion of gardens, vineyards, pastures, and forests, raising of domestic animals, economics, business economics, bookkeeping and correspondence, law, hygiene, physical culture, and singing; German is taught as an elective subject. The Higher Agricultural School, confined mainly to children of small landowners, is of great significance to agricultural Hungary in that it makes for the training of scientific farmers, which, in turn, means increased and better production.
ACADEMIES OF AGRICULTUREThe first agricultural institution in Hungary was founded by Count George Festetich at Keszthely in 1797 with the title of Georgikon, exactly five years before the first agricultural school in Germany, and aimed to train supervisors for large manors.
Soon afterwards, in 1818, another agricultural school was started by Prince Albert Kázmér at Magyaróvár; this school grew by leaps and bounds and became the cradle of scientific agricultural research in Hungary. The history of the agricultural school at Debrecen reaches back to 1866. As a result of the Treaty of Trianon Hungary lost two well-equipped agricultural academies at Kassa and Kolozsvár.
The regular professors of these colleges are appointed by the head of the state and the others by the Minister of Agriculture.
Admission is restricted to holders of a certificate of maturity from a secondary school. The course, covering three years and including both practical and theoretical subjects, embraces chemistry, physics, agricultural botany, agrogeology, animal anatomy and physiology, exercises in agriculture gardening, and grape growing, organic and inorganic chemistry, botany, bacteriology, raising of domestic animals, milk industry, agricultural mechanics, land surveying and mechanical drawing, agricultural zoology, plant pathology, agricultural management, economics, economic bookkeeping, animal hygiene and diseases, agricultural technology, building construction, forestry, and grafting. All subjects are taught in conjunction with practical work. Three comprehensive examinations are given: the preliminary at the end of the first year, the professional at the end of the second year, and the final at the completion of the course.
These schools are all adequately equipped. The academy at Magyaróvár has about 400 acres of land, 51 buildings, a library 184 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY with 18,598 volumes, laboratories, a meteorological station, and an ambulatory clinic. The academy at Keszthely has about 350 acres of land, 36 buildings, and a library of 14,953 volumes. The Academy at Debrecen has about 640 acres of land, 32 buildings, a library of 12,000 volumes, a meteorological station, and a tobacco experimental station.
II. THE ROYAL VETERINARY COLLEGE
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENTThe foundations of instruction in veterinary surgery were laid by Joseph II, when in 1782 he ordered the establishment within the faculty of medicine of an institution for animal diseases. A chair of veterinary surgery was forthwith instituted. Separate training in veterinary sciences, however, was started only in 1799 with a course of eight months, which was later extended to a year.
In 1851 the institute was made a separate school, which gradually developed until in 1880 it became the Academy of Veterinary Surgery with a four-year course and with a larger faculty.
The standard of instruction' also rose. Finally in 1899 the school was raised to the rank of a university and received its present name, with the right of conferring the Doctor's degree and electing a Rector. Meanwhile, since new chairs of instruction were added, building facilities and general equipment were increased.
AIM AND ORGANIZATIONThe school aims to train veterinarians and to prepare them to practise; to confer the Doctor's degree upon eligible candidates;
to develop the veterinary and relevant natural sciences; and to act in an advisory capacity in the field of veterinary sciences when called upon by the state. Graduates are employed to a large extent by the state, county, city, and community administrations; only a small percentage engage in private practice.