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The organization of the school is similar to that of the faculties of the universities. The affairs of the school are administered by the faculty under the leadership of a Rector who is chosen every two years. The professors are ranked in the same way as those of the university. Ordinary and extraordinary professors are appointed for life by the state head upon the recommendation of the faculty, and assistants are appointed by the VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS 185 Minister of Agriculture also upon recommendation of the faculty.
The faculty in 1924-1925 consisted of nine ordinary professors, four extraordinary professors, eleven lecturers of professorial rank, thirteen private docents, and fifteen assistants.
STUDENTS AND CURRICULUMEnrolment as a regular student takes place on the basis of a certificate of maturity. Anyone may become a special student provided he has completed his seventeenth year of age and possesses sufficient preliminary knowledge. The course consists of eight semesters. To this is added a semester of practice work, which candidates spend at some government estate. "Without this practice work no one is entitled to a diploma.
Subjects included in the curriculum must be studied by all students. The following courses are taught: zoology, botany, botanical exercises, physics, chemistry, chemical exercises, systematic anatomy, anatomical exercises, parasitology, tissues, topographical anatomy, evolution, physiology, drugs and poisons, pharmacology, zoological genetic methods, pathological anatomy, clinical propaedeutics, clinical exercises, propaedeutics in clinical surgery, exercises in clinical surgery, general bacteriological exercises, milk hygiene, meat inspection, surgery and ophthalmology, obstetrics, animal health administration, history of veterinary sciences, contagious diseases, and public administration'.
There are optional subjects, such as methods of vaccination, serums, swine diseases, which are taught by special lecturers.
Students are required to pass a preliminary and three final examinations. The doctorate is conferred on graduate veterinarians who have passed a special examination in two study groups and published a dissertation. The honorary doctorate is conferred upon individuals of special merit. A diploma in veterinary surgery obtained in another country entitles its holder to practice in Hungary only upon its acceptance by the faculty of the school.
Czech occupation in 1919. It is the first school of mines of college rank to be established, and as a technical school it is one of the best.
For ten years after its foundation the school was under the direction of the nobility of Selmecbánya, and in 1770 it rose to the rank of an academy, offering a three-year course. In 1795 it became a royally accredited institution. A separate branch of forestry was opened in 1809 with a two-year course. The course in forestry was soon extended to three years and in 1846 it was united with the Academy of Mines; the institution from this time on bears the title of the Academy of Mines and Forestry. The language of instruction in 1867 was changed from the German to Hungarian. In 1872 independent departments went into effect with a three-year curriculum, with the entrance requirement of a full secondary school education, and with the system of state examinations. In 1904 important changes were effected. The school changed its name to the Royal Hungarian College of Mining and Forestry, all courses were extended to four years in length, and the school was permitted to elect a Rector.
In 1919 the College was forced to leave its old location as a result of Czech occupation. Having lost its large library, laboratories, collections, and other equipment, it was forced to move to Sopron, where for three years it lived the darkest days of its history of one hundred and fifty years. It was only in 1922 that it received the buildings of the Military Training School at Sopron and in these it has since been endeavouring to regain its former strength.
ORGANIZATIONSupervision is exercised by the Ministries of Finances and Agriculture in conjunction. The object of the school is to train engineers in mining, foundry, and forestry. Accordingly, there are three relevant departments, at the head of each of which is a Dean elected from the College Council. The affairs of the school are administered by the College Council, which is composed of the ordinary and extraordinary professors. The Rector is elected for two years and the Deans for one. A secretary takes care of the Rector's office and finances are in the hands of the Quaestor and the Comptroller.
VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS 187
The staff consists of ordinary and extraordinary professors, lecturers, adjuncts, and assistants. At present there are 28 chairs of instruction, with 24 ordinary and 4 extraordinary professors.
CURRICULUM The course in each department is eight semesters in length.
Students are admitted upon presentation of a certificate of maturity from a secondary school. Graduates of secondary schools in other countries are admitted only on condition that their diploma is equivalent to the certificate of maturity in Hungary.
Special students may be admitted to the various courses.
Department of Mining
In the Department of Mining the following subjects are offered:
mathematics, descriptive geometry, chemistry, physics, economics, mechanical drawing, mechanics, industrial health, graphostatics, mechanical technology, geodesy, analytical chemistry, chemical laboratory, chemistry of carbons, general mineralogy, administrative law, bookkeeping, electroteclmics, elements of machines, building construction, systematic mineralogy, mining, metallurgy, turbines, electrical measurements, general geology, paleontology, encyclopédies of heating, mining engines, historical geology, study of lands, private and commercial law, measurement of mines, maps, laboratory in machines, problems of workmen, history of mining, furnace work, field planning, electrical engineering, mining laws, and metallurgical exercises.
Department of Foundry Engineering In the Department of Foundry Engineering the following subjects are offered: mathematics, descriptive geometry, chemistry, physics, economics, mechanical drawing, mechanics, graphostatics, mechanical technology, mineralogy, physical chemistry, qualitative and analytical chemistry, chemistry of carbons, administrative law, iron implements, elements of machines, building construction, heating, electrotechnics, geography, chemical laboratory, furnaces, turbines, electrical measurements, metallographies, bookkeeping, crucibles, geodesy, private and commercial law, industrial health, iron and steel casting, applied 188 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY metallographies of iron, iron assaying, gas and carbon analysis, laboratory in machines, problems of workmen, rolling, plan of iron mills, examination of materials, metallurgical encyclopédies, and mining and water laws.
Department of Forestry In the Department of Forestry the following subjects are offered: mathematics, descriptive geometry, general and inorganic chemistry, physics, general botany, bookkeeping, mechanical drawing, organic chemistry, botany, private and commercial law, land measurements, mineralogy, study of the soil, plant pathology, zoology, administrative law, economics, mechanics, electrotechnics, maps, geography, forest evaluation, graphostatics, building construction, transportation, development of forests, hunting and fishing, bridge construction, shooting, agriculture, forestry engineering, forest administration, commerce of wood, arithmetic, regulation of streams, forestry laws, protection of trees, applied forestry, forestry technology, and forestry policies.
EXAMINATIONSOrdinary students are required to take examinations at the end of each semester. At the end of the fourth semester the first general examination must be taken, consisting of written and oral work. The second general examination is taken at the end of the eighth semester; it consists of four weeks of laboratory, written and oral w7ork. The rules in force regarding students from other countries are those that prevail at the Technical University.
IV. INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENTThe history of Hungarian industry began at the period when the nation was converted to Christianity. During the incessant wars of the Árpád period the monasteries served as the refuge of craftsmen, and it was the monks who also revived industrial instruction in Hungary. Historical data show traces of industrial instruction as far back as the thirteenth century. The pioneers were the members of the Benedictine Order, who not only instructed young people in their many monasteries and industrial VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS 189 plants, but as itinerant teachers also carried as much as possible of their knowledge into the very homes. There were also other orders which taught other phases of craftsmanship, while convents of nuns gave instruction in needlework. In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries city schools turned their attention to practical subjects which served the industrial and commercial needs of the people. In the next two centuries arithmetic, geometry, and drawing were systematically taught and the Piarists were most enthusiastically engaged in the instruction of masons, carpenters, and stone-cutters. The Ratio Educationis of 1777 ordered all elementary schools to make drawing a required subject. This movement was furthered by the decrees of 1786 and 1795, which regulated attendance in the Sunday apprentice schools, and by the Ratio of 1806, which made attendance in Sunday apprentice schools compulsory and also introduced courses which were designed to prepare for craftsmanship and commerce. It is in this period that the oldest institution of industrial instruction, the School of Industrial Art at Budapest, which is still standing and flourishing, was founded.
The foundation of Sunday apprentice schools was the first recognition of the great need of caring for the education of youth falling outside of the strict confines of schools; this occurred at the time when guilds became more and more absorbed in the protection of the rights of their industry and members and in the regulation of the training of apprentices. These schools were followed by various schools of drawing and mathematics, each with the task of giving to industrial apprentices instruction in arithmetic, geometry, natural sciences, and drawing. This movement was sporadic all over the world and progressed only slowly, since elementary education, which was to form the basis, had not as yet been fully developed.
In the nineteenth century interested bodies manifested more and more zeal in the problem of educating apprentices. The Commercial Association at Pest in 1830 opened a school for commercial apprentices and the National Industrial Association started a movement to organize the education of apprentices on a national scale. About this time came the decree concerning the organization of upper elementary schools and Sunday apprentice schools, the former to cultivate the arts and crafts arid the latter to help the younger generation of industrial workers to 190 E D U C A T I O N IN HUNGARY make up whatever education they had missed in their younger days. This was followed by the decree obligating all craftsmen to send their apprentices to the above mentioned schools if there were any in the neighbourhood. The growing interest of the authorities as well as commercial and industrial circles in the question of apprentice education played a considerable part in the fact that in 1868 schooling for apprentices was made compulsory.
Even in the cultural movements of the last three decades of the nineteenth century and especially in the development of education in this period, it is surprising to find extant the endeavour to place vocational education on par with education in other fields. This tendency received concrete expression in the efforts that were made in the foundation of institutions of a practical nature. To this period falls the foundation of the Joseph Technical University. The lasting creations of this period are: The Royal Higher State Industrial School (1880), The National School of Industrial Arts (1880), The Royal Industrial Museum of Technology (1883), and the Higher Industrial School (1872), now located in the occupied city of Kassa.
Following the industrial act of 1884, which ensured industrial instruction, the activities of the government were directed to the task of developing the organization of industrial education throughout the country. On the basis of the plans worked out by the National Council of Industrial Instruction (1892—called the National Council of Industrial and Commercial Instruction from 1900 on) existing institutions were further developed and in the industrial centres of the country a whole series of industrial schools came into existence with the purpose of training technical workers for industrial fields. In the development of the organization and the location of the schools the Hungarian government wished to give every opportunity to the nationalities in the country to prepare for practical vocations; consequently, they paid special attention to those parts of the country in which the nationalities were concentrated.
The War and the subsequent events—revolutions and the dismemberment of the country—placed heavy responsibilities on the nation with respect to the organization of industrial instruction which in the preceding quarter of a century had risen to a high level. As a result of dismemberment the country lost a considerable number of its industrial schools. Out of fifty industrial VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS 191 schools maintained in part or in whole by the state, thirty-one fall within’ occupied territory. The lost institutions are: one higher industrial school, nineteen industrial vocational schools, four schools of handicraft, five state aided industrial schools for women, and two industrial museums of technology.
Among the last there was a whole series of institutions which were equipped in a model way and were organic parts of Hunira ri an culture. Some of them are not matched by those remaining in the country. As in so many other fields, fate has cast its dark shadow over the organization of industrial instruction also;
work that had seemed almost concluded must now be begun all over again.