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The government considers industrial instruction of the greatest importance. This conviction found concrete expression in the industrial law of 1922, which provides for industrial training in the elementary schools. Public consciousness and patriotic organizations all co-operate with the state in the interests of the remaining industrial schools.
ORGANIZATION OF INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION
The organization of industrial education now in force constitutes an organic part of t h e national educational program.
Its aims are such as rise out of the industrial situation or the cultural aims of the state. Its substance is to care for the cultivation of the various working forces operating in the industrial fields of the country.
Institutions of industrial instruction fall into three groups with reference to organizations: (1) apprentice schools with a program of nine hours' weekly instruction for apprentices employed in shops; (2) practical industrial schools equipped for full time instruction and laboratory work; (3) extension courses for craftsmen. In the second group there are schools of handicraft, industrial vocational schools, Higher industrial schools, and industrial schools for women. This grouping docs not interlock, inasmuch as each group has it own special object, to which its own curriculum is adapted. The essence of the grouping is that each institution aims to train its students into workmen' of earning capacity with a desire for further cultivation in their own vocations.
In the organization and curriculum of the various ranks of inEDUCATION IN HUNGARY dustrial schools there is a common regulation that industrial training cannot be received privately, either in whole or in part, and that private examinations cannot be taken. Students coming to Hungary from similar schools in other countries must take an examination in the subjects where the curricula in question differ.
The administration and supervision of industrial instruction is in the hands of the Ministry of Public Worship and Instruction and the Ministry of Commerce. To insure uniformity in policy there was established the National Council of Industrial and Commercial Instruction. The schools are controlled through the superintendent and, besides, by district supervisors in the case of apprentice schools, and vocational supervisors in the case of practical industrial schools.
The teaching staff of these schools is composed of graduates of the Technical University or of some art school. Every teacher is required to have practical experience in his field, and for this reason each candidate spends a certain time in an institution of industrial education and in some industry. Instructors in the shops are graduates of industrial schools or are chosen from the field on merit. For further education of teachers summer courses are given.
The publication of suitable books is under constant care. This is served by two series of publications—the Industrial Schools' Library and the Tradesmen's Library. These contain popular presentations of technical subjects and aim to give tradesmen an opportunity to increase their knowledge outside the walls of the school. This same purpose is served by numerous pamphlets, maps, drawings, and photographs which are published from time to time. An excellent means of education is the Travelling Industrial Library and Collections.
INDUSTRIAL APPRENTICE SCHOOLSThe industrial act of 1884 required on the one hand that employers send their apprentices to school while they are of school age and on the other that every community with 40 apprentices must set up an apprentice school or with at least 25 must provide for apprentice courses and, where the number is less than 25, students of school age are required to attend continuation schools.
Apprentice schools as a rule have three grades. They are of VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS 193 three types: general, general with some vocational instruction, and vocational. The subjects are divided into two groups, namely (a) general—religion and ethics, Hungarian language and business correspondence, geography and history, arithmetic, physics and chemistry, civics and economics, and drawing; (b) vocational—industrial bookkeeping, drawing and construction, and technology. The school year consists of ten months with nine weekly hours of instruction, one of which must be in religion and ethics.
One of the finest objects of the apprentice schools is to train students in the principles of moral life. When not under the restraints and guidance of home, students are provided ample opportunity to develop spiritually. To this end there are selfculture societies, glee clubs, and the like. The students' development into strong, disciplined manhood is promoted by physical training courses which are compulsory in' all apprentice schools. The moral and patriotic training of apprentices is improved greatly by conferences under the guidance of teachers and by the distribution of prizes awarded for meritorious work.
Scattered throughout the country are apprentice homes in connection with schools. These aim to take the place of the home and afford guidance, care, supervision, lodging, and board to apprentices. Their number is increasing, especially in view of the strong movement initiated by various interested organizations.
In general the effort is being made to bring churches, societies, schools, and the authorities into co-operation in' order to solve adequately the problems of apprentice education.
SCHOOLS OF HANDICRAFTSThe schools of handicrafts are institutions of domestic industry. Their aim is to dignify and develop a domestic industry already existing in a community or to start such an industry in a place where favourable conditions exist. Training is restricted to work in the shops and the preparation of saleable articles;
theoretical education is given in the apprentice schools. As a consequence of its dismemberment, the country lost all but one of its schools of handicrafts. There is only the basket-weaving school at Békés. The course is three years in length and candidates having passed their fourteenth birthday and completed
EDUCATION IN HUNGARYsix elementary grades are admitted. The institution is well equipped, providing even for the employment of graduated students.
INDUSTRIAL VOCATIONAL SCHOOLSThe aim of the industrial vocational schools is to produce skilled tradesmen with both practical and theoretical training and with the desire to cultivate and develop their trade. A great
deal of attention is paid to cultivating in students an affection for their vocation. This school cannot be regarded as preparatory to a higher institution; it trains young men directly for the trades.
The emphasis is placed on practical work; only as much theoretical material is embraced as is necessary for the trade and is an inducement for further study. The organization and curriculum are uniform. The course consists of three years, with each extending over eleven months. The schedule includes 46 hours for the week, one-third of which is spent upon theoretical work in the shops and the rest, upon practical work. The enVOCATIONAL SCHOOLS 195 trance requirements are fourteen years of age, healthy physical body, and the completion of four grades of a middle school or secondary school.
The following subjects are taught: religion, Hungarian language, mathematics, physics and chemistry, geometry and descriptive geometrical drawing, freehand drawing, hygiene, physical training, technology, technical drawing, descriptive mechanics, "Baross Gábor"—State Higher Commercial School for Boys in Budapest descriptive electrotechnics, mechanics, instruments, electrotechnics, electrical equipment, and shop work.
Another important task of the industrial vocational schools is to conduct extension courses for workers already engaged in the trades.
In 1925 the following state institutions belonged to this group:
State Vocational Schools of Wood and Metal Industries at Debrecen and Győr; State Vocational Schools for Wood Industries at Szeged and Újpest; State Vocational Schools of Metal Industries at Miskolc, Nagykanizsa, and Pécs; State Vocational, School of Mechanical and Electrical Industries at Budapest; and State Textile Industrial School at Budapest.
196 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY
HIGHER INDUSTRIAL SCHOOLSIn the present organization of industrial instruction the higher industrial schools constitute the higher branch. They aim to prepare artisans who can carry on their trade independently.
In conformity with this general aim the courses are presented
with a decided stress upon the practical, and the essential substance of the curriculum is the shop work and laboratory.
With respect to their curriculum and organization, the higher industrial schools are uniform. The course extends over three years and the schedule includes 44 hours weekly. All shop and laboratory work is done in the school, and during the summer vacation students are required to attach themselves to some industrial enterprise for the purpose of gaining practical experience. The requirements for admission are fifteen years of age, VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS 197 completion of four grades of some middle or secondary school, one year of practical work at some trade, and an entrance examination. The higher industrial schools conduct extension courses for tradesmen already in the field.
At present there are three higher industrial schools—two at Budapest and one at Szeged. The School at Budapest has four '
BAROSS GÁBOR"—STATE HIGHER COMMERCIAL SCHOOL FOR BOYS IN BUDAPEST
CHEMISTRY LABORATORYdepartments, namely, mechanics, metal industries, wood industries, and chemical industries. The school at Szeged embraces only mechanics, and the School of Building Construction at Budapest, only the building construction trade.
The subjects in the Higher Industrial School are religion, Hungarian language, mathematics, geometry, physics, chemistry, descriptive geometry and geometrical drawing, freehand drawing, economics, industrial bookkeeping, hygiene, physical culture, mechanics, mechanical drawing, construction, constructional drawEDUCATION IN HUNGARY ing, technology, agricultural mechanics, building construction, iron construction, railroad mechanics, electrotechnics, locksmithery, descriptive mechanics, furnishing of buildings, copying, home furnishings, analytical chemistry, organic and inorganic chemistry, technology in inorganic chemistry, mineralogy, technology in agricultural chemistry, textile chemistry, laboratory, and shop work.
The subjects in the School of Building Construction at Budapest are religion and ethics, Hungarian language and literature, economic and legal sciences, industrial bookkeeping, hygiene, mathematics and geometry, physics, chemistry, mechanics, descriptive geometry, perspectives, freehand printing, freehand drawing, copying, physical culture, construction materials, masonry, carpentry, foundations, measurement of land, iron and iron cement construction, building construction, building styles, household and industrial construction, construction of homes, budget, building construction regulations, construction management, construction of roads and bridges, and preparation of models.
INDUSTRIAL SCHOOLS FOR WOMENOwing to certain difficulties in locating women in intellectual professions, greater significance has come to be attached to institutions for women which prepare for practical vocations. Basically, the common aim of these schools is to train women in the various branches of industry which are largely performed by women. The value of these schools lies in the fact that they provide a chance for women who desire to develop their abilities for their own satisfaction only and to those women who desire to make use of their training in maintaining themselves or their families.
In this group of industrial schools belong eighteen institutions maintained by the state, cities, or denominations. The largest in size is the State Industrial School for Women at Budapest, which in a measure sets the pace for the other schools. There are six departments—sewing, embroidery, dressmaking, millinery, a continuation course in the first three departments, and a course in making fashionable articles. The first three courses extend over two years each and the last three, over one year each.
Any candidate may be admitted to the institution who has comVOCATIONAL SCHOOLS 199 pleted her fourteenth year and four grades of some middle or secondary school. To the continuation course only those may be admitted in a limited number who have already prepared for some woman's trade and have completed their eighteenth birthday.
The courses offered are religion, Hungarian language, history and geography, arithmetic and bookkeeping, freehand drawing, hygiene, physical culture, materials and styles, technical drawing, and exercises.
INDUSTRIAL EXTENSION COURSES
The aim of the extension courses is to provide an opportunity for tradesmen, their assistants and workers to increase their knowledge. They may be grouped as follows: (1) Winter ('ourses in Building Construction, (2) Mechanical Courses, (3) General Vocational Courses, (4) Practical Courses in various branches of industry, (5) Travelling Courses, (6) Courses in women's industries. These courses are conducted by the industrial schools in specified districts. The centres of these districts are Budapest, Debrecen, Győr, Mickolc, Pécs, and Szeged.
THE SCHOOL OF INDUSTRIAL ARTS AT BUDAPEST
This is the oldest industrial school in Hungary, being in existence since 1773. It is maintained by the city of Budapest. In its present form instruction falls into three groups—preparatory instruction in drawing and in shop work, and a continuation course.