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«The International Institute of Teacher’s College, Columbia University The INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE of Teachers College, Columbia University, was ...»

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Students are admitted to the two-year preparatory course on the basis of an entrance examination and the requirement of four grades in the middle school. The second division embraces woodwork, violin making, textile wrork, bookbinding, mimeographing, silverwork, pottery and enamelling, decorating, glass painting, glass mosaic work, and plaster of Paris work in a three year, full-time course, and photography, dressmaking and millinery, with a two-year half-day course. Only those who have completed the preparatory course may be admitted to shopwork, except in the case of woodwork, violin making, and millinery.

The school also offers several evening courses in drawing and a winter course of four years in masonry, stone-cutting, and carpentry.



Like the other branches of education, commercial education is also divided into three classifications—lower, middle, and upper instruction. The lower is taken care of by schools for commercial apprentices and by special courses, the middle by higher commercial schools and courses, and the upper by the commercial department of the University Faculty of Economic Sciences.

The backbone of commercial education is the higher commercial schools.


Historical Development The first commercial school in Hungary, founded by Julius Emanuel Bivanco in 1830 through the medium of the Civil Commercial Association of Pest, was a private institution. Commercial subjects, however, had been previously taught in various schools, especially the Sunday continuation schools. In Bibesco's school admission was accorded any student who had completed four years of elementary school or who took an entrance examination. Other similar schools were soon founded.

Commercial instruction was given a significant impetus in 1857 by the foundation of the Commercial Academy of Pest which became the leading commercial school in the country. Its rank was enhanced by the fact that admission was allowed only to such as had finished three grades of the Real school or four of the Gymnasium. About this time the Joseph Industrial School, which later became the Technical University, also provided commercial training. With other commercial schools being founded by private individuals and associations, in response to a generally felt need the government in the seventies issued an official organization of commercial schools and brought them under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Public Worship and Instruction.

They had hitherto been within the sphere of the Ministry of Agriculture, Industry, and Commerce. This plan, distributing commercial instruction among lower courses, commercial middle schools, and higher commercial schools underwent a change in 1885 when the three-year commercial middle school was supplemented by another type. This was so arranged that an extra grade was added to the six grades of the middle schools (BürVOCATIONAL SCHOOLS 201 gerschule), thus having the fifth to seventh grades constitute a commercial middle school. This union, however, did not prove satisfactory and was broken in 1895. At this time all middle commercial instruction was unified, the institutions receiving the name Higher Commercial Schools and coming under the direct control and supervision of a special superintendent. The requirement of entrance examinations for admission was discontinued and instead of a final examination the commercial maturity examination was instituted. This scheme remained in force for twenty years, and in 1915 it underwent slight modifications in its curriculum, schedule of studies, and examinations.

In 1916 commercial instruction was started in the secondary schools for girls but without success and was successively discontinued until 1924, for the higher commercial schools for girls started in 1909 on the plan of the boys' schools had proved their worth and were rapidly progressing.

The complete change in organization and curriculum went into effect in 1920. The four-year higher commercial school was divided into two courses, commercial and economical, of two years each. The former laid stress upon smaller business enterprises and the latter dealt chiefly with commerce on a wider scope.

Working afternoons were introduced into the curriculum.

These aimed to accustom students to physical work, to develop their skill and taste, and to train them in democratic respect for physical work. Instruction embraced light work in the sphere of agriculture, industry, and commerce.

Present Organization and Curriculum Neither the differentiation of the school into two separate courses nor the wTorking afternoons proved satisfactory, and a thorough revision of the curriculum was made in 1927 with the following subjects (the Roman ciphers indicate the years in

which the respective subjects are taught):

1. Religion and ethics—according to the program of the respective denominations.

2. Hungarian language and literature. I. Spelling, composition, grammar, and prose studies. II. Poetical literature. III.

History of Hungarian literature to the nineteenth century. IV.

History of Hungarian literature to modern times.


3. History. I. Ancient. II. Modern. III. Hungarian history. IV. Fundamentals of sociology and history of economics.

4. Law. II. Common and Civil Law. III. Commercial.

5. Economics. IV. Fundamentals, production, distribution, profit, economic and social policies, and fundamentals of finance.

6. Geography. I. Fundamentals of economic geography.

Asia, Africa, America, and Australia. II. Europe. III. Hungary. IV. World economic geography.

In. Chemistry. II. Inorganic. III. Organic.

7. Merchandise. IV.

8. Physics. I. Fundamentals.

9. Mathematics and arithmetic. I. Elements of algebra;

squares and equations. Pythagorean theorem. Graphs. 11.

Roots; elements of logarithm; interest. III. Coupons, loans, and principles of insurance.

10. Commercial arithmetic. I. Fundamental operations with whole and fractional numbers, currency, measurements, averages, percentage, notes and bills, and interest. II. Exchange, accounts, prices, trusts, gold and silver standards, money rates, and parity of denominational currency. III. Foreign notes, debts, stock exchange, interest rates. IV. Notes, bills of exchange, prices, parity in prices, and business plans.

11. Business. I. Fundamental principles, personnel, articles, instruments, marketing, and banking.

12. Bookkeeping. I. Simple and double entry. II. Banks, factories, associations, and partnerships.

13. Commercial letter-writing. II. Business letters and forms.

III. Miscellaneous.

14. Office practice. IV. Bookkeeping, letter-writing, organization, and administration.

15. German language and correspondence. Graduated reading, writing, grammar, conversation, and business correspondence in all four grades.

16. Another foreign language and correspondence. Subject matter as above.

17. Shorthand. I. Composition. II. Office.

18. Physical Training. I-IV. Exercises, games, excursions, and competitions. Lectures in hygiene.

19. Typewriting. IV. Letters, manuscripts, transcription.

20. An optional course in typewriting and in penmanship.

VOCATIONAL· SCHOOLS 203 Admission to higher commercial schools is restricted to students who have completed four grades in a middle or secondary school. Students from foreign countries are admitted on the basis of parity.

Students completing the four-year course are eligible for commercial maturity examinations, consisting of a written and oral examination. The written examination includes Hungarian, German, and French languages and correspondence, commercial arithmetic and bookkeeping, while the subjects of the oral examinations are Hungarian literature, history, commercial history, law, commercial geography, chemistry, and merchandise.

Holders of commercial maturity certificates find employment chiefly in commercial, industrial, transportation, and financial enterprises. The certificate is honoured also for admission to transportation courses, academies of economics, training schools of teachers for middle schools, College of Mines and Forestry,


SCHOOLS, 1918-1927 COMMERCIAL SCHOOLS, 1918-1927

–  –  –

Departments of Agriculture and Commerce in the University Faculty of Economic Sciences, and Training Schools for teachers of higher Commercial Schools.

–  –  –

These schools came out of the Sunday and evening courses started in 1830. The Act of 1868, by extending the school age to fifteen, further developed these courses by requiring apprentices to attend a three-year continuation course. These courses were rounded out in 1872 by addition of bookkeeping, commercial correspondence, commercial arithmetic, and agriculture. These schools subsequently underwent occasional changes and in 1897 they were placed under the jurisdiction of the director of inEDUCATION IN HUNGARY dustrial instruction in the Ministry of Cults and Public Instruction and received the classification of lower commercial schools.

At present parishes having at least forty candidates for commercial apprenticeship must organize a school and for at least twenty-six candidates, a commercial course. Instruction is given during the week, but not after six P.M. without permission of the authorities. The subjects taught are reading, composition, geography, general arithmetic, commercial arithmetic, office practice, commercial bookkeeping, commercial correspondence, physics, merchandise, bills of exchange, economics, and penmanship. Admission is accorded to commercial apprentices of twelve years of age wTho have completed the elementary school. For candidates who cannot meet this requirement a special preparatory course is offered. The schools are supervised jointly by the Minister of Public Worship and Instruction and the Minister of Commerce through the director of higher commercial schools.


Aside from higher commercial schools and schools for commercial apprentices, various commercial courses arose during the years with varying purposes. Sponsored at first by private individuals or local associations, the government in 1891 issued regulations governing their activities. Particularly were the courses designed for women popular and wTell attended; these existed until 1920, when they were incorporated into the higher commercial schools.

In 1910 the evening commercial courses were also organized by the Ministry of Public Worship and Instruction into twro groups—beginners and advanced. They were designed to meet the needs of workers who desired to supplement their education. This remained in effect for ten years.

A new regulation was issued in 1920 according to which these commercial courses were offered either as courses with optional plans of instruction or as a one-year course for graduates of a secondary school.

–  –  –

ing the permission of the Ministry and are under the direct supervision of the director of commercial schools. The course is restricted to ten months but upon permission shorter or longer courses may be held. Students (either sex) must have previously completed their fifteenth birthday and the elementary school, or the second grade of the middle or a secondary school, or the third grade of a school for commercial apprentices or must take an entrance examination. The program, adapted to occasional and local needs, is determined by the faculty and students select their own subjects. If needs require, a strictly determined course of subjects may be taught.

One-Year Commercial Courses for Graduates of a Secondary School At present there are three such courses in the country. They aim to give graduates of a secondary school a commercial education in one year. Graduates of secondary schools or normal schools or those of equivalent training are admitted. The course, consisting of ten months, embraces commerce, commercial correspondence, bookkeeping and office practice, commercial arithmetic, arithmetic, economics, commercial law, commercial geography, merchandise, a foreign language, correspondence, and shorthand. Optional subjects are also offered. Supervision is exercised by the director of commercial instruction.


Conducted under private auspices for a long time, these schools finally came under the regulation of the Ministry of Public Worship and Instruction in 1920. Their activities were placed under the immediate supervision of the National Shorthand Council.

Their aim is to provide interested individuals with a knowledge of shorthand, penmanship, and typewriting. The courses are determined by the Council and examinations are also conducted by it.


Teachers of higher commercial schools in 1894 organized themselves into the National Association of Commercial School Teachers, which ever since has been interested in the intellectual, moral, and material life of commercial teachers and in questions 206 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY of commercial education. Its publication is the monthly Commercial Instruction.

The official advisory body of the Ministries of Public Worship and Instruction and of Commerce is the National Council of Industrial and Commercial Instruction, which has been discussed in a previous section. It may also be mentioned that commercial courses are maintained by cities, denominations, commercial organizations, and individuals.



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