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«The International Institute of Teacher’s College, Columbia University The INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE of Teachers College, Columbia University, was ...»

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The National Conservatory The National Conservatory was founded by the Choral Society of Budapest. This society, in which the most able musicians and music lovers of Buda and Pest (for these were at that time two separate cities) worked for the cultivation of good music, opened a Music School in 1840. For the maintenance of the school a society was formed, but it received considerable aid from outsiders as well. Among the founders are the names of Franz Liszt and such foreigners as Anne La Grange, Henrik Vieuxtemps, and Sigismund Thalberg. In 1851 the school and the society amalgamated to form the Conservatory of Budapest.

The new Conservatory grew by leaps and bounds. Gabriel Mátray carefully developed the organization of the school, introducing a wind instrument department alongside of singing, piano, and violin and in 1859 establishing a department of elocution, which later became the foundation of the academy of dramatics. The concerts of the Conservatory very shortly became real musical events in the life of the capital.

Celebrating its twenty-fifth anniversary in 1865, when Franz Liszt personally conducted several of his masterpieces, the Conservatory changed its name to its present form. In subsequent years the school continued to grow and to produce many of the most outstanding Hungarian musicians. Recently the Conservatory has been reorganized on the plan of the Schola Cantorum of Paris. Its aim is principally to produce musicians of a general and comprehensive musical culture. The conservatory at present has more than 500 students.

VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS 207 The Royal Hungarian Franz Liszt College of Music The Ministry of Public Worship and Instruction maintains this institution for musically talented persons intending to prepare for musical careers; it was opened in 1875 with Franz Liszt as president and Francis Erkel as director. Following Liszt as presidents were Edmund Mihalovich and Eugene Hubay. The faculty consisted of such persons as Emil Ábrányi, Sr., Henrik Gobbi, John Koessler, David Popper, Colman Chovan, Árpád Szendy, and Ernest Dohnányi. The membership of its present faculty also embraces the most outstanding names of Hungarian musical life.

All branches of musical culture are included in the curriculum of the school. Seven main courses arc offered in the form of practice, preparatory, academic, operatic, and solo work and the training of artists and music teachers. The courses vary in length, and students are admitted and classified according to their musical knowledge.

The institution has a magnificent building with a concert organ and a large auditorium with a capacity of 1,200 persons and a smaller auditorium, in which public concerts and lectures are held.

Private Schools of Music In order to ensure a high standard of musical instruction by private schools, which play an important part in the musical life of the country, the Ministry of Public Worship and Instruction has recently issued appropriate regulations. Accordingly, only those schools may receive permission to function which meet the required conditions relative to personnel and material equipment, ensuring the undisturbed moral development and sound theoretical and practical training of its students. It is also required that teachers hold accredited diplomas, and if they are foreign, they must obtain citizenship. Private schools of music are under the supervision and control of the Ministry.

THE ROYAL HUNGARIAN ACADEMY OF DRAMATIC ART

This institution was first opened in 1865 under the name of the Dramatic School and was under the supervision of the National Committee on Theatres. In 1873 it was empowered to have its own independent directors and came under the jurisEDUCATION IN HUNGARY diction of the Ministry. At first it taught both drama and opera, but the latter was transferred in 1893 to the College of Musical Arts.

The course, at first four years in length, has recently been reduced to three years. The institution has a building with satisfactory classrooms, stages, and a little theatre, the Urania, in which students give public performances from time to time.

The subjects taught are oral exercises, Hungarian language, history of Hungarian dramatics, theory of acting, dramaturgy, history of culture, poetics, aesthetics, psychology, French, dancing, fencing, singing, and exercises in dramatics. Students arc sometimes engaged by the National Theatre, for which special compensation is made. Admission is accorded young men of at, least seventeen years of age and young women of at least sixteen years of age, who are of good moral standing, culture, theatrical appearance, and speaking ability, and have finished at least four grades of a secondary school. Generally, candidates have a certificate of maturity. Scholarships are provided for industrious and capable students of little means. Graduates of the school become members of the National Association of Actors. The institution has about 50 students annually.

THE ROYAL HUNGARIAN COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS

This institution, under the direct jurisdiction of the Ministry, was founded in 1871. In 1896 the department of industrial arts was removed from the school and formed into a separate institution. The instruction also began to be crystallized in separate departments for the training of teachers of art. The institution at first did not presume to give a complete art education. Those who received an introductory art education here went abroad for further studies.





In 1882 steps were taken by the government for the complete training of artists and the famous painter Julius Benczúr forthwith opened his school of painting; he was followed in 1897 by Charles Lotz in a similar capacity and by the sculptor Aloy Stróbl, who started a school of sculpturing. The training of women artists was carried on by the painting school for women.

These schools functioned entirely independent of the school founded in 1871 and came under common administration only in 1908.

VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS 209 These five different institutions, serving the same purpose, were united in 1921 under the name of the Royal National College of Fine Arts. It is thus desired to cultivate artistic culture as successfully as possible through free selection of teachers and the extension of courses and by having all candidates for artistic careers studying together. The significance of the position of drawing teacher is desired to be stressed by making examinations very stringent.

The broadening of Hungarian art culture is also the aim of the artist colonies scattered through the country, a few of them being wandering groups. Brought under a separate system, they purpose in part to acquaint students with Hungarian communities and in part to give them opportunities to make contacts with the public.

The College thus aims to give students with satisfactory preliminary training an education in painting, sculpturing, graphics, and allied subjects and to prepare teachers for the middle, secondary, and professional schools. Its special task is to direct and control art education in the secondary schools. It offers the following courses: (1) Artists—painting, sculpture, graphic arts; (2) Candidates for teaching positions in Arts—in this department courses vary according to the needs of middle, secondary, and normal schools; (3) Art Professors—a continuation course.

A practice school is maintained for those preparing to be teachers of arts. And for teachers who desire further education special art and pedagogical courses are offered. Graduates of the training department are qualified to teach in the middle schools, secondary schools, and normal schools. This systematized training department for art teachers is unique even today.

Its splendid work even in an international way has frequently been proven at art exhibits.

THE ROYAL HUNGARIAN SCHOOL OF INDUSTRIAL ARTS

The idea of such an institution was first advanced by the first Minister of Public Worship and Instruction, Baron Joseph Eötvös, and realized by his successor Augustus Trefort. Such a school was designed to counteract the industrial products on the market and to provide an institution for developing the artistic energies dormant in the nation.

210 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY The life of the school began very humbly in 1880 as a workshop. To this was added a wood-engraving department in 1883, a department of decorative painting and copper-engraving in 1884, and a department of relief-work and decorative sculpturing. The school grew so rapidly that during the Millenary Celebration of 1896 it occupied a monumental building along with the National Hungarian Museum of Industrial Arts. Thus new possibilities for extension and development were found. By 1910 additional departments in enamel work, household furnishing, carpet-weaving, textiles, and artistic pottery were added.

Since 1900 evening courses are also offered for those working in the practical field.

The National School of Industrial Arts ever since its founding has contributed largely to the direction of industrial life and the development of artistic taste among tradesmen. It has provided talent an opportunity to develop in the way of industrial arts. It has also identified itself with the great modern renaissance in industrial arts, which has recently made itself felt throughout Europe and, turning away from the lifeless imitation of historical styles, has brought a breath of fresh air into the choice of decorative elements and the appreciation of the practical and folk forms. The school performs a social mission. Not only does it revive the genuinely Hungarian artistic forms which are found in the museums, memorials, and folk life and in this way spread the appreciation of tradition and of the beautiful, but it also shows the way to earning capacity for hundreds of talented persons.

In its three-year lower and three-year upper courses the school offers to both men and women an education in seven branches of industrial arts (interior construction, decorative sculpturing, decorative pottery, smith and enamel work, decorative painting, graphics, and textile work). Candidates for admission upon examination must show that they have completed at least four grades of the middle school; anyone may join evening classes by reason of his occupation.

The National School of Industrial Arts has received recognition at the great world industrial arts exhibitions at Budapest, Paris, Torino, Milan, London, and St. Louis; and at the International exhibit at Monza in 1923 it received one of three gold medals and a diploma, the other gold medal winners being 212 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY French and Italian. Its highest international recognition came in 1912 at the exhibition at Dresden, when its curriculum was copied by schools in England, Germany, Holland, Sweden, and the United States.

VII. REMEDIAL EDUCATION

Remedial education in many countries is still not thought of in a unified way. Generally speaking, remedial education embraces the special instruction of children with all sorts of mental and physical defects. This instruction has a threefold task.

PREVENTION One of the most important tasks of remedial education is to determine by the aid of scientific research the reasons why children become deformed and defective. If the source of trouble is known, it is easier to counteract it and to safeguard children from defects or from continuing to suffer from handicaps of birth.

To serve this end there was established the Royal State Laboratory of Remedial Education and Psychology, which conducts scientific researches and gathers statistical data. Since its founding this institution has been of great service both to science and to practice.

The cause of prevention has been advanced greatly also by the Hungarian Society of Remedial Education, which has undertaken the wrork of spreading popular and scientific propaganda. Its members visit villages, cities, and schools and try to enlighten people upon questions of hygienic living and the prevention of deficiencies. Every two years it also holds a general conference in Budapest, at which relevant matters come under discussion.

Its monthly periodical and its series of educational books have been of invaluable aid.

RELIEF The second task of remedial education is to educate defective children. The aim is to make deformities disappear if possible, to alleviate trouble, to render deformed individuals tolerable to parents and society, and, if possible, to take them into the great community of workers capable of earning their living. Into this category fall the deaf, dumb, hard of hearing, blind, weak-eyed,

STATE INSTITUTE FOB THE DEAF AND DUMB IN BUDAPEST

214 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY mentally deficient, morally abnormal, nervous, deformed, tubercular, stuttering, aenemic, and rickety children. To accomplish the above mentioned purpose institutions are founded, schools and observation homes are opened, and educational courses are held.

For deaf and dumb children there are eight schools (there were 15 before the dismemberment of the country) with accommodation for 1000 children. There is, moreover, an institution for practically training unschooled deaf and dumb children in manual work and a separate apprentice school. There is also a school at Budapest for children who are hard of hearing.

Two institutions serve the blind (three before the Treaty of Trianon). The care of the blind is the work of an organization sponsored by the state. Those leaving the schools are taken care of in four institutions where higher training is given.

Steps have recently been taken to establish a school for those with poor eyesight.

There are two institutions for imbeciles. (Trianon took away two.) School children who are unable to keep in step with normal children are taught in separate schools at Budapest and in nine other cities.

An institution to care for epileptics was founded in 1902.

There is also a school at Budapest for those of faulty speech and wherever there are normal schools or institutions of remedial education, courses are given for the benefit of those who are deficient in speech.

The institution for nervous children, with lower and secondary training, had to be closed during the economic crisis following the War, although it had performed a great mission.

The institution for deformed children is located at Budapest and has accommodations for 100 children. Instruction in various trades is given in it.

Moral defectives are placed in reformatories.



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