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Schools and institutions engaged in remedial education are under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Cults and Public Instruction, excepting moral deficients, who come within the sphere of the Ministry of Justice; supervision and control are exercised through a supervisor. The care of deficients is fully organized.
The state maintains institutions and supports both social movements and relief work. It even takes care that those leaving the 216 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY institutions, if possible, are enabled, through some trade that has been taught them, to earn their living.
TRAINING OF TEACHERS FOR REMEDIAL SCHOOLSThe school for the training of teachers aims to give a thorough acquaintance with the broad field of work. It is clear that the teachers must be thoroughly acquainted with the functions of the sound mind and all the senses in both their normal and their abnormal conditions. Knowledge of pedagogy is also a presupposition. The school strives to meet these requirements of the profession to which only those are admitted who have practical experience as teachers. The course extends over six semesters and gives instruction in all branches of remedial education. In this respect it is unique throughout the wrorld, for other countries are only at present awakening to the necessity of unifying this field of instruction, while it has been going on in Hungary since 1898.
The subjects taught are anatomy, physiology, remedial education, anatomy and physiology of the sense and speech organs, remedial gymnastics, legal status of young defectives, the human mind, Hungarian grammar, visitations to institutions for mental deficients, deaf, dumb and blind, explanatory drawing, psychology and education of the deaf and dumb, psychology and education of the blind, psychology and education of moral defectives, methods of instructing the deaf and dumb, methods of instructEDUCATION IN HUNGARY history of the education of the blind, deaf, dumb, and mental defectives, methods of studying physical and mental deficiencies, philosophy, and practical work in the institutions for deaf and dumb, blind, and mental defectives.
When the Society for the Propagation of Kindergartens was founded in 1836, the necessity of having training schools immediately presented itself. The president of the society, Count Leo Festetics, donated his house for the purpose and the school was opened the following year with a one-year course. Only those were matriculated who during a probation period of a month showed special aptitude for the work. The students were exclusively men; the first women in the school are not found until in 1858.
In 1869 a training school for women kindergarten teachers was opened at Budapest, which was forthwith followed by another at Kolozsvár. In 1874 one of the schools extended its course to two years, and its example was followed by the others. Other schools were subsequently established, but their administration and curricula changed with every new director. This condition was stabilized by the act of 1891.
Students admitted to these schools are required to complete the four grades of some secondary school and to be of sound health and good musical ability. Applicants under fourteen years of age are not admitted.
These subjects are taught: religion and ethics, theory and practice of kindergarten work, hygiene, Hungarian language and literature, history, geography, natural sciences, mathematics, household arts, singing, music, drawing, needlework, and physical training.
Nurses for day nurseries are given a practical course of six months in which methods of dealing with children, practice child welfare, care of child's body, singing and business management of Day Nurseries are taught. Anyone who is eighteen to 222 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY forty years of age and of good health and character may apply for admission.
II. TRAINING OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS
The beginnings of the training of teachers in Hungary reach back to the eighteenth century, but the first independent normal schools were founded in greater numbers only somewhat later.
In 1867 the country had 26 such schools. An act passed in 1868 gave all legal bodies that maintained elementary schools the additional right to maintain normal schools for the training of their teachers. In consequence by 1871 there were 60 normal schools in operation. This number constantly grew and in 1914 reached the number of 84. While several new schools were established during the war also, nevertheless only 43 institutions for the training of teachers were left following the Treaty of Trianon.
Normal schools had scarcely begun their work in 1868, when it became apparent that a three-year course afforded but a very inadequate education and that the required two years of practice following the theoretical course was exceedingly expensive.
For these reasons after an experience of ten years the state raised the length of the course to four years and attached the practice work to the regular course, requiring the qualifying examinations immediately following the four-year course. During the next twenty years the curriculum became crystallized and TEACHER TRAINING 223 a reform of the curriculum was started. This was completed in 1911 when new regulations were issued. The progress of pedagogy, the expansion of the sphere of popular education, and the crowding of the curriculum made it increasingly imperative to increase again the length of the course. This was done in 1923 when it was raised to five years.
Denominational normal schools adapted themselves formerly with great difficulty to the standard of the state schools, but at present they have identified themselves thoroughly with the state institutions and it may be said that normal school education is fairly harmonious throughout the country.
TASK OF THE NORMAL SCHOOL
The task of the normal school is to prepare teachers for the elementary schools, but the training given in the normal school also lays the basis for the pursuance of further study in the
1. Course for teachers of middle schools, which may be followed by a two-year course in preparation for teaching in normal schools.
2. A three-year course in preparation for teachers of physical training.
3. A four-year course at the College of Fine Arts for teachers of drawing.
224 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY
4. A three-year course in preparation for teachers of remedial education.
5. A two-year course in preparation for the teaching of agriculture.
In general the following subjects are taught in normal schools:
religion and ethics, physiology and biology, psychology and logic, theory of education, pedagogy, history of education, school organization, practice teaching, Hungarian language and literature, German, history, constitution, geography, mathematics, natural sciences and chemistry, physics, hygiene, economics, husbandry, drawing, penmanship, music, singing, handicrafts, and physical culture. In some institutions two minority languages, two musical instruments, and church music are taught in addition as elective subjects. The backbone of instruction is education; students study, not only theoretical methods but also practical ways of teaching, conducting classes under supervision, and discussing experiences in groups. Deviating from the custom of most countries, the teacher of the practice school, the teacher of pedagogy, and the teachers of the respective subjects participate jointly in guiding and directing candidates. Teachers are also trained to conduct educational activities outside of the school in summer courses especially designed to meet the need of Adult Education.
QUALIFYING OF TEACHERSUpon the completion of the course students are examined by the faculty as a whole with the state director acting as head of the examining committee. The examination consists of three parts: (a) Written work in the pedagogical sciences, Hungarian language and literature, and mathematics; (6) oral examination in religion and ethics, psychology, history, school organization, Hungarian language, literature, history of education, geography, and constitution; (c) practice teaching.
Possession of the diploma entitles teachers to take examinations for the position of church music leaders and church music teachers in the schools of national minorities. Diplomas obtained abroad are honoured upon the basis of an examination.
TEACHER TRAINING 225
TEACHERS, ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION OF STATE NORMALSCHOOLS The work of instruction and training is done by the faculty of the school with a director at its head, who handles educational or disciplinary matters in co-operation with the members of the faculty. Teachers are appointed by the Ministry; about their training see page 229.
STATE TEACHER TRAINING INSTITUTE IN BUDAPEST, FIRST DISTRICT
The training of teachers for denominational normal schools is not as well organized, and administration, supervision, and control are not uniform. The administration of denominational normal schools is exclusively within the jurisdiction of the denominational authorities, and supervision is exercised by the government through its director of normal schools.
The school for training teachers for middle schools in its first form began its work in 1873. Its course covers four years, and 226 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY students are admitted in proportion to the needs of middle schools on the basis of a certificate of maturity from a secondary school or a diploma from a normal school for elementary teachers. This institution received a new home in 1928 in Szeged, where it was brought into a closer connection with the university.
CURRICULUM The curriculum is divided into four major and three minor groups. Students receiving state aid are required to study in a minor group in addition to the major one.
The Hungarian language and history group includes psychology, logic, ethics, theory of education, philosophy, history of education, general philology, introduction to Hungarian philology, Hungarian philology, seminar in Hungarian philology, stylistics, rhetorics, aesthetics, prosody and poetics, history of Hungarian literature, history of Hungarian literature seminar, universal history, Hungarian history, Hungarian constitution and its history, introduction to sciences allied to history, history seminar, TEACHER TRAINING 227 history of art, ethnography, economics, German, Latin, physical training, and practice teaching.
The Hungarian and German language group includes psychology and logic, ethics, education, philosophy and history of education, general philology and introduction to Hungarian philology, Hungarian philology, Hungarian philology seminar, stylistics, rhetorics, aesthetics, prosody and poetics, Hungarian literature, Hungarian literature seminar, historical German language, history of German literature, German language and literaSTATE TEACHER TRAINING INSTITUTE IN BUDAPEST, FIRST DISTRICT—PHYSICAL
EXERCISES AND SKETCHING IN THE SCHOOL GROUNDSture seminar, ethnography, economics, Latin, physical culture, and practice teaching.
The geography, natural history, and chemistry group includes psychology, logic, ethics, education, philosophy and history of education, general geography, European geography, Hungarian geography, geographical exercises, ethnography, economics, general zoology, laboratory work in zoology, zoology, agriculture with practice work, general botany, laboratory work in botany, botany, agriculture, general and inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, laboratory, mineralogy, crystallology, laboratory, geology and paleontology, chemical technology, physiology and 228 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY hygiene, history of Hungarian intellectual life, German, drawing, physical training, and practice teaching.
The mathematics, physics, and chemistry group includes psychology, logic, ethics, education, philosophy and history of education, algebra, geometry, mathematics, mathematical exercises, commercial arithmetic, bookkeeping, physics, laboratory work in physics, general and inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry,
STATE TEACHER TRAINING INSTITUTE IN BUDAPEST, FIRST DISTRICT—PRACTICESCHOOL laboratory work in chemistry, mineralogy and crystallology, physiology and hygiene, economics, history of Hungarian intellectual life, German language, physical training, and practice teaching.
The minor group in music includes musical theory and history of music, theory and practice of singing, piano, and organ.
The minor physical training group includes anatomy and theory and practice of physical culture.
. The minor handicrafts group includes the theory and practice of paper work, wood work, and clay work.
TEACHER TRAINING 229
For the practical training of its candidates, the school has established a four-grade practice middle school for boys and girls, which serves as a model school and a practising field for students.
QUALIFYING OF TEACHERSThe qualifying examination consists of two parts—the preliminary examination, which may be taken after successful completion of the first two years, and the final examination, to which those who have successfully completed the preliminary examination and the last year of studies are eligible. A special committee exists for the examination of candidates.
TRAINING OF TEACHERS FOR NORMAL SCHOOLS
In connection with the training school of teachers for middle schools is the so-called Apponyi College, entrusted with directing the training of teachers for normal schools. Candidates are selected in limited number by the Ministry from graduates of the training school for teachers of middle schools. The members of the college pursue studies in their special field for two years, partly at the university in Szeged and partly at the college.
Their seminar and laboratory work is done in the training school and their practice teaching in one of the normal schools of the city.