«The International Institute of Teacher’s College, Columbia University The INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE of Teachers College, Columbia University, was ...»
The training of teachers of music and drawing is similar, except that their specialized work is done at the College of Fine Arts or the National Conservatory of Music.
IV. TRAINING OF SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS
THE TRAINING INSTITUTIONSIn connection with the reorganization of the University of Nagyszombat in 1773, a collegium repetentium was established in each faculty for the preparation of secondary school teachers.
The Ratio of 1777, profiting from four years of experience, contained detailed regulations in this matter. It provided for fellowships in each faculty. These take the place of the modern assistantships. Students of the humanities were supposed to be teachers in Gymnasiums. The course extended over two years,
TEACHER TRAININGand students were forbidden to engage in other occupations while they were attending.
Systematic provision for the training of secondary school teachers was first made by Baron Joseph Eötvös, who in 1870 established a training institute for teachers of the Gymnasiums in connection with the Faculty of Philosophy at the University of Budapest and another for Real school teachers at the Joseph Technical University. The two were united three years later and teacher training was reorganized. Candidates were required to pursue studies in their special field at the university and also to attend professional lectures, while at the same time they were carrying on practice teaching at the model school. This system, not altogether satisfactory, was greatly improved by the regulation of 1899. This divided the task of teacher training between the university and a separate training department. The theoretical part of the training was supplied in part by the university courses and in part by special lectures in the training department and the practical training was given in the practice Gymnasium or some other secondary school. Members of the department were required to study the compulsory subjects and to participate in the practical work in their field.
This plan proved satisfactory except that it was not made compulsory; for it was still possible for anyone who completed the university to become a teacher in secondary schools without being professionally prepared for this calling. This condition was improved in 1924 by restricting teaching positions in secondary schools only to those who were enrolled during their university studies in the training department for four years. The law also requires that a candidate, upon completion of his university studies, engages himself in practice teaching at some secondary school for a period of at least one year.
After the style of the French École Normale Supérieure the Eötvös College was founded in 1895 to take care of education of poor students who desired to become secondary school teachers.
The College has its separate building with full accommodations for its students (100). Besides its director, it employs about twelve professors for regular subjects and several for teaching foreign languages. Its library contains 35,000 volumes.
Similar institutions are planned to be established in connection with the universities at Debrecen, Pécs, and Szeged.
232 IN HUNGARY EDUCATION
EXAMINATIONSRegulations concerning examinations are essentially those that were adopted in 1882. According to these, three examinations are to be taken: (1) preliminary examination, after completion of two years in two majors and in Hungarian language and literature; (2) professional examination taken upon the completion of the four-year course and confined to a thesis, and written and oral examination in the two major subjects; (3) pedagogical exTRAININ« SCHOOL WOMEN MIDDLE SCHOOL TEACHERS—PHYSICAL FOR EXERCISES animation taken in written and oral form after one year of experience in teaching and limited to the field of philosophy and pedagogy. A later regulation (1888) discontinued the differentiation of major and minor subjects and described the requirements with reference to content in detail.
From every candidate for examinations a knowledge of at least one of the subject-groups listed below is required in order to be qualified to teach in a secondary school. These subjectgroups are: Hungarian and German languages and literatures, TEACHER TRAINING 233 Hungarian and French languages and literatures, Hungarian and English languages and literatures, Hungarian and Latin languages and literatures, Greek and Latin languages and literatures, Latin and German languages and literatures, Latin and English languages and literatures, Latin and Italian languages and literatures, German and French languages and literatures, German and Italian languages and literatures, French and Latin languages and literatures, English and French languages and lit—
TRAINING SCHOOL FOR WOMEN MIDDLE SCHOOL TEACHERS—HOUSEHOLD ARTS
eratures, Italian and French languages and literatures, History and Latin languages and literatures, history and geography, geography and natural sciences, natural sciences and chemistry, mathematics and physics, physics and chemistry, and mathematics and descriptive geometry.
Inasmuch as there are secondary schools which do not use Hungarian as the language of instruction, any foreign language of instruction and its literature may be substituted for Hungarian in the above groups; in fact, such a language may form a group with Hungarian. However, if a teacher desires to teach with such 234 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY a qualification in a school where the foreign language is not being taught, he must also obtain qualifications in a third subject.
Every candidate is permitted to take examinations in a third subject, which must be a related subject or philosophy or history of art.
V. TRAINING OF TEACHERS FOR HIGHER
COMMERCIAL SCHOOLSThe task of training teachers for higher commercial schools belong to a separate institution which functions in the commercial department of the University Faculty of Economic Sciences.
This institution functioned before the establishment of the Faculty of Economic Sciences as an independent institution, having been founded in 1898. Prior to that time commercial teachers were trained in the Faculty of Philosophy at the UniTEACHER TRAINING vcrsity or at the Technical University and received their qualification from a national examining committee. The solution of 1898 was instituted only temporarily as a transitional step, inasmuch as a training school from the beginning had been planned in connection with a higher commercial school. Since this proposed commercial school was realized only in the Faculty of Economic Sciences, the transitional plan was in existence for a
TRAINING SCHOOL FOK WOMEN MIDDLE SCHOOL TEACHERS—WORK AT THEMICROSCOPE quarter of a century, being accommodated during that time either by the Commercial Academy of Budapest or the Peter Pázmány University and providing lectures by professors of the university and the commercial academy. With the foundation of the Faculty of Economic Sciences, the training school became an organic part of it. The rich program of the commercial department made it possible to set the training of teachers upon a broader basis.
The training school prepares candidates in the following special fields: Group A—bookkeeping, commercial correspondence, legal 236 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY and economic studies. Group Β—commercial and political arithmetic and physics. Group C—chemistry, merchandise, and geography. Supplementary training is offered in the German, French, English, and Italian commercial languages and correspondence and in the history of economics. The courses and lectures of the Faculty of Economics and the Faculty of Philosophy are utilized whenever they suit the needs of the training. The pracTRAINING SCHOOL WOMEN MIDDLE SCHOOL TEACHERS—PHYSICS FOR LABORATORY tice work is carried on in a commercial school in Budapest. The curriculum is supervised by a council made up of twelve members.
The students of the training department are regular students of the Faculty of Economic Sciences; they may enrol in the Faculty of Philosophy as special students. It is here that they study Hungarian language and literature, history of culture, philosophy, education, higher mathematics, physics, organic and inorganic chemistry, and geography; and in the Faculty of Economic Sciences they attend lectures on law, commerce, economics, busiTEACHER TRAINING 237 ness, merchandise, economic geography, and the history of economics. The training course extends over a period of eight semesters.
Candidates are required to take a preliminary examination after the first four semesters, a professional examination at the end of the eighth semester, and a pedagogical examination folTRAINING SCHOOL FOR WOMEN MIDDLE SCHOOL TEACHERS—BOTANY LABORATORY lowing a year of practical work. A special committee conducts the examinations.
The examinations are written and oral. The written preliminary examination is in some theme of Hungarian literature, the written professional examination is in the student's major study, and the written pedagogical examination is in philosophy or education. The oral preliminary and professional examinations embrace the subjects studied as well as Hungarian language and literature. Every candidate must show reasonable proficiency in the German, French, English, or Italian language. The subjects of the oral pedagogical examination are philosophy and pedagogy.
238 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY Students taking supplementary courses must prepare a thesis besides taking written and oral examinations.
The training department is supplemented by a dormitory of which thirty students of high scholarship are members during the entire course of eight semesters and receive state aid, which covers all expenses.
DEVELOPMENT OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION
Ever since Hungarians a thousand years ago established a new country around the Danube and the Tisza and settled down, they continually stood in arms for the defence of their country and European culture. The Hungarian child a thousand years ago grew up on war games. Until the end of the seventeenth century when the Turks were completely routed out of the country, war life flourished.
In the middle of the eighteenth century John Amos Comenius, who was at that time teaching in the Reformed school at Sárospatak, began to proclaim with his keen mind that there should be games in school and that the body was to be disciplined by games in order that it might be a worthy shelter of the soul. A new slogan—games—took the place of the old—war. People became conscious of sport.
The first sport regulations are found among the customs and laws regarding hunting. In an increasing measure the notion of fair play is introduced into duelling and the beginnings of sport literature are to be traced to the writing of Ladislaus Ungarus in the fourteenth century concerning hawking.
In the eighteenth century when Locke, Rousseau, and Basedow were urging the necessity of a reform in physical education, Maria Theresa, who made education a duty of the state, dealt lengthily in her Ratio Educationis with the problem of physical education and especially with the hygienic care of school children.
It mentions play in the open, the need of playgrounds, and recreation and makes regulations regarding the types of games to be played. Unfortunately, the physical training program of the Ratio was not realized.
The committee on education in the Parliament of 1825 strugEDUCATION IN HUNGARY gled valiantly to have physical training introduced into the educational system but its proposals were not accepted. One of its outstanding proposals was to provide for the specialized training of those who would engage in physical education of the youth in the schools. This idea materialized only a hundred years later (1925) when the College of Physical Education was established.
During the nineteenth century physical education ran the same course in Hungary as elsewhere. The Hungarian sport movement took over foreign patterns and especially in the eighties English sport struck a deeper root in Hungary. Sport life developed rapidly. City folk for some time had been devoted to shooting as a social sport, since it long ago had lost its original purpose of defending the city. In the early part of the last century there appeared swimming pools, wrestling clubs, physical training societies, and ice-skating became a popular sport. The German physical training system found its way into Hungary in 1839, when the first physical training institution was founded, which within 13 years trained 54 gymnasium instructors and instructed 1,876 children.
The great transformation of Hungarian sport life came instinctively and, as it were, of itself. Recognition for it belongs to three men—Count Maurice Sándor, Baron Nicholas Wesselényi, and Count Stephen Széchenyi, who had travelled extensively in England.
In 1863 the movement was started to establish a physical training society, which was immediately followed by another movement to erect the National Gymnasium. Hungarian sport life also made an epoch-making stride in 1875 by the foundation of the Hungarian Athletic Club.
Compulsory physical education was introduced into the schools in the eighties and thus youth was given a chance not only to obtain systematic physical training but also to develop its athletic inclinations. From this time on a very lively sport life came into being and new sports were introduced. Activities of sport clubs in national and international contests served more and more to catch the attention of the public and to direct it to sports so that, since the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century, Hungary has appeared at the Olympic games in competition with other countries.
LAWS CONCERNING PHYSICAL EDUCATIONThe National Physical Education Board was founded in 1913 and at the same time a law was passed stipulating that a certain per cent of bets at horse races should go through the National Physical Education Fund for purposes of physical education.
This ensures a considerable income and serves to supplement the sum obtained from the national budget.