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It is to these athletic associations that the credit must go for the splendid showing of Hungarian athletes at the various Olympiads. At the first Olympiad at Athens a Hungarian runner took second place in the 800-meter dash and another third place in the 100-meter dash, while a third man took third place in the Marathons. One of the Hungarians twice became champion in the
PHIZES WOX AT THE DANISH WATER JAMBOREE IN 1927
100-meter and the 1,200-meter swims. At the Olympiad in Paris in 1900, Hungarian athletes had one world record and three important places. This was followed by another international victory when a Hungarian man won the high jumping championship. This was the first time that the Hungarian colors had achieved victory in the birthplace of sports, England. Beginning with 1903 the fencing championship became an open struggle, and yet Hungarians were victorious most frequently. In 1904 at the world competition at St. Louis Zoltán Halmay beat the world swimming champion Daniels on two occasions, while 252 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY in 1905 he won the 100-yard race in record time. At the Athenian Olympics of 1905 Hungarian swimmers were victorious. In 1908 at London Hungarian fencers won both the individual and the group championships. In 1912 at Stockholm the Hungarian sword again won the palm and Hungarian gymnasts took second place. The Olympics of 1916 were not held, and for the one
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held at Antwerp in 1920 the Central Powers did not receive an invitation; it was only in 1924 that dismembered Hungary could appear again in Paris at the eighth Olympiad. Hungarian athletes acquitted themselves most excellently here, too, for they obtained the world championship in fencing and pigeon shooting and won valuable places in the classical pantathlon, group fencing, heavyweight and lightweight wrestling, individual fencing, stiletto group fencing, backswimming, hurdling, relays, high jumping, and water polo.
Apart from victories at Olympiads, Hungary can proudly point to her successes in other great sport contests. Sons of dismembered Hungary win victories worthy of recognition not PHYSICAL· EDUCATION 253 only over her neighbouring but also over larger Western nations.
She won championships in England in both 1926 and 1927. Her fencers in the same year won the European championships at Vichy and the water polo championship at Bologna. She has from the beginning participated in the International Olympic Committee and has her own Olympic committee to maintain permanent contacts and to prepare Hungarian participants in the games.
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The athletic associations, grouped together according to the various branches of athletics, do invaluable service in the development of athletic life and for the cause of physical education.
At present there are seventeen such associations, each of which is represented by one member on the National Council of Physical Education.
The supervision of physical education and athletics is exercised by the Ministry of Public Worship and Instruction through the 254 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY National Council of Physical Education; it seeks the advice of the council in matters relating to physical education especially in questions involving principles. The Council, however, is not
only an advisory body but also exercises supervisory and executive functions.
The Council, consisting of outstanding men in athletic and social life and the representatives of interested state offices, is reorganized triennially. It commands great respect and weight.
Divided into four departments, it attends to the development of PHYSICAL EDUCATION 255 sport life, the guidance of organizations, and the material needs manifested from time to time.
The financial aid of physical education is advanced by the National Physical Education Fund, which was started before the
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World War and had been completely ruined by the economic consequences of the war. It was revived in 1924, when it was legally stipulated that a certain percentage (8 per cent) of the bets at horse races should be turned over exclusively for the advancement of physical education. This sum is dispensed by the Ministry at the advice of the Council. It is to this law that the flourishing of athletic life and the erection of athletic fields 256 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY throughout the country is principally due. The Council plans to erect such fields in all the larger cities of the country.
It has been an old desire of Hungary to erect a central National Stadium at Budapest. This is now made necessary by the proposed Olympics at Budapest. In this National Stadium could be located not only the Council, the Hungarian Olympic Committee, College of Physical Education, and the Museum and Library of Athletics, but also the offices of the various athletic associations.
It is also planned to contain suitable places for winter indoor sports, swimming, gymnastics, and lecture rooms for physical training instruction and also training quarters.
MUSEUMS AND ARCHIVES
I. THE HUNGARIAN NATIONAL MUSEUMHISTORY The task of the Hungarian National Museum is to collect as intensively as possible the products of Hungarian soil and mind and the relics of the past and to exhibit them for the scholarly and general public.
The Museum is a creation of the nation, owing its existence to the sacrifice of society and not to the goodwill of the rulers. Its foundations were laid by Count Francis Széchenyi (father of Stephen Széchenyi) in 1802, who presented the nation with his library, called Hungarica which he had been collecting since
1795. This was first called the National Széchenyi Library and received its present name in 1808. In accordance with the spirit of the times, this National Museum was of a general nature, although gradually the system of departmentalization prevalent in other countries was introduced. By the year 1870 there were eight departments. During the next thirty years these departments grew into independent and professionally directed institutions with increasing autonomy, so that at present they are bound together only by administrative ties. Their separation did not o-o into effect only for material reasons and because of the lack of personnel. Certain departments nevertheless segregated themselves- thus were the foundations laid of the Technological Museum, the Museum of Industrial Arts and the Gallery of Historical Portraits, which was in 1905 transformed into the National Hungarian Museum of Fine Arts.
This differentiation, unfortunately, was not purposive, and thus it could happen that, while the departments of natural sciences, which first reached the state of independence, still belonged to the Museum, the artistic museums were constantly in 258 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY conflict with one another and with the department of culture history. This condition was largely eliminated by the establishment of the National Hungarian Association of Museums in 1922, as an autonomous body composed of the great national collections.
The natural development of the Museum was obstructed from 1870 by the inadequacy of the building. Building plans were continually discussed for five decades, but no actual relief was forthcoming. As a transitional solution a considerable part of the National Museum's collections found temporary location outside of the old building. After twenty years of moving about, the Ethnographical Collections opened in 1927 in a new building.
The Botanical Collections for decades has been located in a place rented from the Academy of Sciences, where, however, there is no room for exhibitions. The Zoological Collections since 1925 has found its location near the Museum, while its exhibition materials in 1927 were removed into a three-story building, which is the property of the Museum. The Department of Archives lias also been forced to leave the Museum building and has obtained a modern building in which there is an opportunity for expansion.
The solution of many scientific problems await the reconstruction and modernization of the old building; particularly is it paramount to make it fire-proof. Work in this direction, however, has necessarily been arrested by the present economic and financial burdens of the government. Immediate help is expected only from the public and of vast significance in this respect are the events of recent years. Especially outstanding has been the Count Alexander Apponyi Foundation, established from the gift of an estate of 3,200 acres by Countess Alexander Apponyi for the development of the Museum. A proof of the general interest of the public in the National Museum is the formation of the Society of the Friends of the National Museum, which donates a considerable amount for the maintenance of the Museum.
The further growth of the Museum can be expected only from more intensive excavations. It is to these that the finding of gold relics of the Halstatt period and remnants of the Roman and migration periods are to be credited. The success of excavations in recent years far surpasses that of past years, and with
MUSEUMS AND ARCHIVESappropriate laws concerning relics forthcoming, a veritable boom of progress is hoped.
The departments and materials of the Museum are as follows:
1. National Széchenyi Library, divided into the departments of publications, newspapers, manuscripts, letters, and musical scores. It collects books written by Hungarian writers and all books appearing in other countries about Hungary and all books within the sphere of scholarship. Its special collections are outstanding. About 6,000,000 publications are under the care of this department. The manuscripts department contams 22,000 volumes, among them the Ehrenfeld Codex, Pray Codex of the twelfth century and thirteen Corvina Codices, and approximately 25,000 letters of literary value. The department of letters contains about one million documents, a good portion of which belongs to the private correspondence of more than 150 families.
2. Numismatic Collections containing medals, coins, plaitworks, and such, among which arc the coins of the Roman period in Hungary and of neighbouring countries.
3. Archaeological Department, laying particular stress upon the archaeological relics of Hungary. Its collection of ancient, bronze, copper, and gold objects and its collections from the migration period are internationally significant.
4. Historical Department, which is a collection of the relics of Hungarian history and culture, composed of private gifts and purchases and covering the entire period of Hungarian history.
5. Ethnographical Collections, composed of relics of folk life and classified into occupational and manufacturing groups, such as fishing, hunting, and weaving. Ethnographical collections from the life of other peoples constitute a separate group.
6-7. Zoological and Botanical Collections are comprehensive collections, paying especial attention to Hungarian fauna and flora.
8. Mineral and Palaeontological Collections, started by Count Francis Széchenyi, has become one of the most significant collections on the continent.
The principal publications of the Museum are: Report Concerning the Status of the National Museum (yearly), Hungarian 260 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY Book Review (quarterly), Journal of the Ethnographical Department (monthly), Annales Historico-Naturales (annual), Archaeologist Hungarica (quarterly), and Hungarian Folk Arts;
also monographs and catalogues of collections and exhibitions.
The other museums of the country contain valuable material.
Among these may be mentioned particularly those at Szeged and Debrecen. Many of these museums have made splendid collections of local significance, as the Museum of Szentes in the period of the migrations and the Museum of Szombathely in palaeontology.
Institutes of Scientific Research have been placed under the jurisdiction and supervision of the National Hungarian Association of Museums; among them are the Astronomical Observatory at Sváb Hill, Hungarian Research Institution of Inland Waters, Hungarian Historical Institute at Vienna, Hungarian Institute at Berlin, Hungarian Historical Institute at Rome, National Center of Bibliography and Book Exchange.
II. THE PUBLIC RECORD OFFICEThe National Record Office contains the official archives of the central authorities. Its nucleus was the Old National Archive founded in 1873 for the purpose of taking care of the more important documentary collections of the nation and of palatines and chief justices, having been authorized at the same time to embrace private documents as well. The value of its collections is considerable from the point of view of historical sciences.
In 1848 the Hungarian Academy of Sciences petitioned the government to establish a public institution, but this could be done only after the reconciliation of Nation and King in 1867.
The institution slowly grew into its present form. In 1922 it went from the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Internal Affairs to that of Public Instruction, and with this, noteworthy changes occurred in its tasks. While hitherto its work had dealt mainly with the affairs of the nobility, from this time on it has come to lay its chief stress upon the care, arrangement, and increase of its collections. In other words, its work has become more scientific.
Many of the most valuable records of modern Hungarian history are preserved in the National Public Record Office as well