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If we view the number of students enrolled in the respective grades (I. 1996; II. 1895; III. 1644; IV. 1288; and V. 1165), we 282 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY discover a gradual decrease, due to a process of strict selection on the part of the institutions, considering the fact that transfer from normal schools to secondary schools or technical schools, that is, a voluntary departure of the candidate, is a very rare occurrence in Hungary.


At present four institutions are engaged in the training of kindergarten teachers, of which two are state and two Roman Catholic schools. The enrolled students number 260, of whom a large majority (185) receive training in the state institutions.

Students show an increase of 10 per cent over the record of 1920-1925.


In 1870 there were 146 Gymnasiums and 24 Real schools in the country; in 1900 there were 165 Gymnasiums and 32 Real schools;

and in 1917 there were 186 Gymnasiums and 34 Real schools, to which 39 secondary schools for girls are to be added. In 1892 there were 13 state, 128 denominational, and 9 miscellaneous types of Gymnasium in the country; in 1917 this changed to 50 state, 124 denominational, and 12 miscellaneous Gymnasiums.

Students also increased in numbers rapidly. In 1900 the number of students in the Gymnasiums was 48,353 and in Real schools 9,699; in 1917 this rose to 67,190 in the former and 12,662 in the latter. Maturity examinations were taken in 1890 only by 2,173 students and in 1917 this number rose to 6,009.

Secondary schools total 156, of which 120 are boys' schools (76.9 per cent) and 36 girls' schools (23.1 per cent). Thirty-seven and one-tenth per cent, or 58 of the secondary schools, are maintained by the state; 51.9 per cent or 81 of the schools by the denominations or denominational funds; 5.7 per cent or 9 schools by communities; and 5.3 per cent or 8 schools by private individuals or associations. Of the denominations the Roman Catholic leads with 37 schools, to which may also be added the 7 Royal Catholic schools maintained from Catholic educational funds; the Reformed Church has 23, the Lutheran 10, and the Jews 4 schools.

The boys' schools are divided according to types as follows:

28 Gymnasiums, 69 Realgymnasiums, and 23 Real schools. It is interesting to note that only two of the Gymnasiums are state STATISTICAL DATA 283 schools, while the rest are denominational, which shows that the pillars of classical training in Hungary are the denominations.

Over against this the denominations do not maintain a single Real school; of these five-sixths are state and one-sixth community institutions. This same fact is observable also among the schools for girls. Among the 13 Gymnasiums for girls only one is a state institution, while 8 out of 22 Lyceums for girls are maintained by the state. The denominations lay a great deal of stress upon the education of girls, which may be deduced from the fact that, while only 53.3 per cent of the boys' schools are in the hands of the denominations, 61.1 per cent of the schools for girls are of a denominational character. The difference is even more striking when we subtract the number of the Royal Catholic schools which in practice are state institutions; in this case the secondary schools for boys in the hands of denominations fall to 47.5 per cent.

The teachers of secondary schools number 3,362, of whom 2,615 teach in boys' schools and 747 in girls' schools. According to school types 628 teach in' Gymnasiums, 1,466 in Realgymnasiums, and 521 in Real schools. One thousand four hundred seventeen, or 42.1 per cent of the teachers are state, 789 or 23.4 per cent, including the teachers of the Royal Catholic institutions, Roman Catholic, 450 or 13.3 per cent Reformed, 183 or 5.4 per cen Lutheran, and 78 or 2.3 per cent Jewish. The rest receive their salaries from communities, associations, or private individuals.

The total number of students enrolled in 1929-1930 was 59,244, of whom 57.4 per cent were Roman Catholic, 17.5 per cent Reformed, 7.2 per cent Lutheran, and 16.6 per cent Jewish.

In comparison with the population averages the high percentage of the Jewish element attending secondary schools is unusual, for over against only.66 per cent of the Roman Catholic population, 61 per cent of the Reformed, and 86 per cent of the Lutherans, 2.01 per cent of the Jews are enrolled in secondary schools.

If we look over the percentage distribution of students among the various grades (I. 17.7 per cent; II. 13.82 per cent; III. 12.46 per cent; IV. 12.89 per cent; V. 12.19 per cent; VI. 11.64 per cent; VII. 10.46 per cent; and VIII. 8.91 per cent), the strong selective tendency of the Hungarian secondary schools becomes manifest. A large number of the students not suitable for secEDUCATION IN HUNGARY ondary schools drop out at the end of the first year, which is also shown by the percentages, and then their number decreases evenly from year to year. This selection is not concluded even with the eighth grade, for the number of students who successfully pass their maturity examination (4,208) comprises 7.10 per cent of the total number of students.

The results of maturity examinations supply data for determining the success of instruction. Of the students successfully passing maturity examinations in July, 1929, 21.4 per cent received a rating of "excellent," 32.6 per cent "good," and 4.6 per cent "satisfactory."

If we compare the number of students with the existing number of classes (1.446), it becomes clear that each class on a national scale is comprised of 40 students. And again, if we compare the number of students with the number of the teachers, the national scale shows up rather well, inasmuch as only 17 students fall to one teacher. Concerning the vocations of the parents, it may be said that 33.9 per cent belong to families of the intellectual class, 37.8 per cent to the industrial and commercial classes, and only 14.1 per cent come from the agricultural class. The remaining 14.2 per cent have families of miscellaneous vocational standing.

From the point of view of the mother tongue the students of the secondary schools, with a slight exception (2 per cent), are all Hungarian.


The total number of commercial schools is 50, of which 39 are for boys, and 18 for girls. Most of the commercial schools (24) are maintained by communities: these are followed by the state with 12, the various denominations with 8, and finally associations or private individuals with 6 schools.

The students total 11,067, of whom 7,490 are boys and 3,127 girls. Fifty-seven and eight-tenths per cent or 6,397 of the students are Roman Catholic, 14 per cent or 1,553 Reformed, 4.9 per cent or 551 Lutheran, and 21.6 per cent or 2,386 Jewish, the rest belonging to other denominations. The rôle of the Jews, with an average number of students three times their population average, is a very striking feature of the commercial schools.


Ninety-eight and two-tenths per cent of commercial students are Hungarian. Thirty-six and six-tenths per cent of students aiming for commercial careers come from industrial or commercial families, 27.5 per cent from families engaged in intellectual work, and 7.4 per cent are the children of farmers, the rest coming from various vocational fields. It is interesting to note that

77.44 per cent of the students enrolling in the first year of the commercial schools come from middle schools and only 15.65 per cent from secondary schools; the rest are repeaters. With this disappears the notion that the commercial schools are the dregs of secondary schools and that students who are not suitable for secondary schools transfer to commercial schools in masses. This notion is also refuted by the fact that 87.11 per cent of the students enrolled in the second year of the commercial schools completed their first year in their own school and only 5.05 per cent are transfers from another institution, but a large number even of these transfer not from secondary schools but from other commercial schools.

Commercial schools in 1929 had a teaching force of 1,010, of whom 183 were women. Comparing the number of students with that of teachers, it becomes clear that 11 students fell to each teacher. The average number of students for each class was 36.

In this matter, the commercial schools are thus better off than secondary schools. Selection in commercial schools, however, by far falls short of the scale of secondary schools. The percentage distribution of students according to grades was as follows: I.

28.4 per cent; II. 28.8 per cent; III. 23.4 per cent; and IV. 19.4 per cent. With regard to the success of instruction we find information in the results of the maturity examinations of 1929.

Six and twenty-one one-hundredths per cent of the students received a grading of "excellent," 19.92 per cent "good," 57.86 per cent "satisfactory," and 16.01 per cent of the students either failed or withdrew.


Hungary at present has four universities, one faculty of economic science, and one technical university. To these may be added the following various higher institutions of learning: 17 theological seminaries, 3 law academies, 5 economic schools (1 School of Veterinary Science, 1 School of Mines and Forestry, 286 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY and 3 Agricultural Academies), and 9 other higher institutions (1 Training School for Teachers of Middle Schools, 1 Academy of Fine Arts, 1 Military Academy and 1 College for Physical Education). The number of university professors after the establishment of the new universities increased considerably. In 1924-1925 there were 233 ordinary, 9 extraordinary, 11 substitute, 294 private professors, and 27 lecturers. The total teaching staff was 574, to which may be added 247 adjuncts and assistants.

According to the faculties these numbers were divided as follows: faculties of theology, 97 ordinary, 4 extraordinary, 7 substitute, 4 private professors; faculties of law and political science, 68 ordinary, 2 extraordinary, 7 substitute, 146 private docents, 187 adjuncts and assistants; faculty of philosophy and natural sciences, 90 ordinary, 6 extraordinary, 3 substitute, 99 private professors, 14 lecturers, 58 adjuncts and assistants.

The universities have now 737 professors and the other institutions 425. Students enrolled in the institutions number 16,043;

of these 74.3 per cent or 11,916 belong to the universities. Fiftynine and seven-tenths or 7,121 of the university students are Roman Catholic, 19.6 per cent or 2,323 are Reformed, 6.2 per cent or 735 are Lutherans, and 9.2 per cent or 1,101 are Jewish. Only 124 are of a foreign mother tongue; the foreign students (87) are predominantly German.

The number of new students admissible during the school year 1926-1927, according to the law of numerus clausus, was as


The number of students attending the various universities is

as follows:


Eighty-seven and seven-tenths per cent of the students are men and 12.3 per cent women. Most women are to be found in the Faculty of Philosophy and then respectively in the Faculties of Medicine, Economics, Pharmacy, Law and Political Science, and Theological Science (Protestant).

Up to 1900 the number of women university students increased slowly, there being only 17 and 16 in the Faculties of Medicine and Philosophy, respectively. In 1917 there already are 331 women medical students, 369 Philosophy students, 2 students studying Pharmacy and 487 special students, a total of 1,189.

In 1925, despite the tremendous decrease in the size of the country, there were 1,165 women university students. Of this number 559 were enrolled in the Faculty of Philosophy, representing about half (48.4 per cent) of the total number of students in this faculty.

288 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY mercial families, 14.2 per cent from farmers, and 17 per cent from miscellaneous groups. The number of Doctors' degrees granted in 1928-1929 according to the branches were as follows: Theology 11, Canon Law 12, Political Science 305, Law 506, Medicine 643, Philosophy 96, Pharmacy 9, Economics 73, and Technical Science 16. Teachers' diplomas for secondary schools were granted to 170; 121 received diplomas in economics, 452 in engineering, and 117 in pharmacy.

One thousand eight hundred seven Hungarian students pursued university studies in universities and higher institutions abroad;

of these 461 were in Austria, 313 in Germany, 376 in Czechoslovakia, 236 in France, 225 in Italy, 134 in Switzerland, and 62 in the United States.


Approximately the following sums were devoted to the maintenance of the various institutions:

Amounts spent by non-state schools for educational purposes

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