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«The International Institute of Teacher’s College, Columbia University The INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE of Teachers College, Columbia University, was ...»

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The law, moreover, provided for the necessary unity of the Hungarian secondary schools in still another way, namely, by State supervision and control, which aims at the sanctioning of the above measures. From this point of view the secondary schools of the country fall into three groups—those under State control, those under State guidance, and those under State supervision. To the first group belong the so-called State secondary schools, which are maintained by the State treasury, and the royal Catholic secondary schools, which are maintained by the Catholic School Fund. Over both types of schools the State exercises an absolute right of free action. The second group is composed of schools maintained by authorized bodies, communities, societies, and individuals and of certain endowed secondary schools. These stand under the direction of the States; that is, in matters of pedagogy they are obliged to conform to the State requirements, though in other matters they can act independently within prescribed limits of State supervision. Only the supervision of the State is applied to the third group, the secondary schools of the autonomous denominations (Lutheran, Reformed, Unitarian, Greek-Orthodox), the autonomy of which had already been recognized by the laws of 1790 and 1868. This right was confirmed by the act of 1883. The Ministry of Education exercises supreme supervision over these autonomous secondary schools through its annually appointed representatives. According to the law the State granted aid to autonomous denominational schools; in such State-aided schools, however, the same curriculum was to be followed as that used by secondary schools 36 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY which stand under the control and direct guidance of the State.

The result of this arrangement was that within a decade all secondary schools in Hungary taught in conformity with one and the same curriculum, since all the autonomous denominational secondary schools took advantage of the opportunity for State aid.

The numbers of Hungarian secondary schools increased rapidly, because more and more of the people began to aspire to intellectual careers, a sine qua non of which was a secondary school education. The State was gradually coming to the fore among the school supporters.

THE DEVELOPMENT OF UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES

In the period following the reconciliation of King and nation in 1867 the higher institutions also began to develop greatly. In 1872 the Hungarian Parliament established the University of Kolozsvár with Faculties of Law and Political Science, Medicine, Philosophy, Languages and History, Mathematics, and Natural Sciences. In 1906 this university already had 2,410 students. The Royal Joseph Technical School was transformed in 1872 into a technical university, which set out upon such progress that its building, erected in the eighties, proved inadequate, and it was supplanted in 1909 by magnificent buildings.

The idea of a new university rapidly gained favor and finally in 1912 Parliament at the same time established two of them, one in Pozsony and another in Debrecen. Parallel with the development of the universities, the other schools also expanded their equipment and increased their faculties. This expansion took place in the case of the Academy of Mining and Forestry, the Academy of Veterinary Sciences, the Academy of Agriculture, the Academy of Commerce, the Academy of Fine Arts, the Academy of Music, and the Academy of Dramatic Art. The number of university and academy students advanced by leaps and bounds, especially beginning with 1890; thus from 4,955 in 1866 the number rose to 10,567 in 1900 and 14,575 in 1913. This number decreased during the Great War, but in 1919, after the return of the younger generation from the Front, it rose again to 18,449. Since 1895 women have been admitted to the Faculties of Medicine and Philosophy of the universities; from six women in 1897 the enrolment increased to 1,189 in 1917.

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT

EDUCATIONAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE DISMEMBERMENT

OF HUNGARY This splendid progress of Hungarian education was arrested by the Great War and by the consequent Trianon Treaty. This treaty deprived the nation of nearly three-fourths of its thousand-year-old territory, took away almost two-thirds of her population, and subjected approximately four million Magyars to the rule of alien peoples. The treaties following the great cataclysm did not dismember any nation so cruelly as Hungary, in spite of the fact that the single representative of the Hungarian nation in the Council of the Crown, Count Stephen Tisza, strenuously opposed the declaration of war. Let a few cold statistical facts here throw light upon the terrible cultural loss of the Magyar race. Of the 2,417 kindergartens in old Hungary, 949 remained in dismembered Hungary; of 17,648 elementary schools, 11,213 were taken away and 6,435 remained; in old Hungary there were 568 middle schools; of this number 303 fell to the dismembered parts and 265 remained. This treaty forced upon the Hungarians cut off 4 out of 9 institutions for the training of kindergarten teachers, 34 out of 52 normal schools for men, and 19 out of 42 normal schools for women. Thirty-three academies of commerce were taken away, while Hungary retained 33. The loss of secondary schools for boys is amazing. Out of 185 Gymnasiums 99 were taken and 86 left; out of 37 Real schools 21 were lost and 16 remained. Of 43 secondary schools for girls 25 remained within the present frontiers. In considering these losses we must also take into account that 82.6 per cent of students attending secondary schools spoke Hungarian as their mother tongue. The University of Kolozsvár, almost half a century old and extraordinarily developed and equipped, was taken by the Roumanians two years before the conclusion of the Treaty, and the professors were expelled from that pure Hungarian capital of Transylvania. The Czechs treated the recently founded University of Pozsony in the same way. Members of the ancient Academy of Mining and Forestry at Selmec were forced to flee. The splendidly equipped academies of agriculture at Kassa and Kolozsvár fell victims to the conquerors. In addition the law academies at Kassa, Nagyvarad, Eperjes, and Máramarossziget had to be sacrificed.





38 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY

HUNGARIAN EDUCATIONAL POLICY AFTER TRIANON

As soon as the nation had recovered from this terrible blow, it was precisely in the field of culture that it first of all endeavoured to regenerate itself and make way for a better future. Count Kuno Klebelsberg, Minister of Education since 1922, initiated a brilliant new epoch in the educational policy of the Hungarian nation. He initiated a radical reform of all branches of education. The nation's strong will for culture has, in spite of the economic losses, established one new cultural institution after another or expanded the work of old institutions, overcome their shortcomings, and breathed a new spirit into them. One of the chief endeavours of this new policy is to advance the education of children scattered throughout the great Hungarian Lowlands (Alföld). The Act of 1926 concerning the foundation and maintenance of schools in the interests of the agricultural class will soon make it possible, through the building of two thousand new classrooms, for the children of people living in scattered communities to obtain the elements of education of which their parents were deprived because of the lack of schools. The law regarding middle schools provides a middle school of four grades for every community of 5,000 inhabitants. Immediately after the dismemberment of Hungary there remained only 240 middle schools; today there are 412. The institution of an energetic program for the extra-mural education of the people and the founding of more than 1,500 people's libraries aim to raise the cultural level of the agricultural and industrial adult population and to increase their capacity for agricultural and industrial competition. The chief underlying principle of the modern Hungarian educational policy is that cultural democracy is the surest foundation of a sound political democracy. The more cultured the broad base of the social pyramid, the more secure is the social structure, the more extensive and intensive is production, the more prosperous is living, while the fear of revolutionary outbreaks on the part of the masses is lessened. Intensive and extensive public education is real, active democracy—not such as is exhausted in empty slogans.

The new law regarding secondary schools (1924) adds the Realgymnasium to the Gymnasium and Real schools, making it possible to obtain the benefits of modern culture in an increased

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT

measure. In line with this is the law regulating the training of teachers for secondary schools. The sound development of secondary schools for girls may be expected also from the Act of 1926 on secondary schools and colleges for girls.

The spirit of sacrifice of the nation is especially inspiring in the field of university and academy education. The Act of 1921 set up the exiled University of Pozsony at Pecs and again established the University of Kolozsvár, which was ousted by the Roumanians, providing them with new buildings and equipment.

The extensive building program of the University of Debrecen, which was begun during the War, is now nearing completion.

During her history of a thousand years Hungary has always been in close contact with Western European centres of culture;

her students ever since the Middle Ages have visited French, German, Italian, Swiss, Dutch, and other universities in great numbers. That this tradition is to be maintained is now ensured very effectively by the Act of 1927, which, by the endowment of many fellowships and through the establishment of Collegia Hungarica, enables the competent and gifted of the modern generation of scholars to increase their knowledge in the large metropolitan cities of Western Europe and to make direct contacts with European scholars.

The energetic promotion of the matter of Hungarian higher education and fellowships, which demanded the greatest material sacrifice on the part of the nation, is justified chiefly by the consideration that it is the universities and academies which are called upon to train for the nation as many leading specialists as possible. The rays of culture always come from above, from the universities to the secondary schools, and from the secondary to the elementary schools.

Entirely new blood has been infused also into the life of the great Hungarian collections (National Museum, Museum of Fine Arts, Museum of Industrial Arts, National Record Office, etc.), the Act of 1922 having amalgamated them after the model of a university into an autonomous National Association of Museums.

The old Astronomical Observatory at Ogyalla having been lost, a new one has been erected and equipped on the Sváb Hill near Budapest. For the purpose of intensive research in biology a biological research station has been set up at Tihany on the shore of Lake Balaton.

40 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY The completely disarmed and incapacitated Hungarian nation has to rely chiefly on the power of the intellect. It is in the increased advancement and deepening of her culture that she seeks to find the possibility and the firm ground upon which to regain her old freedom and strength.

THE CENTRAL ADMINISTRATION OF EDUCATION

The Ministry The administration and direction of religious and educational matters is in the hands of the Ministry of Public Worship and Instruction. This Ministry prepares and executes laws referring to the educational organization. It has exclusive rights over State schools, exercises higher administrative functions over parish, endowed, associational, and private schools, and has the right of supreme supervision over denominational schools in proportion to their autonomy and to the State aid granted them.

In the matter of central administration the Minister is assisted by two Secretaries of State. The Ministry has various departments for: (a) Religious affairs; (6) art and music; (c) universities and other higher institutions of learning, collections and museums, institutes of research and educational policy; (d) secondary schools; iß) commercial, normal, middle, and agricultural schools; {f) industrial schools and institutions for the weak-minded; (g) the organization of kindergarten and elementary education and affairs relating to supervision and adult education; (h) kindergarten and elementary schools; (i) pensions;

{j}) financial administration of public education funds and real estate; (k) economic administration of public funds; (I) technical affairs; and (m) physical training.

The National Council of Education The task of the National Council of Education, with headquarters at Budapest, is to provide, either upon the request of the Minister or on its own initiative, opinions and resolutions with reference to public instruction. Its province extends over all questions of principle bearing upon schools within the jurisdiction of the Minister of Public Worship and Instruction. Matters of school administration belong to its sphere only in so far as they relate to the criticism, modification, and correction of

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT

the supervision of schools. Its chairman is the Minister of Public Worship and Instruction and it is composed of a co-chairman, vice-chairman, secretary, twelve councillors, and at least fifty ordinary members. The members of the Council are appointed from teachers and professors under the jurisdiction of the Minister and from individuals specifically engaged in scientific and educational work.

The National Council of Industrial and Commercial Education The task of this Council, with headquarters at Budapest, is to provide both the Minister of Commerce and the Minister of Public Worship and Instruction, either upon special request or upon its own initiative, with opinions and resolutions in regard to questions of industrial and commercial education. Its chief duties are to prepare general programs bearing upon the didactic or practical phases of industrial and commercial education, to pass resolutions for the establishment of new industrial and commercial schools and the development of existing ones, to participate with school inspectors in the supervision of schools, and to criticize the materials of instruction.



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