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«RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEACHER PREPAREDNESS AND INQUIRY-BASED INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES TO STUDENTS’ SCIENCE ACHIEVEMENT: EVIDENCE FROM TIMSS 2007 A ...»

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(1981). The role of inquiry in science education:

Analysis and recommendations. Science Education, 65, 33-50.

Wesstat. (2007). WesVar 4.3 User’s Guide. Rockville, MD:

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Wilke, R.R. & Straits, W.J. (2005). Practical advice for teaching inquiry-based science process skills in the biological sciences. The American Biology Teacher, 67(9), 534-540.

Wilke, R., & Straits, W. (2006). Developing Students' Process Skills in Today's Science Classroom. Texas Science Teacher, 35(1), 11-16.

Williams, T., Ferraro, D., Roey, S., Brenwald, S.,

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U.S. Technical Report and User Guide (NCES 2009-012).

National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.

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addendum to the report “Teachers preparation research:

Current knowledge, gaps, and recommendations.” Education Commission of the States. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 476366).

Windschitl, M. (2003). Inquiry projects in science teacher education: What can investigative experiences reveal about teacher thinking and eventual classroom practice?. Science Education, 87(1), 112-143.

Windschitl, M. (2004). Folk theories of “inquiry”: How preservice teachers reproduce the discourse and practices of an atheoretical scientific method.

Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 41(5), 481

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Domain Knowing addresses the facts, information, concepts, Knowing tools, and procedures that students need to know to function scientifically. The key skills of this cognitive domain include making or identifying accurate statements about science facts, relationships, processes, and concepts; identifying the characteristics or properties of specific organisms, materials, and processes; providing or identifying definitions of scientific terms; recognizing and using scientific vocabulary, symbols, abbreviations, units, and scales in relevant contexts; describing organisms, physical materials, and science processes that demonstrate knowledge of properties, structure, function, and relationships; supporting or clarifying statements of facts or concepts with appropriate examples; identifying or providing specific examples to illustrate knowledge of general concepts; and demonstrating knowledge of the use of scientific apparatus, tools, equipment, procedures, measurement devices, and scales.

Applying focuses on students’ ability to apply knowledge Applying and conceptual understanding to solve problems or answer questions. The key skills of this cognitive domain include identifying or describing similarities and differences between groups of organisms, materials, or processes; distinguishing, classifying, or ordering individual objects, materials, organisms, and processes based on given characteristics and properties; using a diagram or model to demonstrate understanding of a science concept, structure, relationship, process, or biological or physical system or cycle; relating knowledge of an underlying biological or physical concept to an observed or inferred property, behavior, or use of objects, organisms, or materials; interpreting relevant textual, tabular, or graphical information in light of a science concept or principle; identifying or using a science relationship, equation, or formula to find a quantitative or qualitative solution involving the direct application or demonstration of a concept; providing or identifying an explanation for an observation or natural phenomena, demonstrating understanding of the underlying science concept, principle, law, or theory.

Reasoning goes beyond the cognitive processes involved in Reasoning solving routine problems to include more complex tasks.

The key skills of this cognitive domain include analyzing problems to determine the relevant relationships, concepts, and problem-solving steps; developing and explaining problem-solving strategies; providing solutions to problems that require consideration of a number of different factors or related concepts; making associations or connections between concepts in different areas of science; demonstrating understanding of unified concepts and themes across the domains of science;

integrating mathematical concepts or procedures in the solutions to science problems; combining knowledge of science concepts with information from experience or observation to formulate questions that can be answered by investigation; formulating hypotheses as testable assumptions using knowledge from observation or analysis of scientific information and conceptual understanding;

making predictions about the effects of changes in biological or physical conditions in light of evidence and scientific understanding; designing or planning investigations appropriate for answering scientific questions or testing hypotheses; detecting patterns in data; describing or summarizing data trends;

interpolating or extrapolating from data or given information; making valid inferences based on evidence;

drawing appropriate conclusions; demonstrating understanding of cause and effect; making general conclusions that go beyond the experimental or given conditions; applying conclusions to new situations;

determining general formulas for expressing physical relationships; evaluating the impact of science and technology on biological and physical systems; evaluating alternative explanations and problem-solving strategies;





evaluating the validity of conclusions through examination of the available evidence; and constructing arguments to support the reasonableness of solutions to problems.

NOTE: The descriptions of the cognitive domains are the same for grades four and eight.

(Gonzales et al., 2008, p. 35) Appendix B

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Identification of Inquiry-Based and Didactic Science Instruction Questionnaire Dear Participant, My name is Lynn Martin and I am a doctoral candidate at Indiana University of Pennsylvania. As a requirement for completion of my doctorate degree, I am working on a dissertation entitled “Relationship Between Teacher Preparedness and Inquiry-Based Instructional Practices to Students’ Science Achievement: Evidence from TIMSS 2007”.

The purpose of this quantitative study will be to gain a greater understanding of science teachers’ preparedness to teach science content and their instructional practices. This study will examine the relationship between science teachers’ preparedness to teach specific science content and their instructional practices in the science classroom to the science achievement of eighth grade science students in the United States as demonstrated by the Third International Mathematics and Science Study 2007 (TIMSS 2007).

As part of this study, I will be using the teacher questionnaire section of the TIMSS 2007. Sections of the questionnaire ask the TIMSS teacher population to respond to questions regarding instructional methods. I will be identifying questions that indicate the use of inquiry-based instruction and traditional instruction.

For the purpose of inter-rater reliability, I am asking you to complete the following survey. You are eligible to participate in this study because you are a secondary science teacher with teaching experience. I am asking you to identify questions/statements as either inquiry-based or traditional. I would be very grateful if you could take a few minutes to respond to this survey and return it to me by September 21, 2009.

The Indiana University of Pennsylvania supports the practice of protection for human subjects participating in research. There are no known risks associated with this research. Your participation is voluntary. Your name will not be associated with any results and your response will be coded to ensure anonymity. All of your responses will be kept confidential. There is no penalty for not participating.

All of your responses on the survey will be kept confidential. No one, except my faculty sponsor, Dr. George Bieger, and me will have access to the data. All data will be kept in a locked file cabinet in my home office for at least three years in compliance with federal regulations. When analyzing and presenting the data, all data will be coded and participants will be identified with a pseudonym in order to protect your anonymity.

Please accept my sincere thank you in advance for your cooperation in this study.

Sincerely, Lynn A. Martin

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Inquiry-based Instruction- Since the National Science Education Standards (NSES)is at the center of U.S. science education improvement, it is well to consider its

definition of inquiry-based instruction for this study:

Inquiry-base instruction engages students in making observations; posing questions; reviewing what is already known in regards to experimental evidence; using tools to gather, analyze, and interpret data; proposing answers, explanations, and predictions; communicating the results;

identifying assumptions; using critical and logical thinking; and considering alternative explanations;

processing information, communicating with groups, coaching student actions, facilitating student thinking, modeling the learning process, and providing flexible use of materials. (National Research Council (NRC), 1996 p. 23) Didactic Instruction- Didactic instruction traditionally has been conceptualized as the transmission of facts to students, who are seen as passive receptors. This instruction typically uses lecture format and instructs the entire class as a unit. Knowledge is presented as fact where students’ prior experiences are not seen as important. Moreover, instruction does not provide students with opportunities to experiment with different methods to solve problems, but primarily uses a drill and practice format with a foundation on textbooks.

Directions: Please identify the following as either inquiry-based instruction, didactic instruction, both, or neither by placing an X in the corresponding box.

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Based Textbooks are used as the primary basis for lessons.

Textbooks in are used as a supplementary resource for lessons.

Students listen to lecture-style presentations.

Students working on problems with teacher guidance.

Students working on problems on their own without teacher guidance.

Listening to the teacher re-teach and clarify content/procedures.

Students taking tests or quizzes.

Students participating in classroom management tasks not related to the lesson’s content/purpose Students observe natural phenomena and describe what they see.

Students watch the teacher demonstrate an experiment or investigation.

Students design or plan experiments or investigations.

Students work together in small groups on experiments or investigations.

Students conduct experiments or investigations.

Students read their textbooks or other resource materials.

Students memorize facts and principles.

Students use scientific formulae and laws to solve routine problems.

Students give explanations about something they are studying.

Students relate what they are learning in science to their daily lives.

Using the computer to do scientific procedures or experiments.

Using the computer to study natural phenomena through simulations.

Using the computer to practice skills and procedures.

Using the computer to process and analyze data.

Completing homework assignments that require students to do problem/question sets.

Completing homework assignments that require students to find one or more applications of the content Completing homework assignments that require students to read from a textbook or supplementary materials.

Completing homework assignments that require students to work on small investigations or gathering data.

Completing homework assignments that require students to prepare reports.

On science tests or examinations questions are based on knowing facts and concepts.

Completing homework assignments that require students to write the definitions or other short writing assignments.

Completing homework assignments that require students to work on projects.

On science tests or examinations questions are based on the application of knowledge and understanding.

On science tests or examinations questions involve developing hypotheses and designing scientific investigations.

On science tests or examinations questions require explanations or justifications.

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