WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 6 | 7 || 9 | 10 |   ...   | 22 |

«Mindfulness In Plain English By Ven. Henepola Gunaratana Preface In my experience I found that the most effective way to express something in order ...»

-- [ Page 8 ] --

3. Fixing After joining inhaling and exhaling, fix your mind on the point where you feel you inhaling and exhaling breath touching. Inhale and exhale as one single breath moving in and out touching or rubbing the rims of your nostrils.

4. Focus you mind like a carpenter A carpenter draws a straight line on a board that he wants to cut. Then he cuts the board with his handsaw along the straight line he drew. He does not look at the teeth of his saw as they move in and out of the board. Rather he focuses his entire attention on the line he drew so he can cut the board straight. Similarly keep your mind straight on the point where you feel the breath at the rims of your nostrils.

5. Make you mind like a gate-keeper

A gate-keeper does not take into account any detail of the people entering a house. All he does is notice people entering the house and leaving the house through the gate.

Similarly, when you concentrate you should not take into account any detail of your experiences. Simply notice the feeling of your inhaling and exhaling breath as it goes in and out right at the rims of your nostrils.

As you continue your practice your mind and body becomes so light that you may feel as if you are floating in the air or on water. You may even feel that your body is springing up into the sky. When the grossness of your in-and-out breathing has ceased, subtle inand-out breathing arises. This very subtle breath is your objective focus of the mind. This is the sign of concentration. This first appearance of a sign-object will be replaced by more and more subtle sign-object. This subtlety of the sign can be compared to the sound of a bell. When a bell is struck with a big iron rod, you hear a gross sound at first. As the sound fades away, the sound becomes very subtle. Similarly the in-and-out breath appears at first as a gross sign. As you keep paying bare attention to it, this sign becomes very subtle. But the consciousness remains totally focused on the rims of the nostrils.

Other meditation objects become clearer and clearer, as the sign develops. But the breath becomes subtler and subtler as the sign develops. Because of this subtlety, you may not notice the presence of your breath. Don't get disappointed thinking that you lost your breath or that nothing is happening to your meditation practice. Don't worry. Be mindful and determined to bring your feeling of breath back to the rims of your nostrils. This is the time you should practice more vigorously, balancing your energy, faith, mindfulness, concentration and wisdom.

Farmer's simile

Suppose there is a farmer who uses buffaloes for plowing his rice field. As he is tired in the middle of the day, he unfastens his buffaloes and takes a rest under the cool shade of a tree. When he wakes up, he does not find his animals. He does not worry, but simply walks to the water place where all the animals gather for drinking in the hot mid-day and he finds his buffaloes there. Without any problem he brings them back and ties them to the yoke again and starts plowing his field.

Similarly as you continue this exercise, your breath becomes so subtle and refined that you might not be able to notice the feeling of breath at all. When this happens, do not worry. It has not disappeared. It is still where it was before -- right at the nostril-tips.

Take a few quick breaths and you will notice the feeling of breathing again. Continue to pay bare attention to the feeling of the touch of breath at the rims of your nostrils.

As you keep your mind focused on the rims of your nostrils, you will be able to notice the sign of the development of meditation. You will feel the pleasant sensation of sign.

Different meditators feel this differently. It will be like a star, or a peg made of heartwood, or a long string, or a wreath of flowers, or a puff of smoke, or a cob-web, or a film of cloud, or a lotus flower, or the disc of the moon or the disc of the sun.

Earlier in your practice you had inhaling and exhaling as objects of meditation. Now you have the sign as the third object of meditation. When you focus your mind on this third object, your mind reaches a stage of concentration sufficient for your practice of insight meditation. This sign is strongly present at the rims of the nostrils. Master it and gain full control of it so that whenever you want, it should be available. Unite the mind with this sign which is available in the present moment and let the mind flow with every succeeding moment. As you pay bare attention to it, you will see the sign itself is changing every moment. Keep your mind with the changing moments. Also notice that your mind can be concentrated only on the present moment. This unity of the mind with the present moment is called momentary concentration. As moments are incessantly passing away one after another, the mind keeps pace with them. Changing with them, appearing and disappearing with them without clinging to any of them. If we try to stop the mind at one moment, we end up in frustration because the mind cannot be held fast. It must keep up with what is happening in the new moment. As the present moment can be found any moment, every waking moment can be made a concentrated moment.

To unite the mind with the present moment, we must find something happening in that moment. However, you cannot focus your mind on every changing moment without a certain degree of concentration to keep pace with the moment. Once you gain this degree of concentration, you can use it for focusing your attention on anything you experience-the rising and falling of your abdomen, the rising and falling of the chest area, the rising and falling of any feeling, or the rising and falling of your breath or thoughts and so on.





To make any progress in insight meditation you need this kind of momentary concentration. That is all you need for the insight meditation practice because everything in your experience lives only for one moment. When you focus this concentrated state of mind on the changes taking place in your mind and body, you will notice that your breath is the physical part and the feeling of breath, consciousness of the feeling and the consciousness of the sign are the mental parts. As you notice them you can notice that they are changing all the time. You may have various types of sensations, other than the feeling of breathing, taking place in your body. Watch them all over your body. Don't try to create any feeling which is not naturally present in any part of your body. When thought arises notice it, too. All you should notice in all these occurrences is the impermanent, unsatisfactory and selfless nature of all your experiences whether mental or physical.

As your mindfulness develops, your resentment of change, your dislike of unpleasant experiences, your greed for pleasant experiences and the notion of self hood will be replaced by the deeper insight into impermanence, unsatisfactoriness and selflessness.

This knowledge of reality in your experience helps you to foster a more calm, peaceful and mature attitude towards your life. You will see what you thought in the past to be permanent is changing with such an inconceivable rapidity that even your mind cannot keep up with these changes. Somehow you will be able to notice many of the changes.

You will see the subtlety of impermanence and the subtlety of selflessness. This insight will show you the way to peace, happiness and give you the wisdom to handle your daily problems in life.

When the mind is united with the breath flowing all the time, we will naturally be able to focus the mind on the present moment. We can notice the feeling arising from contact of breath with the rim of our nostrils. As the earth element of the air that we breathe in and out touches the earth element of our nostrils, the mind feels the flow of air in and out. The warm feeling arises at the nostrils or any other part of the body from the contact of the heat element generated by the breathing process. The feeling of impermanence of breath arises when the earth element of flowing breath touches the nostrils. Although the water element is present in the breath, the mind cannot feel it.

Also we feel the expansion and contraction of our lungs, abdomen and lower abdomen, as the fresh air is pumped in and out of the lungs. The expansion and contraction of the abdomen, lower abdomen and chest are parts of the universal rhythm. Everything in the universe has the same rhythm of expansion and contraction just like our breath and body.

All of them are rising and falling. However, our primary concern is the rising and falling phenomena of the breath and minute parts of our minds and bodies.

Along with the inhaling breath, we experience a small degree of calmness. This little degree of tension-free calmness turns into tension if we don't breathe out in a few moments. As we breathe out this tension is released. After breathing out, we experience discomfort if we wait too long before having fresh air brought in again. This means that every time our lungs are full we must breathe out and every time our lungs are empty we must breathe in. As we breathe in, we experience a small degree of calmness, and as we breathe out, we experience a small degree of calmness. We desire calmness and relief of tension and do not like the tension and feeling resulting from the lack of breath. We wish that the calmness would stay longer and the tension disappear more quickly that it normally does. But neither will the tension go away as fast as we wish nor the calmness stay as long as we wish. And again we get agitated or irritated, for we desire the calmness to return and stay longer and the tension to go away quickly and not to return again. Here we see how even a small degree of desire for permanency in an impermanent situation causes pain or unhappiness. Since there is no self-entity to control this situation, we will become more disappointed.

However, if we watch our breathing without desiring calmness and without resenting tension arising from the breathing in and out, but experience only the impermanence, the unsatisfactoriness and selflessness of our breath, our mind becomes peaceful and calm.

Also, the mind does not stay all the time with the feeling of breath. It goes to sounds, memories, emotions, perceptions, consciousness and mental formations as well. When we experience these states, we should forget about the feeling of breath and immediately focus our attention on these states--one at a time, not all of them at one time. As they fade away, we let our mind return to the breath which is the home base the mind can return to from quick or long journeys to various states of mind and body. We must remember that all these mental journeys are made within the mind itself.

Every time the mind returns to the breath, it comes back with a deeper insight into impermanence, unsatisfactoriness and selflessness. The mind becomes more insightful from the impartial and unbiased watching of these occurrences. The mind gains insight into the fact that this body, these feelings, various states of consciousness and numerous mental formations are to be used only for the purpose of gaining deeper insight into the reality of this mind/body complex.

Chapter 6

What To Do With Your Body The practice of meditation has been going on for several thousand years. That is quite a bit of time for experimentation, and the procedure has been very, very thoroughly refined.

Buddhist practice has always recognized that the mind and body are tightly linked and that each influences the other. Thus there are certain recommended physical practices which will greatly assist you to master your skill. And these practices should be followed.

Keep in mind, however, that these postures are practice aids. Don't confuse the two.

Meditation does not mean sitting in the lotus position. It is a mental skill. It can be practiced anywhere you wish. But these postures will help you learn this skill and they speed your progress and development. So use them.

General Rules

The purpose of the various postures is threefold. First, they provide a stable feeling in the body. This allows you to remove your attention from such issues as balance and muscular fatigue, so that you can then center your concentration upon the formal object of meditation. Second, they promote physical immobility which is then reflected by an immobility of mind. This creates a deeply settled and tranquil concentration. Third, they give you the ability to sit for a long period of time without yielding to the meditator's three main enemies--pain, muscular tension and falling asleep. The most essential thing is to sit with your back straight. The spine should be erect with the spinal vertebrae held like a stack of coins, one on top of the other. Your head should be held in line with the rest of the spine. All of this is done in a relaxed manner. No Stiffness. You are not a wooden soldier, and there is no drill sergeant. There should be no muscular tension involved in keeping the back straight. Sit light and easy. The spine should be like a firm young tree growing out of soft ground. The rest of the body just hangs from it in a loose, relaxed manner. This is going to require a bit of experimentation on your part. We generally sit in tight, guarded postures when we are walking or talking and in sprawling postures when we are relaxing. Neither of those will do. But they are cultural habits and they can be re-learned.

Your objective is to achieve a posture in which you can sit for the entire session without moving at all. In the beginning, you will probably feel a bit odd to sit with a straight back. But you will get used to it. It takes practice, and an erect posture is very important.

This is what is known in physiology as a position of arousal, and with it goes mental alertness. If you slouch, you are inviting drowsiness. What you sit on is equally important. You are going to need a chair or a cushion, depending on the posture you choose, and the firmness of the seat must be chosen with some care. Too soft a seat can put you right to sleep. Too hard can promote pain.

Clothing



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 6 | 7 || 9 | 10 |   ...   | 22 |


Similar works:

«From Tony Addison and George Mavrotas (Eds.), Development Finance in the Global Economy: The Road Ahead, UNU-WIDER Studies in Development Economics and Policy, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke UK, 2008 4 POLITICAL ECONOMY OF ADDITIONAL DEVELOPMENT FINANCE Anthony Clunies-Ross and John Langmore INTRODUCTION The world needs more ‘development finance’ in order to facilitate faster growth in the economies of lowand middle-income countries and for attending to the shorter-term basic...»

«Primary Source Analysis: Option 2 (If you use this source, you must analyze both of the texts contained below) Thomas of Monmouth: Excerpt from The Life and Miracles of St. William of Norwich, 1173 HOW WILLIAM WAS WONT TO RESORT TO THE JEWS, AND HAVING BEEN CHID BY HIS OWN PEOPLE FOR SO DOING, HOW HE WITHDREW HIMSELF FROM THEM When therefore he was flourishing in this blessed boyhood of his, and had attained to his eighth year [about 1140], he was entrusted to the skinners [furriers] to be...»

«Curriculum Vitae JEFFREY J. ROZELLE Knowles Science Teaching Foundation 1000 N. Church St, Moorestown, NJ 08057 (856)608-0001; (856)608-0008 (fax); jeff.rozelle@kstf.org EDUCATION 2010 Ph.D., Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI Curriculum, Teaching, and Educational Policy Concentration: Science Education Department of Teacher Education Dissertation Title: Becoming a Science Teacher: The Competing Pedagogies of Schools and Teacher Education NARST Outstanding Doctoral Research Award, 2011...»

«My Daughter, The Fox Jackie Kay Teacher’s Notes And Key Jackie Kay's story My Daughter, The Fox gives the reader an unusual view of the mother/child relationship. As the title suggests, the narrator's daughter isn't human, but the feelings generated between mother and daughter are universal and so the scene is set for the paradox to be played out. The story requires a mature approach and would not be suitable for younger readers. The language used would be accessible, though a challenge, to...»

«The Writing Revolution For years, nothing seemed capable of turning around New Dorp High School’s dismal performance—not firing bad teachers, not flashy education technology, not after-school programs. So, faced with closure, the school’s principal went all-in on a very specific curriculum reform, placing an overwhelming focus on teaching the basics of analytic writing, every day, in virtually every class. What followed was an extraordinary blossoming of student potential, across nearly...»

«CURRICULUM VITA Gail V. Barnes, Professor School of Music University of South Carolina Columbia, SC 29208 (803) 777-3389 gbarnes@mozart.sc.edu Education 1998 The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH. Music education Dissertation: A comparison of self-efficacy and teaching effectiveness in preservice string teachers. 1978 M.M. University of Michigan 1977 B.M. University of Michigan Employment History Dates Institution Rank/Position 2013-present University of South Carolina Professor 2005-present...»

«Sheet1 PRAGATHI GRAMIN BANK HEAD OFFICE : BELLARY UNCLAIMED DEPOSITORS SL.NO. NAME & ADDRESS OF THE DEPOSITORS 663 SRINIVASA NAIDU A Y SREE VENKATESHWARA NILAYAT O ROAD SHIKARIPUR SHIMOGA 664 MALLIKARJUNAIAH M G S/O GURUSIDDAIAH KUMAR BUSCUIT STORE SHIKARIPUR SHIMOGA 665 BASAVANYAPPA H S/I SIDDAPPA AGRI GOGGA HOSUR POST SHIKARIPUR 666 SHANTHAMMA W/O THIRUKAPPA M V JAKKANAHALLI SHIKARIPUR SHIMOGA 667 BASAVANYAPPA S/O HOLEYAPPA AGRI KITTADAHALLI SHIKARIPUR SHIMOGA 668 SHANTHAMMA W/O HANUMANTHAPPA...»

«PBR ISSN 1561-8706 PAKISTAN BUSINESS REVIEW Indexed and Abstracted by ECONLIT, Journal of Economic Literature Indexed by EBSCO, USA HEC Approved “Y” Category Journal April 2014 Volume 16 Number 1 Research A Shift from Teacher Centered to Experiential Teaching Method: A Case Study Samra Javed, Nasreen Hussain and Talib Syed Karim Relationship between Stock Market Volatility and Exchange Rate Volatility Mobeen-ur-Rehman The Impact of Advertising on the Profitability of Commercial banks Samina...»

«MEASUREMENT AND VALIDATION OF SENGE’S LEARNING ORGANIZATION MODEL IN KOREAN VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOLS by JOO HO PARK (Under the direction of Jay W. Rojewski) ABSTRACT This study measured and tested Senge’s fifth discipline model of learning organizations in a culturally different population, the context of Korean Vocational high schools. Participants were full-time vocational and academic teachers of 976 in public trade industry-technical and business high schools. This study includes three...»

«ACCESSING PENSION FUNDS Updated: January 2016 Alberta Locked-in Accounts If you work for an industry that is not federally regulated*, and you work in Alberta on your last day of employment under the pension plan, then the funds from that plan are subject to the Employment Pension Plans Act (the Act). Alberta public sector plans (the Public Service, Teachers, Management Employees, Local Authorities, Special Forces, Provincial Court Judges and MLA Pension Plans) are not subject to the Act, but...»

«TETRAHEDRA AND THEIR NETS MATHEMATICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL IMPLICATIONS Derege Haileselassie Mussa Submitted in partial fulfillment of the Requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Under the Executive Committee Of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 2013 © 2013 Derege Haileselassie Mussa All Rights Reserved ABSTRACT TETRAHEDRA AND THEIR NETS MATHEMATICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL IMPLICATIONS Derege Haileselassie Mussa If one has three sticks (lengths), when can you make a...»

«Činč, E.: Melodic Links between Serbian and Romanian Orthodox Chant. (37–51) Article received on 12th Jun 2014 Article accepted on 26th Jun 2014 UDC: 783(497.11:498) 78.071.1:929 Мокрањац Стојановић С.(082) Dr Euđen Činč* Mihailo Palov Vocational Teachers’ College, Vršac MELODIC LINKS BETWEEN SERBIAN AND ROMANIAN ORTHODOX CHANT: EXAMPLES FROM WORKS BY STEVAN ST. MOKRANJAC AND DIMITRIE CUSMA Abstract: Even though over the last century a number of researchers in the...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.