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«Greg Missingham University of Melbourne DESIGN EDUCATION ALL OVER THE PLACE: On dimensions of design education, the peculiar place of RPDs and ...»

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Another Selenitsch observation, in conversation.

Koskinen et al (2011) provide a comprehensive review of research methods used over forty years of RPDs. Methodology and methods for RPDs are paralleled, more or less, by considerations of Process in SDPs.

Mind you, that might not be enough for a PhD in Britain, when it is usually required that the candidate demonstrate a critical understanding of the research method options pertinent to their task rather than only of those actually used (Dunin-Woyseth, 2005, pp. 87-88), presumably a requirement of PhDs considered as research training devices.

Australia Council of University Art and Design Schools conference proceedings, Adelaide, 2015

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Satisfying these three criteria is a requirement of the RPD PhD, text and creative work contributing in different ways.

Satisfying the second feature is fundamental to research, contributing new knowledge. Satisfying the third feature might be how we understand that a contribution to knowledge has been made.

Creative works in RPDs are expected to stand well with like genre works outside the research framework. In a RPD, the provocation of design quality might alert the discipline (through its examiner representatives) that the third criterion of creative propositions has been satisfied. Conversely, satisfying these last two features of creative propositions might be what is meant by design quality.23 2 Candidates and Texts RPD PhDs are necessarily discursive, framed in words. For artists and designers focused on nonverbal outcomes, the difficult translation from the nonverbal to text is necessarily metaphoric yet must support the case for the candidate’s achievement.24 Participation in the semantic ecology that is design production requires some rhetorical facility (Krippendorff, 2006).

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In Missingham (2010). There are thirty-eight other views of creativity in the same volume. A completely different, ‘deconstructed postmodernist’ view is noted in Ashton (2010, p. 23).

Remember Darby (2010, p. 59).

hesitate to suggest it but an illustrative RDP, in the sense intended in 2., above, might not require great design quality.

Francini (2010, p. 113) notes the anxiety that this caused her.

This transfer occurs both ways multiple times in RDPs where ideas and designing continuously feed off each other.

Australia Council of University Art and Design Schools conference proceedings, Adelaide, 2015 These are measures of the candidate accessed primarily through the text. A question of degree, the second difference between assessment of SDPs and RPDs entails much greater scrutiny of candidates’ demonstrations of their understanding of their achievement.25 Conclusions Design studio might be the commonest form of design education but isn’t the only form. Nor do studio design projects (SDPs) exhaust the instruments of assessment in design education. Assessment of SDPs is multidimensional and a proxy assessment of students, of their capacities as future design professionals. Direct assessment of students commonly occurs in assessing SDPs.

PhDs and Masters design theses RDPs are at the rarified end of design education, framed within a historical tradition of higher learning, positioned within emerging concerns of disciplines, with PhDs assessed in a global context. The embedded creative works have to stand as works within each discipline’s own frameworks of evaluation, but the associated texts have to carry the case for the candidate, demonstrating the candidate’s framing, positioning and evaluation of their achievement. That is, assessment of RDPs is likewise both multidimensional and proxy assessment of candidates, of their capacities as future design academics (and/or professionals).

Both assessments require originality of product. For SDPs, this concerns authorship and some measure of innovation but for RDPs the standard is higher: contribution to knowledge. With SDPs, bonuses for ‘Magic’ might entail something similar, but we don’t usually preserve such outcomes with the same care (although digital archives might do). Some SDPs require emphasis of process. Were this to become more common, lessons might be drawn from how methodology and methods are treated with RDPs. The standard of self-aware argument is also expected to be higher for RDPs over SDPs. Taken together, these issues are about positioning project and self within the stream of precedent, of designs and/or research findings. Perhaps a developing body of knowledge might only begin to accumulate when, as part of their training, pre-professionals are required to develop the requisite habits. A school could emphasise design outcomes based on solid research and evaluate depth, cogency and skill in application of research findings.26 Universities (or countries) with the tradition of verbal defenses of PhDs, viva voce, or inperson presentations provide both the candidate and the assessors an advantage in this respect, stressful though it may be for the former. In those instances, the ‘text’ could be, in principle, entirely oral.

See, for instance, the Domus Academy, Milan, website: http://www.servicedesigntools.org.

The best RDPs at Master’s level are beginning to do exactly this.

Australia Council of University Art and Design Schools conference proceedings, Adelaide, 2015


I owe much to Alex Selenitsch, particularly, and for comments on drafts of the paper to Stephanie Liddicoat and the reviewers, and to Michael Barraclough, Ammon Beyerle, Antonia Bruns, Andrew Chia Meng Ghiap, Emma Chrisp, Alison Coy, Craig Easton, Allan Higgs, Simona Falvo, Rochus Hilton, Andrew Hruzowski, Tarryn Joyce, Isun Kazerani, Ann Lau, Eleanor Lim Shan, Chelle Macnaughtan, Beatriz Maturana Cosio, Maggie McCormick, Janet McGaw, Eric Nakajima, Risteard ó Chléirigh, Kelum Palipane, Dennis Prior, Yvette Putra, Andrew Simpson, Ross T Smith, Louise Wright, Craig Tan and Kate Tregloan.

Australia Council of University Art and Design Schools conference proceedings, Adelaide, 2015 REFERENCES ASHTON, L 2010, ‘Beyond the aesthetic discourse: A PhD about drawing and art education’, in D Forrest & E Grierson (eds), The Doctoral Journey in Art Education, ASP, North Melbourne, VIC, pp. 13-31.

BIGGS, J and C TANG 2007, Teaching for Quality Learning at University: What the student does, 3rd Edn. The Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University Press/McGraw Hill Education, Maidenhead, Berks.

BLOOMER, J 1993, Architecture and the Text: The (S)crypts of Joyce and Piranesi, Theoretical Perspectives in Architectural History and Criticism, Yale University Press, New Haven.

BRUNS, A 2000, Spatial Narrative in Film, Architecture and Urban Design, PhD dissertation, RMIT University, Melbourne.

CHRISP, E 2014, Ipso Verto, ABPL 90169 Design Thesis, The Melbourne School of Design, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC.

DARBY, M 2010, ‘Authentic assessment in the visual arts’, in D Forrest & E Grierson (eds), The Doctoral Journey in Art Education, ASP, North Melbourne, VIC, pp. 58-63.

DOMUS ACADEMY, Milan, website: http://www.servicedesigntools.org.

DORST, K 2015, Frame Innovation: Create New Thinking by Design, Design Thinking/Design Theory, The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

DOWNTON, P J 2003, Design Research, RMIT University Press, Melbourne.

DUNIN-WOYSETH, H 2005, ‘The “thinkable” and the “unthinkable” Doctorates. Three perspectives on Doctoral Scholarship in Architecture’, in M Belderbos & J Verbecke (eds), The Unthinkable Doctorate, Network for Theory, History and the Criticism of Architecture, Hogeschool voor Wetenschap & Kunst, School of Architecture Sint-Lucas, Brussels-Gent, pp. 81-100.

EASTON, C 2014, A Strange Arrangement: Constructing Contemporary Reductive Abstract Painting through the Ancient Chinese Garden, PhD dissertation, The Victorian College of the Arts, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC.

FALVO, S 2015, A Gaze and the Story: The Antonioni Project, ABPL 90169 Design Thesis, Parkville, VIC: The Melbourne School of Design, The University of Melbourne.

FORREST, D and E GRIERSON (eds) 2010, The Doctoral Journey in Art Education:

Reflections on Doctoral Studies by Australian and New Zealand Art Educators, ASP (Australian Scholarly Publishing), North Melbourne, VIC.

FRANCINI, A 2010, ‘Approaching visuality, becoming a researcher’, in D Forrest & E Grierson (eds), The Doctoral Journey in Art Education, ASP, North Melbourne, VIC, pp. 98-115.

Australia Council of University Art and Design Schools conference proceedings, Adelaide, 2015 GU D 2003, ‘The Design Studio: The Formation of the Place and Its Pedagogy’, in Forum Organizing Committee (eds), Nanjing International Architectural Education Forum: Regionalism under the Trends of Globalization: Conference Proceedings (Draft), School of Architecture, Southeastern University, Nanjing, pp. 61-67.

HAYSOM, R 2010, ‘Knowing in, through and about: The PhD journey’, in D Forrest & E Grierson (eds), The Doctoral Journey in Art Education, ASP, North Melbourne, VIC, pp. 141-155.

JONAS, W 2012, ‘Exploring the Swampy Ground: An inquiry into the logic of design research’, in: S Grand & W Jonas (eds), Mapping Design Research, Birkhäuser for the Board of International Research in Design (BIRD), Basel, pp. 11-41.

KOSKINEN, I; J ZIMMERMAN, T BINDER, J REDSTRÖM and S WENSVEEN, 2011, Design Research Through Practice from the Lab, Field, and Showroom, Morgan Kaufman/Elsevier, Amsterdam.

KRIPPENDORFF, K 2006, The Semantic Turn: A New Foundation for Design, CRC/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, Florida.

LAWSON, B and K DORST, 2009, Design Expertise, Architectural Press/Elsevier, Oxford.

MATURANA, B 2011, Architectural Design Studio and the Real World Out There, unpub PhD dissertation, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC.

McGAW, J 2007, Urban Threads, PhD dissertation, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC.

MISSINGHAM, G 2003, ‘Figuring Ariachne’s Gardens: Reflecting on Research-led Teaching in Design’, in C Newton, S Kaji-O’Grady & S Wallan (eds), Design + Research: Project Based Research in Architecture, AASA (Association of Architecture Schools of Australasia), http://www.arbld.unimelb.edu.au/events/conferences/aasa/papers, Melbourne.

MISSINGHAM, G 2010, ‘Greg Missingham [on creativity]’, in A Williams, M J Ostwald & H H Askland, Creativity, Design and Education: Theories, Positions and Challenges, Australian Learning & Teaching Council, Sydney, From Theory to Practice: 39 Opinions, pp. 103-106.

NORMAN, D A 2010, ‘Why Design Education Must Change’, November 22, http://www.jnd.org don@jnd.org PARNELL, R. and R. SARA with C. DOIDGE and M. PARSONS 2007, The Crit: An Architecture Student’s Handbook, 2nd edn, Seriously useful guides, Architectural Press/Elsevier, London.

PFAMMATTER, U 2000, The Making of the Modern Architect and Engineer: The Origins and Development of a Scientific and Industrially Oriented Education, Birkhäuser, Basel.

Australia Council of University Art and Design Schools conference proceedings, Adelaide, 2015 SELENITSCH, A 2007, Sets, Series and Suites: Composing the multiple artwork, PhD dissertation, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC.

SMITH, R T 2014, Phenomenology and Experiential Learning as an Approach to Teaching Studio in Architecture, PhD dissertation, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC.

TREGLOAN, K and G MISSINGHAM, 2010, ‘Designing “Designing Environments”’, in G Forsyth (ed), ConnectED 2010 International Conference on Design Education, Faculty of the Built Environment, UNSW, Sydney, CD-RoM ISBN 978-0-646-54506-6, Paper 50.

WRIGHT, L 2012, Architectural Knowledge, PhD dissertation, RMIT University, Melbourne.


PETERSEN, N FRANKHAM, with S WILSON and K WATSON, 2009, Curriculum Development in Studio Teaching, 4 vols., Australian Learning and Teaching Council, Sydney. [Support for the original work was provided by the Australian Learning and Teaching Council Ltd, an initiative of the Australian

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