WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 26 |

«UNDERSTANDING EMPLOYEES’ BEHAVIORAL REACTIONS TO AGGRESSION IN ORGANIZATIONS by MARIE S. MITCHELL B.S., George Mason University, 1993 M.A.H.R., ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

UNDERSTANDING EMPLOYEES’ BEHAVIORAL REACTIONS TO

AGGRESSION IN ORGANIZATIONS

by

MARIE S. MITCHELL

B.S., George Mason University, 1993

M.A.H.R., Rollins College, 1998

A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the

requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy

in the Department of Management

in the College of Business Administration

at the University of Central Florida

Orlando, Florida Spring Term Major Professor: Maureen L. Ambrose © 2006 Marie S. Mitchell ii ABSTRACT The purpose of this dissertation is to explore employees’ behavioral reactions to the perceived aggression of others. Perceived aggression is defined as behavior that is perceived to be intentionally harmful by the intended target. A typology is developed that identifies two primary dimensions of behavioral reaction: (1) the form of the behavior (aggression/nonaggression) and (2) the direction of the behavior (toward the source of the harm/not toward the source of the harm). Based on these dimensions, the typology produces four categories of behavioral reactions: retaliatory aggression, displaced aggression, constructive problem-solving, and withdrawal. A model is then presented, which identifies various factors that influence employees’ reactions. The relationships are examined in two studies. The first study is a crosssectional survey design, which investigates the reactions to perceived supervisor aggression and the moderating effects of various situational factors (fear of retaliation, aggressive modeling and absolute hierarchical status) and individual factors (trait anger and the need for social approval).

The second study is a 2x2 experimental design that investigates the reactions to perceived aggression and the moderating effects of fear of retaliation and personality variables (trait anger, locus of control and the need for social approval). Participants of the experiment, 77 undergraduate students, were randomly assigned into conditions of perceived aggression (high/low) and fear of retaliation (high/low). Perceived aggression was manipulated through exam feedback and fear of retaliation was manipulated through anonymity of instructor evaluations. The results of both studies provide support for some of the predictions, as well as some contradictory findings. Conclusions are drawn from the theory, typology and findings of the studies, highlighting implications for future aggression and organizational behavior research.

KEYWORDS: Aggression, retaliation, displaced aggression, withdrawal, problem-solving iii

–  –  –

I would like to thank Maureen Ambrose, Rebecca Bennett, Robert Folger and Marshall Schminke for their advice, thoughtful direction, and encouragement. I also would like to thank the administration and jurors of the Ninth Judicial Circuit Court of Florida for their support and participation.

–  –  –

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF TABLES

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

Understanding Employees’ Behavioral Reactions to Aggression in Organization: A Theoretical Overview

Aggression versus Perceived Aggression

Reactions to Perceived Aggression

A Typology of Behavioral Reactions to Aggression

The Form of the Reaction: Aggression Versus Non-Aggression

The Direction of the Reaction: Toward the Source versus Not toward the Source............. 13 Categories of Behavioral Reactions to Aggression

A Model of Employee Reactions To Aggression

The Influence of Situational Factors

The Influence of Individual Factors

Discussion

Implications

Conclusion

References

CHAPTER TWO: STUDY 1: CROSS-SECTIONAL SURVEY DESIGN

How do Employees React to Perceived Supervisor Aggression? Understanding the Influence of Situational and Individual Factors

Perceived Supervisor Aggression

–  –  –

The Influence of Situational and Individual Factors

The Influence of Situational Factors

The Influence of Individual Factors

Methods

Sample and Procedure

Measures

Results

Measurement Model Results

Moderated Multiple Regression Results

The Moderating Effects of Situational Factors

The Moderating Effects of Individual Factors

Discussion

The Influence of Situational Factors on Reactions to Perceived Supervisor Aggression... 112 The Influence of Individual Factors on Reactions to Perceived Supervisor Aggression... 120 Limitations

Implications

Conclusion

APPENDIX A EXPLORATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS FACTOR LOADINGS FOR

CONSTRUCTIVE PROBLEM-SOLVING, AND WITHDRAWAL BEHAVIORS AND FEAR

OF RETALIATION

APPENDIX B EXPLORATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS

–  –  –

APPENDIX D SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

APPENDIX E IRB APPROVAL FOR SURVEY STUDY

References

CHAPTER 3 STUDY 2: EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

Understanding Responses to Aggression: An Experimental Investigation of Personality and Fear of Retaliation on Aggressive and Non-Aggressive Behaviors

Aggression and Perceived Aggression





Aggressive and Non-Aggressive Reactions to Aggression

Situational and Individual Moderators of Reactions to Perceived Aggression

Fear of Retaliation as a Situational Moderator of Reactions to Perceived Aggression...... 164 Individual Characteristics as Moderators of Reactions to Perceived Aggression.............. 166 Methods

Subjects and Study Design

Procedure

Manipulations

Measures

Results

Manipulation Checks

Descriptive Statistics and Correlations

Tests of Hypotheses

Discussion

–  –  –

Individual Characteristics as Moderators of Reactions to Perceived Aggression.............. 196 Implications

Conclusion

APPENDIX A INSTRUCTOR EVALUATION FORM: HIGH FEAR OF RETALIATION

CONDITION

APPENDIX B INSTRUCTOR EVALUATION FORM: LOW FEAR OF RETALIATION

CONDITION

APPENDIX C DEBRIEFING PROCEDURES

APPENDIX D PEER EVALUATION FORM

APPENDIX E PERSONALITY QUESTIONNAIRE

APPENDIX F POST-EXPERIMENTAL QUESTIONNAIRE

APPENDIX G SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

APPENDIX H IRB APPROVAL FOR THE EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

References

CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSION

Overall Discussion

The Role of Fear of Retaliation: An Evaluation of the Theory of Frustration-Aggression 230 The Role of Personality: The Influence of Trait Anger and Need for Social Approval..... 234 Other Patterns and Trends across Study 1 and Study 2

Future Research Directions

Investigating the Range of Reactions to Aggression: Multi-Dimensional Scaling Analysis

–  –  –

Investigating Primacy of Reactions: Is There an Order Effect?

Conclusion

References

–  –  –

CHAPTER 1 Chapter 1 Figure 1 General Aggression Model

Chapter 1 Figure 2 A Typology of Behavioral Reactions to Aggression

Chapter 1 Figure 3 A Model of Behavioral Reactions to Aggression in Organizations............... 20 CHAPTER 2 Chapter 2 Figure 1 A Typology of Behavioral Reactions to Aggression

Chapter 2 Figure 2 Interaction of Perceived Supervisor Aggression and Fear of Retaliation on Organization Displaced Aggression

Chapter 2 Figure 3 Interaction of Perceived Supervisor Aggression and Fear of Retaliation on Coworker Displaced Aggression

Chapter 2 Figure 4 Interaction of Perceived Supervisor Aggression and Fear of Retaliation on Customer Displaced Aggression

Chapter 2 Figure 5 Interaction of Perceived Supervisor Aggression and Fear of Retaliation on Retaliatory Aggression

Chapter 2 Figure 6 Interaction of Perceived Supervisor Aggression and Fear of Retaliation on Constructive Problem-Solving

Chapter 2 Figure 7 Interaction of Perceived Supervisor Aggression and Coworker Aggressive Modeling on Retaliatory Aggression

Chapter 2 Figure 8 Interaction of Perceived Supervisor Aggression and Coworker Aggressive Modeling on Coworker Displaced Aggression

–  –  –

Modeling on Constructive Problem-Solving

Chapter 2 Figure 10 Interaction of Supervisor Aggression and Absolute Hierarchical Status on Organization Displaced Aggression

Chapter 2 Figure 11 Interaction of Perceived Supervisor Aggression and Absolute Hierarchical Status on Customer Displaced Aggression

Chapter 2 Figure 12 Interaction of Perceived Supervisor Aggression and Trait Anger on Retaliatory Aggression

Chapter 2 Figure 13 Interaction of Supervisor Aggression and Need for Social Approval on Organization Displaced Aggression

Chapter 2 Figure 14 Interaction of Supervisor Aggression and Need for Social Approval on Customer Displaced Aggression

CHAPTER 3 Chapter 3 Figure 1 Interaction of Perceived Aggression and Fear of Retaliation on Retaliatory Aggression

Chapter 3 Figure 2 Interaction of Perceived Aggression and Trait Anger on Retaliatory Aggression

Chapter 3 Figure 3 Interaction of Perceived Aggression and Fear of Retaliation on Overall Fairness of the Management Department

–  –  –

Chapter 4 Figure 1 Interaction of Perceived Supervisor Aggression and Fear of Retaliation on Turnover Intentions

–  –  –

CHAPTER 1 Chapter 1 Table 1 Dominant Theories of Aggression

CHAPTER 2 Chapter 2 Table 1 Summary of Descriptive Statistics and Correlationsa

Chapter 2 Table 2 Results of Multiple Regression Analysis for Hypothesized Relationshipsa... 97 CHAPTER 3 Chapter 3 Table 1 Summary of Manipulations

Chapter 3 Table 2 Descriptive Statistics and Correlationsa

Chapter 3 Table 3 Moderated Multiple Regressions of Hypothesized Relationships................ 186 Chapter 3 Table 4 Means and Standard Deviations of Perceived Aggression as a Function of Fear of Retaliation

–  –  –

Aggression is considered a basic and important aspect of the human condition (Geen, 1990). Social psychologists contend that aggression is instinctual (Lorenz, 1966) and is fueled by social context (Berkowitz, 1962). Given the toll aggression plays on individuals and society at large, researchers have invested much time to understand its causes and consequences (Geen & Donnerstein, 1983). As a result, a rich body of literature has evolved to uncover the general nature and roots of aggression (see Anderson & Bushman, 2002 for a review).

Similarly, workplace aggression researchers have also invested much time in trying to understand the nature of aggression in work settings. This research has identified various forms of workplace aggression (see Neuman & Baron, 2005, for a review), as well as a wide range of factors that instigate aggression at work (see Neuman & Baron, 1998, and Baron, 2005, for reviews). By and large, much of the research on workplace aggression focuses on why individuals engage in aggression rather than how individuals respond to aggression. Given the instinctual nature of aggression, theorists suggest aggressive reactions to aggression are likely (e.g., Bies & Tripp, 1996, 1998a; Dollard, Doob, Miller, Mowrer, & Sears, 1939; Folger & Skarlicki, 1998). Yet, we also know that individuals do not always react aggressively (e.g., Miller, 1948; Sears, 1941; Tepper, Duffy, & Shaw, 2001; Zellars, Tepper, & Duffy, 2002).

The purpose of this paper is to explore employee behavioral reactions to aggression.

First, I define aggression and perceived aggression, and discuss how individuals formulate responses to aggression. Building from this review, I present a typology of employee behavioral reactions to the perceived aggression of others. Further, I develop a theoretical model that identifies various situational and individual factors that influence employees’ reactions to aggression. It is important to note that the typology and model presented are limited in scope, in that they merely seek to describe behaviors that individuals may engage in as a consequence of being aggressed against at work. Because of this, the typology and model do not address motives underlying behavioral reactions (e.g., instrumental or affective purposes), or the broader range of non-behavioral reactions to aggression (psychological, emotional or physiological responses). Nevertheless, the typology and model do provide a stepping-stone and framework for future aggression and organizational research.

–  –  –

Aggression includes any behavior that is carried out with the intention to injure or aggravate another person (Eron, 1987). Not all injurious or destructive acts constitute aggression, however. Aggression is any behavior that intends to cause harm, meaning it is driven by specific and “injurious” motives (Bandura, 1983). Behavior can, therefore, constitute aggression whether or not it actually harms the target, so long as it was intended to do so.

Because of this, individuals who are the target of aggression generally wish to avoid it (Baron, 1977; Geen, 2001).

In this paper, I investigate perceived acts of aggression, meaning any behavior that is perceived to intentionally inflict harm. Although aggression is defined as behavior that intends to cause harm, I look at behaviors that the recipient believes were carried out with the intention of causing harm, regardless of whether or not the act actually harms the victim or was intended to do so. That is, the behavior targeted toward the recipient is perceived as intentionally harmful, whether or not it (1) successfully harms the recipient or (2) was intended by the actor to harm the recipient.



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 26 |


Similar works:

«A Study of the Irregular Words Taught With Their Spelling-Families in Blumenfeld’s Alpha-Phonics A Study in Common Sense Instruction and High-Level Pedagogical Efficiency Prepared by Donald L. Potter November 4, 2010 Irregular Words in Each Skill Level of Blumenfeld’s Alpha-Phonics Level 1: Deck 1: Cards 1 – 36, Lessons 1 – 14, First Reader 1. Phonics Skills: short ă, single letter consonants, ck, qu Irregular Words: was, Level 2: Deck 2: Cards 1 – 36: Lessons 15 – 28, First Reader...»

«Lesson 3 I Can Do a Lot to Keep My Teeth Healthy: Brush My Teeth Main Lesson Plan Learning Objectives After this lesson children will be able to • Say why toothbrushing is important.• Identify how much toothpaste should be put on the toothbrush.• Demonstrate the right way to brush their teeth.• Describe the best times to brush their teeth each day. Background Information for Teachers The most important way to prevent tooth decay is by taking good care of your teeth. Brushing teeth at...»

«Carrick Academy S4 Course Planning Booklet A guide for parents and pupils Session 2014/15 Contents The information in this booklet will support you when considering the subject choices for your child. A course planning sheet for next session is included at the back of this booklet. If you require any further information, please contact your child’s Guidance Teacher in the first instance. English – National 4 English National 5 Modern Studies National 4/5 Music – National 4 Music –...»

«How to use Testimonials as Social Proof to Grow Your Gym Like Never Before. 6 Simple Steps YOU MUST IMPLEMENT Immediately. By Jason M. Silverman – Executive Director of Powerful Words Character Development Entrepreneur and Marketing Expert, Jason M. Silverman, is known as the “After School Marketing Guru.” In addition to his duties as the Executive Director for POWerful Words Character Development, Mr. Silverman offers High Level Marketing Coaching Classes for some of the top owners in...»

«Page 1 of 7 OH BLIMEY, SO IT HAS COME TO THIS END, MY FELLOW CITIZENS? THIS IS A VERY SAD GOOD-BYE TO ALL, TILL WE MEET AGAIN! I have learned silence from the talkative, tolerance from the tolerant, and kindness from the unkind; yet, strange, I am ungrateful to those teachers. “Khalil Gibran”. The most harmful and evil of all human beings are jealousy, lies, malicious gossips and hatred. Therefore, the purpose my criticism of wrong doers was not to destroy the confidence, self-image of...»

«New Literacies around the Globe The increasing popularity of digitally mediated communication is prompting us to radically rethink literacy and its role in education; at the same time, national policies have promulgated a view of literacy focused on the skills and classroom routines associated with print, bolstered by regimes of accountability and assessments. As a result, teachers are caught between two competing discourses: one upholding a traditional conception of literacy reiterated by...»

«The Project Gutenberg EBook of Anne Of Avonlea, by Lucy Maud Montgomery This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.org Title: Anne Of Avonlea Author: Lucy Maud Montgomery Release Date: March 7, 2006 [EBook #47] Last Updated: January 8, 2013 Language: English Character set encoding: ASCII *** START...»

«The End of Illiteracy? The Holy Grail of Clackmannanshire TOM BURKARD CENTRE FOR POLICY STUDIES 57 Tufton Street London SW1P 3QL 1999 THE AUTHOR Tom Burkard is the Secretary of the Promethean Trust and has published several articles on how children learn to read. He contributed to the 1997 Daily Telegraph Schools Guide, and is a member of the NASUWT. His main academic interest is the interface between reading theory and classroom practice. His own remedial programme, recently featured in the...»

«Texts in N-Dimensions and Interpretation in a New Key [Discourse and Interpretation in N-Dimensions] Jerome McGann University of Virginia jjm2f@virginia.edu Abstract The IVANHOE project can be understood in various ways – an interpretive environment, a tool of collaborative critical thinking, a pedagogical game for studying cultural materials – it emerges out of a basic shift in the theory of texts and textuality. IVANHOE is regulated by seven key ideas: 1. The textual field is a Baktinian...»

«ACADEMIC MISCONDUCT GUIDE FOR INSTRUCTORS Instructor Guide for Academic Misconduct When you identify a student who has committed academic misconduct you have options. Option A a) An oral reprimand (Do not have to write letter or report this option) b) A written reprimand presented only to the student c) An assignment to repeat the work, to be graded on its merits Critical items needed are: 1. Must provide or offer the student an opportunity to discuss prior to making a decision. 2. Document the...»

«Ruben Cortez, Jr. State Board of Education Representative, District 2 Ad Hoc Committee Report on Proposed Social Studies Special Topic Textbook: Mexican American Heritage September 6, 2016 Ruben Cortez Ruben.cortez@tea.texas.gov Rubencortezfortexas@gmail.com 956-639-9171 1 Ad Hoc Committee Christopher Carmona Assistant Professor Creative Writing University of Texas at the Rio Grande Valley Juan Carmona Social Studies Instructor Donna High School Trinidad Gonzales History Instructor South Texas...»

«A MULTIVALENT TEXT: PSALM 151:3-4 REVISITED by JAMES A. SANDERS Ancient Biblical Manuscripts Center, Claremont, California It is now twenty-three years since I unrolled 1 IQPs and saw in its last written column the Hebrew psalm(s) lying back of LXX-Syriac Psalm 151. I recognized it immediately, thanks to my teachers, especially Sheldon Blank, who instilled in me a deep respect for the biblical text and its early versions. It is a pleasure to be able to thank Prof. Blank, in this manner, for all...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.