WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 9 | 10 || 12 | 13 |

«“Before We Teach It, We Have to Learn It”: Wisconsin Act 31 Compliance within Public Teacher Preparation Programs A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE ...»

-- [ Page 11 ] --

Books were the second most common resource reported as being utilized in the survey with 52% whereas presented in the syllabi books consisted of 42% (n = 11). As with the survey responses, the syllabi demonstrated using both American Indian and nonAmerican Indian authors. Overall, American Indian authors tended to be more prevalent for courses that used books to address American Indian sections of the course and for those focusing the entire course on American Indian topics. Specifically Patty Loew and Nancy Lurie were mentioned frequently throughout the syllabi, which also appeared in the survey results. Based on the survey data, the next category of significant use with 43% is guest speakers, which was not as prevalent within the syllabi. All respondents at one institution mentioned forums while a couple courses only mentioned specific guest speakers.

Within the survey, academic articles were reported with 39% use. Unlike books and films, the topics for academic articles swayed further away from American Indian authors and American Indian specific topics. The syllabi reflected a high use of academic articles as well as selections from other books both of which came primarily from nonAmerican Indian authors. The survey reflected additional readings throughout courses without specified authors making it unclear where the information was coming from.

However, the syllabi clarified this with the specific titles and authors of academic articles and book chapters. Other areas such as website use and news sources that were present in the survey did not show up prominently within the syllabi but could have been presented in digital formats on course websites and pages such as Blackboard and Desire2Learn as indicated by several respondents.

In looking at the specific departments that focused on American Indian topics throughout the course, there was a shift in the authors utilized for resources throughout the course. First Nations Studies, like the time spent on topics, utilized resources that were more centered on the American Indian perspective. Patty Loew and Nancy Lurie again appeared as frequent authors being utilized but a large number of other American Indian authors were also incorporated throughout the courses. Again, this is not surprising considering the department is centered on American Indians. Unlike the education resources that utilized the Wisconsin Act 31 Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction packet as the most frequently reported print material, the First Nations Studies courses incorporated the Great Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission Treaty Rights Guide as a resource, which had initially been highly reported in the survey. The use of American Indian voices clearly demonstrates the emphasis on an authentic American Indian perspective. Courses also incorporated non-American Indian voices as well, but the American Indian voices significantly outweighed those resources.

Within other specific departments, typically unrelated to American Indians, there was a blend between American Indian and non-American Indian authors as well.

Anthropology utilized an interesting balance between an American Indian historian and a non-American Indian anthropologist to bring in varying perspectives. English also used great resources with a balance between American Indian and non-American Indian resources, including edited volumes with American Indian voices. In addition, various films, from American Indian and non-American Indian perspectives were also utilized appropriately.

History had an interesting combination with the resources used. The course that was shorter brought in the same sources as Anthropology with the balance between Patty Loew and Nancy Lurie, American Indian and non-American Indian perspectives.

However, it also brought in another non-American Indian, highly respected scholar to bring the historical context to Wisconsin Act 31 to light. Ronald Satz’s “Chippewa Treaty Rights” has been a foundation in the history behind the treaties, court cases, and aftermath of the events leading to the creation of Wisconsin Act 31. In contrast, the semester long history course used three primary texts that were all written by nonAmerican Indian authors. Considering the linear fashion of history in general, it is not surprising these texts would be selected due to the format of the texts. Although all three authors tend to be well-respected individuals in American Indian academia and are recognized as scholars within an American Indian circle, the fact remains there is a lack of American Indian voices throughout the texts utilized.

Assignments. Although not all syllabi mentioned a particular assignment for the American Indian content within the course, it is interesting to see how the assignments that were identified as part of an American Indian section were incorporated. One course focused on the Patty Loew text that was mentioned throughout many courses. The assignment was for groups to read chapters separately and create a study guide for the assigned chapter. Then the class would meet together in their “expert” groups to review the main points of the chapter followed by smaller group meetings that would jigsaw the book back together. The assignment, although focusing on an American Indian author, does not go beyond the text to enhance the students’ knowledge beyond the pages of the text let alone apply the foundations to contemporary issues. In essence, the assignment summarizes the text.





Other assignments addressed through the document analysis included primarily journaling and reflection papers. Response papers and journals varied throughout the courses from weekly assignments to section specific reaction papers to various course components such as readings, films, guest speakers and Wisconsin Act 31 materials.

Discussion also appeared to be a main assignment type component of the courses within the American Indian sections. On the other hand, one course indicated a more hands on approach to the American Indian content throughout the course with a group project that included presentations to not only the class but also to American Indian middle school students. The project was specific in the purpose and goals as they relate to American Indian history and culture. Overall, the assignments that were indicated within the syllabi tended to be primarily reflective processes as well as projects that would require group cooperation including discussions.

Additional comments. In addition to the time spent on American Indian topics, the resources utilized throughout the course, and assignments related to American Indian sections of the course, additional observations developed based on the document analysis that were significant to the study. As mentioned in the first section on time spent on American Indian topics, one syllabus did not have any American Indian content within the course even though the course is designated as a course that complies with Wisconsin Act 31. Another issue that came out through the syllabi was a conflict in who was teaching the course compared to the person who had created the course. Two courses had a professor of record that was not the person teaching the course therefore the syllabus was developed by that person and not the actual instructor in the classroom. Similarly, a syllabus was provided from a respondent who was not listed as the instructor on the syllabus for the course analyzed as well.

In relation to the content represented in the syllabi, an issue was made present regarding the type of information being provided to future teachers. Although many courses addressed the knowledge of human cultures in general, in relation to the American Indian, specifically the Wisconsin peoples, the topics in several courses remained in the context of the natural world. In essence, the information appeared to be stereotypical information with the connection to the environment and not as contemporary life. However, for those courses that focused on American Indians for an entire semester rather than just a few class sessions, a broader understanding of American Indians within a whole context was provided by incorporating history, literature, and legal and political standing of different tribes with the intended focus on American Indians that currently reside in Wisconsin.

Summary Overall, the survey represented feedback from the instructors that provided basic background information on the instructors as well as each respondent’s understanding of Wisconsin Act 31. The demographic information revealed that the majority of instructors of compliance courses are not American Indian but instead are white indicating a different perspective than an authentic American Indian perspective. In addition, most do not have educational background in American Indian Studies but rather in an area of education. Although many resources are used in the courses, there tends to be diversity in the types of resources utilized as well as a balance between American Indian and nonAmerican Indian sources. Furthermore, a distinction revealed itself in the area of resources between education-related courses and discipline specific courses.

Within the survey section on the respondent’s understanding of Wisconsin Act 31, the responses were much more diverse and not as easily defined. Although there was a firm understanding of Wisconsin Act 31 and the essential components of Wisconsin Act 31 by the respondents, when discussing the components they felt necessary to include in their course in order to be in compliant with the Act the answers varied significantly. For the most part, respondents referred back to the components of Wisconsin Act 31 and specific parts; only a few mentioned sovereignty which was another component to the survey. When asked to define sovereignty in relation to American Indians respondents provided even more assorted answers, which ranged from general sovereignty definitions to those that described limited sovereignty among American Indians. Given the variety in the latter answers to the survey, majority of respondents felt that they were well trained and equipped to prepare future teacher to comply with Wisconsin Act 31 within their classrooms.

Another look at the courses was through the document analysis. The analysis consisted of looking at the time spent on American Indian topics within each course, general course topics throughout the course, resources utilized for American Indian topics, and general resources. Additionally, other aspects were discovered relating to assignments and other aspects related to the research questions. With regard to time spent on American Indian topics, there was a vast difference in education-related courses compared to discipline specific courses. The discipline specific courses focused on American Indian components throughout the semester while the education-related courses spent on average a few class periods out of the entire semester. The resource use lined up according to the education-related courses and discipline specific courses.

The survey data was complemented well by the document analysis. There was a strong correlation particularly between the resources utilized in the courses. Although there were some minor discrepancies between the survey and the document analysis, for the most part the types of resources used as well as the authenticity of the resources matched up between the two. Education-related courses in both the survey and the document analysis tended to use a blend between non-American Indian and American Indian resources while the discipline specific courses focused more on an American Indian perspective. Although the resources lined up well, there was a significant difference between information reported in the survey with regard to the essential components to a course with regard to Wisconsin Act 31 and the actual topics represented in the document analysis. Education-related courses focused more on the Act itself instead of the specific components within Wisconsin Act 31. On the other hand, discipline specific courses brought in more details of the components throughout the semester rather than the idea of Wisconsin Act 31. Overall, observations indicated that although there is an understanding of the need for Wisconsin Act 31 within higher education classrooms, the inclusion of the foundational components of the Act are not as firm within the classrooms. As one respondent noted, “there is still a long way to go but it is an earnest ongoing project”.

–  –  –

Foundations The intent of this study was to determine how teacher preparation programs contribute to preparing future educators to teach American Indian history, culture, and contemporary society within Wisconsin public schools in order to be in compliance with Wisconsin Act 31. Due to the significant history of discrimination and violence within the state of Wisconsin during the late 20th century, Wisconsin Act 31 was instituted to promote not only awareness of American Indians within the state of Wisconsin but also provide an understanding of American Indian culture and in general, an understanding of human diversity. One of the biggest issues with American Indian history and culture being taught in schools is the emphasis on the past and a focus on particular events, such as Thanksgiving, rather than a more contemporary perspective that illustrates how American Indians continue to contribute to society today.

Although there continues to be a realization that changes are necessary in K-12 education, the fact remains that misinformation continues to be present in classrooms.

Therefore, determining where the breakdown occurs is essential in order for Wisconsin Act 31 to be effective in addressing the components of American Indian history, culture, and sovereignty within the state of Wisconsin as well as contemporary issues. A foundational aspect to the research is the idea stated by Teresa Veltkamp, in Carjuzaa (2009), “before we teach it, we have to learn it” (p. 38). Teachers in K-12 classrooms need to have a firm understanding of American Indian history, culture, sovereignty, and contemporary issues in order to be able to pass this knowledge onto students in order to comply with Wisconsin Act 31. It stands to reason then that those who are preparing teachers to be in compliance with Wisconsin Act 31 also need to know the material and understand American Indian history, culture, and sovereignty. Therefore, teacher preparation programs are foundational in making sure that future teachers are properly prepared to do so. Through this survey and document analysis, it is clear why there remains an issue with compliance.



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 9 | 10 || 12 | 13 |


Similar works:

«Cambridge International Advanced Level 9011 Divinity November 2012 Principal Examiner Report for Teachers DIVINITY Paper 9011/01 Prophets of the Old Testament General Comments The standard of responses was generally high, with candidates demonstrating in-depth knowledge and appropriate skills of analysis. The performance of some candidates was exceptional, showing a high level of involvement with the subject material. Some candidates could have improved their performance either by writing...»

«Blackwell Publishing IncMalden, USAYSSEYearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education0077-57622007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd? 200710614673Original ArticlesEVIDENCE IN PRACTICESPILLANE AND MIELE chapter 3 Evidence in Practice: A Framing of the Terrain james p. spillane and david b. miele While much of the recent educational literature has been devoted to explaining how investigators can produce high quality, practical research evidence (e.g., Cook, 2002; Feuer, Towne, & Shavelson,...»

«A MULTIVALENT TEXT: PSALM 151:3-4 REVISITED by JAMES A. SANDERS Ancient Biblical Manuscripts Center, Claremont, California It is now twenty-three years since I unrolled 1 IQPs and saw in its last written column the Hebrew psalm(s) lying back of LXX-Syriac Psalm 151. I recognized it immediately, thanks to my teachers, especially Sheldon Blank, who instilled in me a deep respect for the biblical text and its early versions. It is a pleasure to be able to thank Prof. Blank, in this manner, for all...»

«MESSAGE FROM THE GENERAl SECRETARY Pupil behaviour is a fundamental issue for all teachers. These guidelines provide you with practical help and advice. No teacher should be placed in a position where his or her teaching is undermined by the behaviour of pupils. Every teacher is entitled to practical support when faced with pupil behaviour which is unacceptable. These guidelines outline the support teachers should receive. They provide up-to-date guidance on school discipline policies,...»

«“Kathleen McDonald is a remarkably skilled meditation teacher.” —John Makransky, author of Awakening Through Love AWAKENING HOW TO MEDITATE ON COMPASSION K AT H L E E N M C D O N A L D B E S T S E L L I N G A U T H O R O F H O W T O M E D I TAT E A Note from the Publisher We hope you will enjoy this Wisdom book. For your convenience, this digital edition is delivered to you without “digital rights management” (DRM). This makes it easier for you to use across a variety of digital...»

«IMPROVAGANZA Impro Melbourne Teachers’ Resources 2015 The 2015 Education and Families Program is Proudly Supported by: TABLE OF CONTENTS ABOUT THIS RESOURCE ABOUT REGIONAL ARTS VICTORIA EDUCATION & FAMILIES TEAM CURRICULUM LINKS ABOUT IMPRO MELBOURNE THEATRESPORTS™ IN SCHOOLS INTRODUCTION TO PERFORMANCE TERMINOLOGY ACTIVITIES: WARMING UP ACTIVITIES: SCENES AND GAMES IMPROVISATION: WIDER USES FURTHER READING ABOUT THIS RESOURCE This resource has been created to provide teachers with some...»

«Educational Research Volume 29 Number 3 November 1987 Assessing children’s silent reading Valerie Yule, Department of Psychology, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB9 2LJB' Summary Less is known about how children read connected text in silent reading, and the range of reading strategies used in an ordinary primary school classroom, than about the reading of single words, oral reading and reading by skilled adults. This paper describes and evaluates a method of testing children's silent...»

«A STUDY OF THE PEDAGOGICAL STRATEGIES USED IN SUPPORT OF STUDENTS WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES AND ATTITUDES HELD BY ENGINEERING FACULTY by Valerie Lynn Anderson A Dissertation Presented to the FACULTY OF THE USC ROSSIER SCHOOL OF EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree DOCTOR OF EDUCATION August 2012 Copyright 2012 Valerie Lynn Anderson UMI Number: 3542367 All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction...»

«education policy analysis archives A peer-reviewed, independent, open access, multilingual journal Arizona State University Volume 20 Number 11 April 20, 2012 ISSN 1068-2341 Social Networking Postings: Views from School Principals Marlynn M. Griffin Robert L. Lake Georgia Southern University [United States of America] Citation: Griffin, M. and Lake, R. M. (2012) Social Networking Postings: Views from School Principals. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 20 (11). Retrieved [date], from...»

«DOCUMENT RESUME CS 212 609 ED 326 894 Croft, Cedric AUTHOR Teachers Manual for Spell-Write: An Aid to Writing, TITLE Spelling and Word Study. Studies in Education No. 34 New Zealand Council for Educational Research, INSTITUTION Wellington. I5BN-0-908567-31-6; I55N-0111-2422 REPORT NO PUB DATE 83 33p.; For student text, see CS 212 608. NOTE Guides Classroom Use Guides (For Teachers) (052) PUB TYPE MF01/PCO2 Plus Postage. EDRS PRICE Elementary Education; Foreign Countries; *Spelling; DESCRIPTORS...»

«Article 20 Working With Haitian Immigrants During the Grief Process: Considerations for Counselors K. Michelle Hunnicutt Hollenbaugh Hunnicutt Hollenbaugh, K. Michelle, Ph.D., LPC-S, is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Counseling and Educational Psychology at Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi. Her research interests include dialectical behavior therapy, assessment, counselor education pedagogy, and evidenced-based interventions in counseling. Abstract This article discusses...»

«Graduate School of Arts and Sciences Programs and Policies 2007–2008 bulletin of yale university Series 103 Number 10 August 20, 2007 Bulletin of Yale University Postmaster: Send address changes to Bulletin of Yale University, PO Box 208227, New Haven CT 06520-8227 PO Box 208230, New Haven CT 06520-8230 Periodicals postage paid at New Haven, Connecticut Issued seventeen times a year: one time a year in May, November, and December; two times a year in June; three times a year in July and...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.