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«“Before We Teach It, We Have to Learn It”: Wisconsin Act 31 Compliance within Public Teacher Preparation Programs A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE ...»

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Additionally, UW-La Crosse provides an annual conference specifically addressing Wisconsin Act 31. The third non-participating institution, although not close to American Indian communities, is within reach of the urban communities in Minneapolis and St.

Paul, Minnesota, which could further provide data on addressing contemporary issues associated with urban communities. The value of full participation by all UW System teacher preparation programs would provide a more comprehensive look at the need within teacher-licensing programs. Additionally, the 19 private institutions that have teacher preparation programs would also be good to include as a comparison to public institution teacher preparation programs. Furthermore, student completion rates for each program would be beneficial in understanding where further issues may lie with regard to Wisconsin Act 31 compliance in relation to the courses that are presented at public and private institutions.

An additional facet to the institution and instructor input would be student feedback on what is actually learned within the compliance courses. A comparison between what was previously known by the students compared to what was learned throughout the course would provide the student side of system of knowledge. Students could provide a foundation for understanding where there is further breakdown of what is needed within a course that complies with Wisconsin Act 31. Based on student information, courses could determine if there needs to be more of a focus on the curriculum and education related issues or the more fundamental components of Wisconsin Act 31.

In returning to the respondent aspect of the research, no instructors were personally interviewed during the research. The research originally included follow up interviews with instructors after the completion of the survey and analysis of his or her syllabus.

However due to time constraints and access to respondents, this portion of the research needed to be preserved for future research. The interviews would follow up on elements that were not as prevalent in the syllabus in order to fully substantiate the survey data.

Ideally, each instructor would be individually interviewed as a follow-up to the survey and document analysis to provide a more comprehensive depiction of the course that he or she teaches.

Beyond the specific implications for the research presented, broader opportunities have become recognized as significant based on the research. These opportunities for

exploration include:

How the American Indian Studies Consortium standards apply to those who are •

–  –  –

Who worked on Wisconsin Act 31 and what were their intentions behind the law?

• Furthermore, have the initial intentions been fulfilled since the establishment of

–  –  –

How can the law be adapted, changed, and/or implemented to a more specific • degree to incorporate more about American Indian Studies within K-12

–  –  –

Overall, based on the findings in this research, many questions emerged as significant to addressing the issues with Wisconsin Act 31 in not only K-12 institutions but also higher education institutions as well.

Conclusions As suspected throughout the research process, additional questions emerged relating to not only compliance of Wisconsin Act 31 within teacher preparation programs. Although the findings within teacher preparation programs provided insight into understanding more fully the issues of Wisconsin Act 31 compliance in the 21st century, it also led to contemplating the overall fulfillment of the original intentions of Wisconsin Act 31. A respondent indicated that no one has ever checked to see if their course is not only in compliance with Wisconsin Act 31 but also whether or not the course actually achieves the objectives of Wisconsin Act 31. Considering the far reaching implications of compliance in K-12 schools and higher education institutions, the question remains, are we achieving the goals set out in Wisconsin Act 31 in 1990? By answering this question perhaps teachers will not only be better prepared to educate future generations of students but also provide for stronger connections with American Indians throughout the state of Wisconsin. The effect of a healthier understanding between American Indians and non-American Indians not only affects the present but also the future of humanity.

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Barnhardt, R. and Kawagley, A. O. (2008). Indigenous knowledge systems and education. Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, 107(1).

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Brayboy, B. M. J. (2005). Toward a tribal critical race theory in education. The Urban Review, 37(5), 425-446. doi: 10.1007/s11256-005-0018-y Carjuzaa, J. (2009). Professional development for teacher educators to help them prepare their teacher candidates to integrate Montana’s Indian education for all act across the K-12 curriculum. International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 1(1), 29-47.

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silence in schools. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 39(3), 314-333. doi:

10.1111/j.1548-1492.2008.00024.x Christensen, R. and Poupart, L. (n.d.). Fusing first nations knowledge into the curriculum: A model for teacher education. Retrieved from University of Wisconsin – Green Bay, Professional Program in Education center for First Nations Studies website: http://www.uwgb.edu/educfns/files/docs/fusionchapterfinaldraft.pdf

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Milwaukee Public Museum. (n.d.). Wisconsin educational act 31. Retrieved from http://www.mpm.edu/wirp/ICW-23.html Montana Office of Public Instruction, Indian Education. (2008). Indian education fall 2008 annual data collection summary. Retrieved from http://www.opi.mt.gov/pdf/IndianEd/Data/08IE_ADCSummary.pdf Montana Office of Public Instruction, Indian Education. (2010). Indian education fall 2010 annual data collection summary. Retrieved from http://www.opi.mt.gov/pdf/IndianEd/Data/10IE_ADCSummary.pdf Morton v. Mancari, 417 U.S. 535 (1974) National Center for History in the Schools. (1996a). History standards, standards for grades K-4, topic 2, standard 3A. Retrieved from http://www.nchs.ucla.edu/Standards/standards-for-grades-k-4/standards-k-4/topicNational Center for History in the Schools. (1996b). History standards, US history content standards, United States era 1, Standard 1, standard 1A. Retrieved from http://www.nchs.ucla.edu/Standards/us-history-content-standards/us-era-1 Satz, R. (1996). Chippewa treaty rights. Madison, WI: Wisconsin Academy of Science.

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Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction. (2012, March 12). American Indian studies program: Statutes and rules. Retrieved from http://dpi.wi.gov/amind/ai-stats.html Zehr, M.A. (2008). Native American history, culture gaining traction in state curricula.

Education Week, 28(11), 1-12. Retrieved from http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2008/11/05/11curriculum_ep.h28.html?qs=ze hr+native+american

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c) What department(s) do you teach for?

4) How were you selected to teach the course?

5) What resources/materials do you utilize in the course when teaching about American Indian history and culture?

6) Have you had any professional development with regard to American Indian Studies?

If yes, what was it, where did it take place, and when did it take place?

7) Have you had any personal development or cultural experiences with regard to American Indian Studies, such as mentorships?

If yes, what was it, where did it take place, and when did it take place?

8) What is your interpretation of Wisconsin Education Act 31?

a) What do you feel are the essential components of the Act?

b) What do you feel that you have to teach or include in your course to be in

–  –  –

9) What is your definition of sovereignty as it applies to American Indians?

10) Do you feel that you are well prepared to prepare future teachers to comply with Wisconsin Act 31? Please explain.

Appendix B – Wisconsin State Statutes Pertaining to Wisconsin Act 31 s. 115.28(17)(d): State Superintendent in conjunction with the American Indian Language and Culture Board develops a curriculum for grades 4-12 on the Chippewa Indian's treaty-based, off-reservation rights to hunt, fish, and gather s.118.0(c)7-8: Each school board provide instruction to students to give 7) an appreciation and understanding of different value systems and cultures. 8) at all grade levels, an understanding of human relations, particularly with regard to American Indians, Black Americans and Hispanics s.118.19(8) states that a person must receive “instruction in the study of minority group relations, including instruction in the history, culture and tribal sovereignty of the federally recognized American Indian tribes and bands located in this state” (of Wisconsin) s.121.02(1)(h): Instructional materials - each school board provide adequate instructional materials, texts, and library services which reflect the cultural diversity and pluralistic nature of American society; efforts to provide accurate, authentic information depend on the use of the quality instructional materials that are free of bias and stereotypes, students must be exposed to resources that reflect a diverse world s.121.02(1)(L)4: K-12 Social Studies: As part of the social studies curriculum, include instruction in the history, culture, and tribal sovereignty of the federally recognized American Indian tribes and bands located in the state at least twice in the elementary grades and at least once in the high school grades; Typically includes 4th grade WI history, 5th grade US history, 7th grade civics, 8th grade US history, for elementary and

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