«INFLUENCE OF TEACHERS’ PROFESSIONALISM ON TEACHER PERFORMANCE IN BUSIRO COUNTY SECONDARY SCHOOLS, WAKISO DISTRICT BY MARGARET NABUKENYA BA (EDUC.) ...»
5. 3 Research hypothesis Two From the third objective of the study, the researcher derived the third research hypothesis. The hypothesis stated that, “teacher commitment influences teacher performance of Busiro county secondary schools, Wakiso District.” The researcher verified this hypothesis by using Pearson‟s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient technique based on certain conditions that described the data. The results indicated that the code of conduct and teacher performance were significantly correlated r= (0.638). This relationship was seen not to be significant because, it is well beyond the benchmark sig of 0.05. This means that teacher commitment does not have a positive effect on teacher performance. Therefore, the null hypothesis which stated that, “teacher commitment has no effect on teacher performance” was accepted and the research hypothesis was rejected.
The results were compared with other studies done by different scholars in different environments. The findings presented a clear picture of the impact of commitment on performance when it revealed that majority of the teachers have a high sense of commitment which is exhibited in their being dedicated, cooperative, undertaking voluntary work, and participating in religious functions and this enable them to perform highly their stipulated duties. These revelations concur with those of Cheng (1999) whose findings revealed that committed workers with a high sense of commitment are usually high performers of duties and those who display a low spirit of commitment often times perform poorly and cannot be relied on. The study findings further revealed that a significant number of sampled teachers are committed to their work and are proud of being teachers an indication that the professionalism of teachers is built in their commitment a fact that portrays teacher‟s performance. This is in line with Muwagga and Kaahwa (2008) who note that though many teachers are socially and financially constrained they love their work.
The findings also revealed that teachers are willing to offer remedial assistance to weak students. The findings concur with those of Ndagire (2003) who states that teachers quite often realize the need of weak students in class, because of being committed; they offer them extra time to help them catch up. The findings at the same time do contradict Munene (1991) who states that unsatisfactory salaries today have got a great impact on commitment of most workers, teachers inclusive. This agrees with Musaazi (1982) who also report that when the reward management practice is not favourable, staff cannot be happy with what goes on in an institution and hence they are likely to leave. Quinn (1997) also concurs with what Musaazi writes when she reports that reward management in reality has a great impact in an employer‟s life; it makes him/her happy and in turn leads to employee retention. Therefore, to ensure teachers‟ commitment in matters pertaining to giving extra time to weak students, there is need for good reward management.
For the teachers who are less committed and not proud to be called teachers the study further reveals that any lack of commitment is associated with poor remuneration. These findings concur with those of Namutebi (2006) whose findings indicate that poor pay is one of the many challenges that are affecting the commitment of teachers in secondary schools. The study also reveals that teachers do not want to attend non-school pedagogical activities. This finding agrees with Muwagga (2006) who reports that it is very hard for teachers in for profit schools to be available on school functions because such teachers are always having various commitments elsewhere an indication that in the day, they have more than ten lessons or duties to accomplish. Likewise, these discoveries are in line with those of Acom (2006) who actually emphasizes that teachers in for-profit schools are never present wherever needed for school functions; they are always absent and are always having an excuse to give.
The study also revealed that denominational and government aided schools promptly and fairly pays their teachers, which induces them to get committed to their work. This finding concurs with Muwagga (2006) who reports that the teachers in denominational schools do receive their pay regularly and promptly. The commitment of the teachers is highly influenced by the remuneration offered by the employers who may be government, religious-based schools or private individuals. On the whole, the government and religious-based schools regularly pay the teachers unlike the private schools. Nkwanga (1992)‟s study findings also are in line with the study findings when he reveals that teachers in denominational and government-aided schools due to the fact that they receive their salaries on time fill within them the drive to work which in turn leads them to be committed to their allocated duties and hence their performance has proved to be excellent.
The study also revealed that in schools where pay is poor even the head teachers are not very committed to their work. This finding runs in line with what Nakabugo (2008); Miti (2008) and Emojong (2003) who reveal that some head teachers and teachers in private schools are always absent, come late, thus leading students to miss classes and then roam around something which has copped in the services that teachers render and hence affecting their commitment. The study findings of the above scholars agree with those of Ejuu (2005) who writes that lack of good pay has derailed teachers and hence causing a reduction in the way they render their services. This implies that, the pay teachers receive for their services or duties determines their commitment to a certain degree. Much as money is not the only motivating factor, but the fact remains that every worker deserves his wage or pay, then once pay is poor, commitment will not be exercised and once pay is good the commitment aspect will be exercised to the satisfaction of the school administrators for the case of our study.
The study also revealed constant supervision and monitoring as other reasons given by head teachers and deputies for motivating teachers‟ commitment in Busiro county secondary schools, Wakiso district. The findings are in agreement with Nampa (2007), who also notes that in schools where all staff are supervised; there is significant performance and commitment to one‟s work. This is also noted by Adair (1988) who also noted that monitoring is the constant follow up of all aspects of the plan of action to ensure that everything moves in the desired direction and that whatever goes wrong is put right. Acom (2006)‟s study findings do agree with the study‟s findings in the sense that she found out that supervision and monitoring if done constantly do motivate teachers to work and also to ensure that at any time they are needed, they are readily available. This indicates that once head teachers or even school inspectors carry out constant supervision and monitoring then teachers get automatically committed. However, Tapo (2004) also cites that the absence of effective monitoring and supervision systems of head teachers contributed to lack of commitment by teachers that is reflected in pupils‟ superficial assessment reports and of uncoordinated mastery of subject content and performance skills.
5. 4 Research hypothesis Three The second hypothesis was derived from the third objective of the study. The hypothesis stated that, teachers‟ attitude towards the code of conduct affects the performance of teachers in Busiro County secondary schools, Wakiso District. To check on the effect of teachers‟ attitude towards the teachers‟ code of conduct and teachers‟ performance, the researcher used the attitude of teachers towards the code of conduct and therefore to test whether the relationship was significant, for the positive and negative attitude, the students‟ sample two ttest was used. Analysis results showed that, the students‟ sample two t-test for positive attitude, negative attitude and teacher performance was t = 0.000. This relation is significant because it is below the benchmark of 0.05. This implied that the attitude of teachers towards the code of conduct affects teacher performance.
The results were compared with other studies done by different scholars in different environments. The study revelations are that both male and female teachers have similar perception although the mean for male teachers was slightly higher than the mean for female teachers. The finding showed that male teachers were more than female teachers. This finding was in line with the observation that was made by Stinnett and Hugget (1956) who noted that all teachers regardless of the gender have nearly the same attitude towards the code of conduct although male teachers tend to be more cautious due to the fact that they are easily affected by quite a number of rules and regulations stipulated in it. The study findings reveal that the different categories of teachers in their respective schools have a relatively positive attitude towards the code. This is in line with the study findings of Nkwanga (1992) who also reported that though the code needs continuous revision it is good and so school administrators could convene regular staff meetings to review discipline and ethics among teachers, in so doing, they will be endeavoring to show its goodness in the lives of teachers.
On the other hand the study revealed that teachers take the code of their profession for granted and not consciously thinking about it but after long services, certain pertinent issues fast follow. This is in line with Muwagga and Kaahwa (2008) who report that many teachers do not remember in detail what is contained in the code but appreciate it and so Tutors in NTCs and Lecturers in Schools of Education in universities should explain the values inherent in the ethical codes of teachers. This demands focusing on the spirit and not the letter of the ethical code. With time, this will foster a positive attitude to the code and create greater possibilities for adherence to the code of conduct. In line with the study findings, Nabukenya (1981) writes that teachers love their code of conduct because it guides them in their profession and that any rule is set to ensure that individuals live a decent and exemplary life. Ssekamwa (1996) concurs with Nabukenya (1981) when he writes that a teacher is set out be an example by living a decent life in all that he does.
The study further revealed that though each teacher is responsible for the adherence and compliance to the teachers‟ code of conduct, most teachers‟ perception of the code is aligned to the perception they have towards the school, school management and the implicit and explicit evolvement and motivation. This concurs with Genza (2008) who noted that if teachers are treated well then their attitude towards the administration and the students is good and vice versa. Concerning academic qualification, teachers with diploma reflected higher proportion and hence higher perception while those with post graduate, that is, Masters and PhD qualifications, reflected the lowest perception. This concurs with Choy (1993) and Bowman (1989). These scholars note that those who are young in the various profession tend to abide by the laws that are set and that they strictly follow them while those who have stayed in the profession tend to think that the law has become part of them not knowing that in the end they lose. That‟s why one may find that the young‟s perception is usually higher than that of the old. In other words, as per the perception of the code of conduct, academic qualification may not matter much.
With regard to teaching experience, the study findings revealed that those who had taught for over 21 years reflected the highest perception while those who had taught for less than 10 years manifested the lowest perception. This is in conformity with Howe (1986)‟s study findings which view teachers‟ perception of the code as an attitude to life, sum total of one‟s feelings that are attached especially on the core values stressed, beliefs, and prejudices which are partly inherited and partly acquired in the process of living through formal and informal education and most especially on the years that one has spent in the teaching field. This agrees with what Ssekamwa (1996) writes that as a code of conduct guides the lives of all teachers, it helps them to examine their way of life in relation to set rules in the field of their profession but this is mostly lived by those with the biggest number of years in the teaching field. It was noted by the researcher in the current study that in most of the secondary schools collected from the data, the code of conduct was perceived as a very important measuring rod of the teachers‟ behaviours and performance.
The study also revealed that each teacher has a specific perception and attitude towards the code but this depends on the teachers‟ family background, religion and schools attended. This agrees with (Nabukenya 1981, Genza 2007 and Muwagga 2006) who all allude to the fact those teachers‟ socio-economic background influences their perceptions towards professionalism. In relation to this, Abraham Maslow‟s Nature and Nurture also applies, since according to this theory our identity is influenced by the genetic factors [Nature] and the surroundings (Nurture). According to Kasibante (2001) the perception of all teachers as regards the code of conduct is a positive one in that most of the core values espoused in the code of conduct such as integrity, truth, justice, respect, mentioning but a few are some of the values that were instilled in teachers while growing. This is in line with what Ottaway (1963) reports that a teachers‟ class origin may also influence his social behaviour. A teacher may have acquired certain standards of behaviour from his upbringing which influence his classroom and staffroom relations. Ottaway seems therefore to argue that even without teacher education, teaching socializes those engaged in it. In fact the longer one is engaged in the teaching process; the more he is socialized into the professional sub-culture.