«INFLUENCE OF TEACHERS’ PROFESSIONALISM ON TEACHER PERFORMANCE IN BUSIRO COUNTY SECONDARY SCHOOLS, WAKISO DISTRICT BY MARGARET NABUKENYA BA (EDUC.) ...»
teachers have in them…………………………………………………..…74 Pearson‟s Correlation coefficient between teacher commitment
and teacher performance………………………………………………….80 Teachers‟ perceptions of the teachers‟ code of conduct………….……….81
Table 4.12: Teachers reactions when a fellow teacher acts outside the code of conduct……………………………………………………………88 x Table 4.
13: Teachers opinion on giving indefinite suspension to teachers who violate the code of conduct………………………………….……….89 Table 4.14: T-test results on teacher performance by positive and negative attitudes………………………………………………….………91
Figure 4.1: Ways head teachers use in handling teachers who break the teachers‟ code……………………………………………….
.…..……55 Figure 4.2: Head teachers and Deputies responses on how the code of conduct enhances teachers‟ commitment……………………….…………68 Head teachers and deputy head teachers‟ response on factors
responsible for low teacher commitment…………………………….……71 Respondents‟ views on measures used to ensure teachers‟
dedication, cooperation and willingness to their duties………………..…72 BOG‟s indication of the number of times they motivate teachers…..……77
B.O.G‟s opinion on the teaching methods needed for use by
teachers to ensure effective learning………………………………..…….78 Teachers‟ perception of the important and most lived core
value of the code…………………………………………………………..82 Teachers‟ responses on the various ways of strengthening each other……84
Whether it is common to dedicate one‟s time in attending to one‟s duties.90
The study aimed at examining the influence of teachers‟ professionalism on teacher performance in Busiro County secondary schools, Wakiso District. The study was guided by the following objectives: to establish the influence of the code of conduct (that is; respect, integrity, honesty, trust, fairness, service, equality) on teachers‟ performance in secondary schools, the perception of teachers towards the code of conduct in secondary schools and to establish the effect of commitment in terms of planning, assessment, and teaching on teachers‟ performance in Busiro County secondary schools, Wakiso District.
The study employed a combination of both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The quantitative approach used was a questionnaire and the qualitative approaches included use of interviews, focus group discussion, and documentary analysis. It utilized a cross-sectional sample survey design, which was largely descriptive and qualitative in nature.
The study made the following findings: The teachers‟ code does not have a significant relationship with teacher performance. The study also reveals that commitment does not have a significant relationship with teacher performance. The study also reveals that majority of teachers especially those in government and denominational private schools are committed to their work while those in for profit- making schools are less committed and this greatly impacts on their performance. The study further revealed that teachers have a positive attitude towards the teachers‟ code of conduct.
xiii The study concluded that the results indicated that the code of conduct and teacher performance were not significantly correlated because it was well beyond the benchmark sig meaning that the code of conduct does not have a positive effect on teacher performance. The study also concluded that teachers who act more professionally and are aware of their obligation and duty to the teachers‟ code of conduct do perform well both in and outside class (extra-curricular activities). The study also concluded that teachers‟ performance is greatly associated with adherence to the teacher‟s code of conduct. The study also concluded that teacher commitment and teacher performance were not significantly correlated because the results were well beyond the benchmark sig. meaning that teacher commitment does not have a positive effect on teacher performance. The study concluded that teacher perception in terms of positive and negative attitudes affects teacher performance. In addition, a big number of respondents have a positive attitude towards the code of conduct for teachers. The study also concludes that what seems to be poor perception is a result of other factors such as poor remuneration, nature of the school and the implied school leadership and students.
It was therefore recommended that different authorities including teacher training institutions, Ministry of Education and Sports, schools and denominational education secretariates should avail to teachers personal copies of teachers‟ code of conduct. Furthermore, in order to enhance teachers‟ knowledge and perception of the code, there should be regular and refresher programmes in form of seminars, workshops among others through which teachers are educated on the value of behaving professionally, and lastly, the study recommends that in order to enhance teachers‟ commitment, emphasis should be laid on the need for teachers to act professionally. This could be done by applying the various remunerating aspects such as xiv improving on teacher working conditions, improving on teacher rewards and other related benefits like the fringe benefits.
1.0 Introduction Teachers are an important factor in determining the quality of education that children receive.
Their professionalization therefore has been a centre of much concern among educators and researchers (Nkwanga, 1992). Its importance is not only for repute, differentiation from members of other professions, but in a sociological sense, as a form of social control.
Therefore, for an educational institution to excel, it must focus on the quality, competence, knowledge and commitment of the teaching staff, which are actually embedded in their teaching profession code of conduct. Though professionalism is the ultimate goal of all professions, poverty, poor remuneration and poor training at times constrain its attainment.
There are many factors which influence teacher professionalism such as attitude of the different education stake holders towards the teacher, gender, age and duration of service.
These all have a bearing to the teachers‟ professionalism and the implied performance in and outside class.
1.1 Background to the study Before the advent of colonialism there was no school to train teachers and there were no trained teachers (Ssekamwa, 1997). Most of the teaching was done informally at home, in clan meetings or in peer gatherings (Roscoe, 1915). And so in the traditional African society, teacher professionalism was built in their societal norms and prescriptions especially the values that were espoused at the time such as respect, honesty, integrity, trust among others (Muwagga, 2006). With the coming of the missionaries between 1877 and 1879, formal education begun though the teaching was being carried out under verandahs (Ssekamwa, 1999). Later, missionaries established schools which necessitated the establishment of teacher training schools to train teachers who would become professionals and these were equipped with both content and pedagogical skills (Ssekamwa, 1997). A professional is a person who has received training in theory and practice in a discipline for a long period of time and usually constrained by a code of conduct. The curriculum which basically constituted the 3Rs (that is; Reading, Writing, and Arithmetic) was designated not only to create a new class of elites but also religiously adherent citizens (Nkwanga, 1992). The missionaries used a recruiting system of pupil-teacher to become their assistants in teaching but only those whose personalities seemed ideal for exemplary conduct in the community and had grasped some aspects of the 3Rs were recruited. This was the humble beginning of the emphasis of teachers‟ conduct in Uganda which underlies this study. As Wandira (1971) observed about early recruitment, “Each missionary could make an effort to further the spiritual, mental and pastoral training of such individual workers who by grace… need special training for the work
The early recruitment and routine of teachers both in the school and outside it was monitored by his conduct. The missionary view of teacher-professional conduct was gauged against the Bible and Clergymanship (Nkwanga, 1992). A teacher who could avoid intoxicating drinks, got married in church and regularly attended church services, such teachers‟ works could be appreciated. Despite this emphasis on the puritanical conduct of teachers, less emphasis was put on content and pedagogy.
In 1925, a department of education was established in Uganda to oversee education in the protectorate and the colonial government then started normal schools to train teachers. Since most of these schools were run by missionaries, puritanical conduct was emphasized among teachers and those who found it difficult to comply with these standards found their way to private schools (Ssekamwa & Lugumba, 1973). The pre-independence era in Uganda‟s education system therefore witnessed a high degree of teacher‟s discipline and high respectability in regard to the core values such as; integrity, trust, equality, service, fairness, honesty and respect in their profession (Mamdan, 1976).
Historically, therefore, one can note that in Uganda teachers‟ professionalism has developed over the years. The 1950s saw the development of teaching as a profession as noted by Ssekamwa (1999). Those who took up the profession became professional teachers and these came to be termed as persons who have undergone formal training in a Primary Teachers Colleges (PTCs), National Teachers Colleges (NTCs) or a University College (Ssekamwa, 2000). Teacher professionalism therefore became a major source of contention between the different stakeholders in Uganda (Muwagga, 2006), and due to the growing autonomy that was given to educators, it has remained one of the most influential attributes of education today (Ilukena, 1999). Therefore, teacher professionalism has had relevant significance in education and thus emphasizes both academic and professional obligations (Ssekamwa, 1997).
Upon attainment of independence in 1962, the Government of Uganda took education as one of its priorities to create a pool of manpower and accelerate economic development (Wandira, 1971). The training of teachers was intensified at all levels. Uganda had graduate teachers from Makerere University, diploma holders from NTCs and Grade III teachers with a certificate in education from Primary Teachers‟ Colleges. It can also be noted that the independent governments in Uganda have emphasized the secularization of education through the Teaching Service Commission (TSC) and the legacy of puritanical emphasis on teachers‟ conduct still survives in these schools.
Society expects teachers to be exemplary but much as this is so, it is unfortunate that the liberalization of education in Uganda in the early 1990s, and the increase in private secondary schools in post independence Uganda has eroded most of the core values espoused in the code of conduct for teachers (Nkwanga, 1992). Hence, this has led teachers to develop a negative attitude towards the code thereby leading many to have a low perception, and thus resulting into many problems such as teachers‟ disrespect of their profession, hence leading to poor students‟ performance, indiscipline, unending strikes, truancy and other delinquent behaviors of students among others (Nsereko, 1997). There is an increased report of dysfunctional plus poor job performance by most teachers in Uganda and the argument and blame is placed on poor professional conduct by some teachers (Emojong, 2008). It is from the liberalization of education that allegations that the existence of private secular secondary schools and government secondary schools and those which are denominational but government aided coupled with lose control by the Ministry of Education has had an impact on teachers‟ professionalism and the implied performance (Muwagga, 2006).
By professionalism it is meant the basis of our contract with society and this embeds in it a professional code of ethics or conduct. According to Wandira (1986), teacher professionalism means a teacher adhering to the teaching code of conduct. Therefore, teacher professionalism affects the role of the teacher and his or her pedagogy, which in turn affects the student‟s ability to learn effectively. Teacher training emphasizes both academic and professional obligations whereby the professional obligations imply teacher‟s professionalism (Ssekamwa, 1997). Teachers‟ professionalism has developed over the years. On the other hand today teachers‟ professionalism is referred to as the teachers‟ code of conduct (Ilukena, 1999). By teachers‟ code of conduct one refers to principals, values, standards, or rules of behavior that guide the decisions, procedures and systems of a school in which teachers work and in a way that (a) contributes to the welfare of its key stakeholders, and (b) respects the rights of all constituents affected by its operations (Wandira, 1986). It could also refer to the expected professional standards of behaviour of members of a profession governed by professional code of conduct (Nkwanga, 1992).
Professionalism has been found out to be the most challenging approach to mandated content while motivating, engaging, and inspiring aspect of preparing new teachers (Freidson, 1994).
Talbert and McLaughlin (1996) define professionalism as “the internalized beliefs regarding professional obligations, attributes, interactions, attitudes, values, and role behaviors."