«INFLUENCE OF TEACHERS’ PROFESSIONALISM ON TEACHER PERFORMANCE IN BUSIRO COUNTY SECONDARY SCHOOLS, WAKISO DISTRICT BY MARGARET NABUKENYA BA (EDUC.) ...»
Professionalism means that teachers fully accept the challenges of teaching which are reflected in the three primary indicators of professionalism namely; responsibility, respect and risk taking (Hyland, 2002). Teachers‟ professionalism as per this study is taken to be teachers‟ adherence to the code of conduct, teachers‟ commitment, and teachers‟ perception of the code of conduct and so, by code of conduct one refers to the core values which include; respect, honesty, integrity, trust, equality, service, fairness, and tolerance, teachers‟ perception refers to teachers‟ attitude (that is positive and negative) towards the teachers‟ code of conduct and commitment refers to dedication, willingness, cooperation, voluntarism, belongingness, excitement, and pride.
The researcher also adopts the International dictionary‟s meaning of a „teacher‟ and then „perception‟. A teacher is “one who teaches or instructs learners to acquire knowledge or skills usually with the imparting of necessary incidental information and the giving of incidental help and encouragement”. On the other hand, perception is a sensory impression or mental image derived from past experiences (Namugwanya, 2006). As per this study, perception refers to the positive and negative attitude of teachers, towards the core values of the code of conduct for teachers. Performance on the other hand refers to how well or badly an individual, organization, group or institution does something or some task (Nampa, 2006). On the other hand, Otemo (2004) defines performance as the consistent ability to produce results over prolonged periods of time and in a variety of assignments. Thus, this research treats job performance of teachers as planning, teaching, and assessment which are reflected in setting objectives, evaluating lessons, organization, extra duties, time management, and lesson planning, preparing schemes of work, creating a conducive environment, using various methods, strategies, and ensuring discipline and records of work and lastly giving students exercises, examinations, quizzes, and debates.
This study therefore viewed job performance of teachers as an outcome of teachers‟ professionalism and thus invoked two Theories of Teleologism which begun with the philosophies of Aristotle (348BC) and Deontologism propounded by Kant (1724-1804) (Russell, 1996). The Theory of Teleologism implies duty and moral obligation being inherent in one‟s actions. Moral obligation presupposing an obligation to perform an act because that act fulfills one‟s code of conduct, cultural dictates, religion or professional obligations, These are in lieu of respect, integrity, equality, trust, service, honesty and fairness. On the other hand by Deontologism, it implies an end or good which lies both in the duty, spiritual dictates tradition and conventions of society (Gonsalves, 1989).
Teacher performance in Busiro County, Wakiso District is observed to be going down.
Muzaale (2008) reports that there is poor performance of secondary teachers in Busiro County, Wakiso District which is reflected in the poor results of the students they are teaching.
Nakabugo (2008) reports on the poor performance of teachers that is as a result of their late coming to school thus leading to students missing their morning lessons, having little time for consultation and obtaining poor grades. She attributes this poor performance to teachers‟ absenting themselves from schools and hardly giving monthly tests and continuous assignments to students. The same author has further asserts that most head teachers are never in offices to execute their duties; defilement rate by some teachers is at its pick and use of vulgar language before students in class. Emojong, (2008) & Miti (2008) reports that teachers do not give exercises to students, teachers miss classes without strong reasons and are irregular at school. The district reports 2006, 2007, and 2008 also reveal that there is persistent poor performance in examinations, staff turnover and students‟ indiscipline.
1.2 Statement of the problem Teacher performance is looked at as one of the ways in which academic excellence in schools can be enhanced, motivates students to work hard, reflects teachers‟ competence and brings out teachers as agents of social change (Manana, 2005). Unfortunately, Nampa (2006) comments that the performance of teachers has sunk, and Wakiso district reports (2007) and Waiswa (2009) comment that students are often left without being given class work, they are defiled, teachers absent themselves from school duties, come late and leave early and head teachers are hardly seen in their offices executing their duties. This failure to fully embrace their duties is breeding several negative results such as low and poor academic performance, student indiscipline, and student turn-over. In turn, this is affecting teachers‟ adherence to their code of conduct, their attitude towards the core values of the code of conduct, their dedication, willingness, voluntarism, belongingness, cooperation, excitement and pride. If the current situation is not urgently addressed, it may increase immorality that may eventually paralyze the profession of teachers. While several sources such as news articles and education stakeholders are reporting a decline in teachers‟ performance in different parts of the country, none is looking at teachers‟ professionalism as a likely factor that may be playing a major role.
This concern therefore drives the researcher to examine how teacher professionalism influences teachers‟ performance in Busiro County secondary schools, Wakiso District.
The purpose of the study was to establish the influence of teachers‟ professionalism on teacher performance in Busiro County secondary schools, Wakiso District.
The study aimed at achieving the following specific objectives;
1. To establish the relationship between the teachers‟ code of conduct and teachers‟ performance in Busiro County, secondary schools, Wakiso District.
2. To establish the relationship between teachers‟ commitment in terms of planning, assessment, and teaching and teachers‟ performance in Busiro County secondary schools in, Wakiso District.
3. To find out the perception of teachers towards the teachers‟ code of conduct in Busiro County, secondary schools, Wakiso District
1.5A Research Questions
The study was guided by the following research questions:
1. How does the teachers‟ code of conduct contribute to teacher performance in Busiro County secondary schools, Wakiso District?
2. How does teachers‟ commitment in terms of planning, assessment, and teaching contribute to teacher performance in Busiro County secondary schools, Wakiso
3. What is the teachers‟ perception of the teachers‟ code of conduct in Busiro County secondary schools, Wakiso District?
1.5B Research Hypotheses
1. The teachers‟ code of conduct has a positive relationship with teacher performance in Busiro County secondary schools, Wakiso District.
2. Teachers‟ commitment in terms of planning, assessment, and teaching a positive relationship with teacher performance in Busiro County secondary schools, Wakiso
3. Teachers‟ perception of the teachers‟ code of conduct affects teacher performance in Busiro County secondary schools, Wakiso District.
1.6 Scope of the study The study was carried out in Wakiso District, Busiro County secondary schools. It focused on establishing how the teachers code of conduct, commitment influence teacher performance, and teachers‟ perception of the teachers‟ code of conduct. The District is bordered with Luwero District in the North, Mukono District in the West, Kalangala District in the South, Kampala District in the South-West, Mubende District in the East, and Kiboga District in the North-East (See Appendix VII). The study focused on the core values of the code of conduct, attitude of teachers towards the core teacher values and commitment. For teacher performance, the study focused on planning, teaching and assessment. The respondents targeted were head teachers, deputy head teachers, classroom teachers, and heads of disciplinary committees, local government and education officials in charge of teachers and members of the Boards of Governors (BOGs).
1. 7 Significance of the study The study was to be of help to a number of people namely: the Ministry of Education and Sports (MoES), District Educational Officials, BOG, teachers, head teachers, and other related stakeholders.
The MoES officials and district education officials it was hoped were to benefit from the study findings in a number of ways namely: they will have benchmarks for the effective and efficient supervision of their teachers, put in place counseling services, repost and punish misguide teachers exposed by these findings and hence improve the quality of teachers and education.
The members of the Board of Governors will realize the importance of teacher professionalism in enhancing teacher performance and hence put measures in place that will help teachers love and respect their profession all of which will help gloom professionally responsible teachers. It was also hoped that the study would draw teachers‟ attention to have respect for their profession and especially the underlying values, responsibilities and aspirations which are eloquent testimony to the profession‟s commitment and to their own performance and hence they will re-appraise these core values of the code.
The study findings it was hoped would enrich scholars with new knowledge, theories, and methodologies needed and in future add their researched knowledge on professionalism and the implied performance of teachers thereby fill the gaps that this study has left. The study findings it was hoped, was to enrich head teachers with proper administrative procedures needed in managing secondary schools and other institutions of learning, and also be able to make fundamental transformational changes in ensuring teacher development programmes that are in line with teacher professionalism.
2.0 Introduction This Chapter presents the Theoretical review, Conceptual framework, and Literature review.
The literature review was done under titles which correspond to the study objectives namely;
influence of teachers‟ code of conduct on teacher performance, influence of teachers‟ commitment on teacher performance, and teachers‟ perception of the code of conduct on teacher performance.
2.1 Theoretical Review The study on teaches‟ professionalism and teacher performance in Busiro county secondary schools, Wakiso district adopted two Theories namely; Teleologism and Deontologism. The Theory of Teleologism implies duty and moral obligation inherent in one‟s actions (Gonsalves, 1989). Moral obligation presupposing an obligation to perform an act because that act fulfills one‟s ethical code of conduct, cultural dictates, religion and professional obligations. This alludes to Kant‟s categorical imperative, which maintains that one should do to others what one would like others to do to one. The Theory of Deontologism was propounded by Kant (1724-1804) and it presupposes that people should adhere to their obligations and duties when analyzing an ethical dilemma, meaning that a person should follow the obligations to one‟s individual or society because upholding one‟s duty is what is considered ethically correct (Kamm, 1996). For example adhering to the core values of the code of conduct, that is, respect, integrity, fairness, among others, being committed, and having a positive perception of the code of ethics to mention a few. A teacher who follows these theories produces very consistent decisions since they are based on the individual set duties. According to Aristotle, Kant and Bergson (384 BC ff)‟s Teleological and Kant (1724Deontological Theories, self-obligations and other disciplinary aspects like planning, teaching, and assessment were cited in this study to explain teacher performance.
2.2 Conceptual Framework The study took teacher performance as the main variable of interest (dependent variable) and saw teachers‟ professionalism as the explanatory or Independent variable that was influencing teacher performance. From Aristotle [384 BC], Kant and Bergson Teleological and Kant‟s (1724-1804) Deontological Theories, (Section 2.1), Fig. 2.2 provides a model or framework, that relates the variables in the study;
performance The conceptual framework in Fig 2.1 proposes that professionalism means adhering to the code of conduct which implies trust, respect, fairness, integrity, tolerance, equality, service and honesty which in turn depict the perception of teachers which is conceptualized as attitude towards core teacher values and in turn enhances commitment which is conceptualized as dedication, willingness cooperation, voluntarism, belongingness, excitement, and pride.
Teachers‟ code of conduct, teachers‟ perception of the core teacher values and commitment in turn enhance planning which is looked at in terms of setting objectives, evaluating lessons, organizing extra-duties, time management, lesson planning and schemes of work. These in turn facilitate teaching, which implies creation of good environment, having good strategies, methods, discipline and records of work. Teaching however enhances assessment, which implies giving of exercises, quizzes, debates and examinations. The third Box provides the extraneous variables where it is assumed that teachers who have come or have had a good education background, that is nature of schools, have a good religious and family background even without a teachers‟ code will be committed and will act professionally.
2.3 Review of Related Literature 2.3.0 Introduction This study, which focused on teacher professionalism, examined the relationship that exists between the teachers code of conduct, commitment in Busiro County secondary schools, Wakiso District and also sought to find out the perception of teachers towards the code of conduct.