«INFLUENCE OF TEACHERS’ PROFESSIONALISM ON TEACHER PERFORMANCE IN BUSIRO COUNTY SECONDARY SCHOOLS, WAKISO DISTRICT BY MARGARET NABUKENYA BA (EDUC.) ...»
Their argument further is that increasing the commitment of teachers is an important first step in the process of school reform: they continue to state that professionalization of teachers‟ results in higher commitment, which then positively affect teachers‟ performance, and in return ultimately lead to improvements in student learning. Not surprisingly, teacher commitment has been the subject of a great deal of educational research. Choy et al (1993)‟s study findings seem good but they do fall short of indicating how this commitment of teachers positively or negatively influence teachers‟ performance in Busiro County secondary schools, Wakiso district.
2.3. 3 Teachers’ perception of the code of conduct and teacher performance Any meaningful education entails exchange and transfer of values, knowledge, beliefs and skills. It is a conscious process designed to change or bring about behavior patterns of individuals in each society towards desirable or worthwhile ends as perceived by society.
(Ssekamwa (1997) and Nsereko (1994) insist that no knowledge is merely for its own sake, it must affect the conduct of the graduate teachers positively or negatively. Ssekamwa and Nsereko further bring out some good idea but leave out the aspect of teachers‟ perception of the code of conduct. It is true, the code of conduct implications pivot on how access to teacher education affects the conduct of teacher graduates but the perception of teachers is left out.
According to Kneller (1971), core values of the teachers‟ code are a very vital component in analyzing teacher education. These core values must be emphasized because they go beyond mere speculation. Kneller (1971) does a good job to make a mention of the core values of the code, but he however does not indicate what the perception of teachers is as regards the code of conduct in Busiro County secondary schools, Wakiso district.
Mugarura (2006) investigated on teachers‟ perceptions of institutional factors affecting students‟ academic performance in advanced level secondary schools in Bundibugyo District and his findings were that teachers‟ perceptions are that institutional factors influence academic performance of students and that lack of materials, the way teachers interact with students, teaching methods used and institutional management practices influence academic performance in secondary schools. His findings and conclusions are very good but do not qualify for the study in question. They leave out the need to get to know what the perception of teachers is as regards their code of conduct. According to Muwagga (2006), the code of teachers‟ conduct is an extensive domain of teacher professionalism which also deals with ethics (the nature of good and evil, the problem of human conduct and man's ultimate objective or "end" Ethics or “ethos” in Greek examines customs or human conduct and is equivalent to moral, which is similar to the Latin word “mores” which means customs or behavior. However, much as Muwagga (2006) tells us about what a code is, he does not bring out what the perception of teachers is as per the code of conduct in Busiro County secondary schools, Wakiso district. Customs or behaviors and the perception of teachers are of great concern to the study since they are direct pointers to the moral or value implications of any meaningful teacher education.
Aiftinca (2004) concludes that the appreciation of values on basis of acquired knowledge, judgment, sensitivity, the experience of values and the transformation of some of them into objectives and ideals both on the individual and the social level is the guiding education and representing the practical side of the code of conduct. He does well to point it out but he does not tell us what the perception of teachers in Busiro County secondary schools actually is. In his study on the effects of administrators‟ perception on the growth of teachers‟ association, teachers‟ participation in improving their economic growth in the education system, Biryomumaisho (2004) discovered a moderate positive and very significant relationship between education administrators‟ perception of the Uganda teachers‟ association and the growth of teachers‟ association and that there was a weak positive and significant relationship between education administrators‟ perception of the teachers‟ association and teachers‟ participation in their economic condition. This could be true, but unfortunately, Biryomumaisho study did not tamper to look out for what teachers‟ perception in Busiro County secondary schools is towards the code of conduct for teachers, he focuses mainly on the perception of administrators.
On the other hand, Rubamanya (2002)investigated the influence of biology teachers‟ perceptions of the scientific method on the development of scientifically oriented students at O‟level and his findings were that teachers had different perceptions of the scientific method, during teaching and applied its stages selectively rather than the method in whole; secondly, that different teachers‟ perceptions of the scientific method influenced their application of the method in teaching, and consequently, the development of scientifically oriented students.
Rubamanya (2002) study findings are very good but they do fall short of checking out what the perception of teachers is as per the code of conduct in Busiro County secondary schools, Wakiso District. Nyberg (1990) perceives the code of conduct for teachers as a tool that constitutes the values that every teacher should uphold. He believes that for a person to be morally upright and stand out to represent the teaching profession for teachers, such a person must have the proper following of the code of conduct for teachers as well as moral training and education. This also upheld by Plato and Aristotle who hold the same belief that for a person to be moral as an adult, he must have the proper moral training and education as a child. Nyberg‟s (1990) study revelations are good but do not focus on the teachers‟ perception of the code of conduct for teachers in Busiro County secondary schools, Wakiso district.
Howe (1986)‟s study findings on the other hand, view teachers‟ perception of the code as an attitude to life, sum total of one‟s feelings that are attached especially on the core values stressed, beliefs, and prejudices which are partly inherited and partly acquired in the process of living through formal and informal education. The code there fore can be seen as an intellectual exercise, which examines a teacher‟s ultimate „way of life in the field of education and especially as far as the teaching profession is concerned. This way of life is either in terms of knowledge, values or beliefs. Howe (1986)‟s study revelations are good, but he focuses mainly on looking at the code of conduct as an intellectual exercise that examines the teachers‟ ultimate way of life, but he does not clearly show us the readers of his works how the code of conduct for teachers clearly influences our performance in Busiro County secondary schools, Wakiso district.
3.0 Introduction In each research project an individual develops methodological perspectives upon which the project is grounded (Otto & Onen, 2005). This chapter therefore explains the study‟s research design, population, sampling strategies, data collection methods and instruments, data quality control, procedure and data analysis to be used in the study.
3.1 Research Design The study employed a combination of both quantitative and qualitative approaches. It utilized a cross-sectional sample survey design (Enon, 1998), which was largely quantitative and qualitative in nature, since, as Lutz (1996) asserts, research on ethical issues is not typically quantitative. This design was also deemed appropriate because according to Creswell (2003), for studies involving analysis of respondents across a wide spectrum, a cross-sectional survey design acts as the best design to decipher the required study findings and also use of qualitative methods helps one yield more information (Vessels & Huitt, 2005). The study moved sequentially, beginning with questionnaires that were backed up by interviews and focus group discussions. A documentary analysis technique was also utilized.
3.2 Populations and Sample 3.2.1 Population The study population included secondary schools in Wakiso District. They comprised of government schools that total up to18, private schools are 73, and community schools are 48 with a total of 2,579 secondary teachers (Government of Uganda, 2005). Among the schools sampled there were Private for-profit secondary schools, Private denominational, and Government Aided/Community secondary schools. The target population was of different categories namely; Head teachers, deputy head teachers, classroom teachers, heads of disciplinary committees, local government and education officials in charge of teachers and members of the Boards of Governors (BOGs) in the selected secondary schools in Wakiso district who totaled up to 2,709.
3.2.2 Sample and sample size The study sample (accessible population) comprised of 180 teachers, 15 head teachers, 16 deputies, and 6 local government and Ministry of Education officials, 10 members from the 10 different Boards of Governors. These numbers were chosen taking into consideration the recommendation of Krejice and Morgan Table (1970) adopted in Amin, (2005). In qualitative research the above number was big enough to ensure generalisability and ensured speed and accuracy (Amin, 2005). Table 3.1 presents a summary of the 15 schools in as far as their locations, sponsorship, and teachers‟ residence and gender are concerned and the stratified sampling technique was used.
Table 3.1: Nature of the sampled schools
N=15 Data in Table 3.1 indicate that of the fifteen schools sampled, four were town schools, eight were semi-town schools, and three were rural schools. Three were Catholic founded and two were protestant founded but government aided and three were non-government aided. For teachers‟ residence, seven were non-resident schools and eight were resident schools. Finally, whereas six of the schools were mixed, nine of the schools were single sex schools (for both boys and girls).
In all the study targeted 260 respondents, of whom 200 were teachers, 15 head teachers, 20 deputies, and 15 local government and Ministry of Education officials from Busiro County, Wakiso District, and 15 members from the ten different Boards of Governors. Eventually the actual study population, vis-à-vis the target population, turned out to be as indicated in Table 3.2.
Table 3.2: The target and actual study population
Table 3.2 shows that of the 200 teachers, 15 head teachers, 20 deputies, 15 members of the BOGs and 10 local government and MoES officials targeted for interview, the study accessed 83.
5% of the study sample.
3.2.3 Sampling strategies Sampling techniques refer to the procedure a researcher uses to select the needed study sample. (Kombo & Tromp, 2006). The study employed the following sampling techniques namely: stratified random sampling, simple random sampling, convenience and purposive sampling.
Stratified random sampling is a process of selecting a sample in such a way that identified sub groups in the population are represented in the sample in the same proportion. (Gay, 1996).
This was employed to access 180 out of the 200 and was utilized because according to Gay (1996: 116), using the questionnaire, the researcher sampled three categories of teachers, namely; the novice teachers (23-30 years), middle caliber teachers (31-40) and those of 41 years and above and this helped the researcher to avoid sampling bias; sub-groups in the population were represented in the sample in the same proportion as they existed in the population. This enabled all respondents to have an equal and independent chance of being selected for the sample.
Simple random sampling is a process of selecting a sample in such a way that all individuals in the defined population have an equal and independent chance of being selected. This was employed to determine the five members in each of the schools‟ disciplinary committee and every ninth member was selected.
On the other hand purposive sampling refers to selecting the sample purposefully/precisely.
This technique was used to select the Ministry of Education and Sports local council and district education officers. This technique, according to Gay (1996:213) though may not necessarily be a representative sample; but enables the researcher to acquire an in-depth understanding of the problem. The purposively selected sample was a rich source of the data of interest.
Convenience sampling refers to accidental sampling and haphazard sampling. This involved selecting those who were available and were willing to participate in the study during the time of data collection. It was employed to select the study teachers, BOG and their deputies. This technique was appropriate because according to Gay (1996:126), it saved time and enabled the researcher to carry out her work without waiting for those who were not around at the time of collecting the data.
3.3 Data collection instrument and methods The study employed the following study instrument to gather the study findings; namely the questionnaires, and besides it, other data collection methods such as interviews, focus group discussions, and the documentary analysis which were used.
3.3.1 Questionnaires A questionnaire is a set of carefully designed, written down, and tested questions, which are asked of individual respondents to gather information in research (Enon, 1998). These were structured questionnaires but with some open ended questions included. They were prepared to cater for the subjects that were too busy and difficult to trace. It was also a good instrument for the researcher to use for the teachers whose number was too big to cover by the researcher personally. The questionnaires were also appropriate for collecting large amounts of data within a short time. The open-ended questions gave the respondents opportunity to give further opinion by qualifying or substantiating their answers. They were also intended to tap as much information as possible from the different categories of respondents. The questionnaires were subjected to pilot testing to determine their reliability and validity. The questionnaires were supplemented with the following data collection methods;