«INFLUENCE OF TEACHERS’ PROFESSIONALISM ON TEACHER PERFORMANCE IN BUSIRO COUNTY SECONDARY SCHOOLS, WAKISO DISTRICT BY MARGARET NABUKENYA BA (EDUC.) ...»
3.3.2 Interviews An interview is a face-to-face oral / verbal dialogue between a researcher (interviewer) and a respondent (interviewee) (Kombo et al, 2006), where ideas are exchanged and recorded. This study employed open-ended, but with the guidance of an interview guide. The following were interviewed: members of Boards of Governor and local government officials at the district and also head teachers and their deputies to cater for the likely missing link in the use of questionnaires.
3.3.3 Documentary study A documentary analysis is described by Otto and Onen (2005), as the “critical examination of public or private recorded information related to the issue under investigation.” The study examined different papers, and circulars from the district education archives, diocesan archives and different libraries concerning the topic. The study also used some dissertations, newspaper articles and journal articles. Some written official documents of schools as regards teachers‟ school behaviour such as circulars were also used. The researcher also took a look at and used the school rules and regulations for teachers as laid by the foundation bodies of the researched in schools (Kampala Archdiocese, 2008) Table 3.3 indicates the types of literature provided by different schools.
Table 3.3: Documents availed by schools
Data in table 3.3 reveals that the researcher was able to get the circulars issued for teachers from all the fifteen schools (100%) sampled. For copies of the code of conduct, twelve schools (80%) availed them. Only five schools provided copies of minutes that are usually held and bear some information emphasizing teachers to be committed and observe the code of ethics for their profession and finally, all the 15 schools had notice boards for teachers with information bearing the emphasis for teachers to be focused and dedicated.
3.3.4 Focus group discussion Amin (2005) defines a focus group discussion as a group of people gathered from similar settings to discuss a topic of interest to the researcher with the purpose of collecting in-depth information about a groups‟ perception of a given phenomenon. The study held a focus group discussion with teachers from denominational but private schools, purely private schools, and government aided schools. The focus group discussions were held for at least one hour in each school sampled. In some instances, the discussions were held on staffroom verandahs and at other instances the discussions were held in under a tree shelter, and it was mainly during break or lunch time.
3.4 Data quality control This section has got two sub-sections namely; validity and reliability of the research instrument and were ensured as follows;
3.4.1 Validity Validity is the degree to which an instrument measures what it is intended to measure and does so correctly (Amin, 2005). The researcher ensured content validity of the said instrument by ensuring that the questions in the Self Administered Questionnaires (SAQs) really conformed to the study‟s conceptual framework (Fig. 2.2). Hence the instrument was concerned with the entire variables, which were; the independent variable (teacher professionalism) and those in the dependent variable (teacher performance). The content validity also ensured what would be got from interview guides, and questionnaires and this required the researcher to examine the content of each item together with her two supervisors. These questionnaires were subjected to two other expert raters in the School of Education. The rated findings were used
to compute a Content Validity Index (CVI), using the formula:
Where k=Total number of Items rated as Strongly Disagree, Disagree, Agree or Strongly Agree, then; use of True and False and Use of Yes and No and use of Rarely, Regularly, Neither Rarely nor Regularly N=Total number of Items in the questionnaire (Amin, 2005: 288).
The teachers‟ questionnaires were valid at 180 respectively. This was judged significant, since the value for valid instruments should be less than 0.05 or greater than one (Kaplan & Saccuzo, 1993). Besides, the triangulation of methods was used to increase on the validity of both qualitative and quantitative instruments (Amin, 2005). To ensure validity of qualitative tools, the researcher carefully recorded and transcribed the interviews (Munakukaama, 1997).
Finally, when presenting findings, the researcher did not leave out the discrepant minority opinions of respondents, which run counter to the general themes of the majority.
3.4.2 Reliability Reliability according to Amin (2005) refers to the degree to which the instrument consistently measures whatever it is measuring. Hence the researcher ensured reliability by constructing thorough conceptual framework in which the terms used in data collection instruments were analyzed and explained. The researcher also requested her supervisors and two other experts in both quantitative and qualitative research from the School of Education to review the instruments. The researcher also made careful selection and briefing of two research assistants who helped her in the delivery, administration and collection of questionnaires.
Then the questionnaires were pilot tested on five teachers and five deputy head teachers in some of the targeted but non-sampled schools. The outcome revealed existence of some ambiguous and complicated terms, which the researcher simplified and/or clarified to make the structured interview friendlier. The questionnaire and the structured interview were improved upon after piloting it on two head teachers, fifteen teachers, and three members of the Board of Governors.
3.5 Data analysis The collected data was sorted, coded and organized in tables to reveal the percentage scores of the different study attributes. The findings were also subjected to further analysis using quantitative and qualitative techniques.
3.5.1 Quantitative data analysis The data collected was processed using both qualitative and quantitative analyses and in the use of the two approaches, the study tried to strike a balance between the two designs. As for the quantitative data analysis, the researcher interpreted the field-based meanings of the collected data, and made it verbal. She then turned it into frequency counts, frequency tables, a pie chart and bars. The responses of subjects from opinion oriented Self-Administered Questionnaire (SAQs) were computed into frequency counts and percentages. Later, it was summarized and tabulated for easy presentation, assessment, analyses and interpretation.
Expressions like: a bigger number (90%), the least number (10%), most respondents and the majority of respondents (100%) were used to describe the findings. Thereafter, study hypotheses were tested by use of Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient technique and Student‟s two sample T-test.
The researcher descriptively analyzed the results of the self-administered questionnaire on both the independent and dependent variables prior to research questions. The independent variable (teacher professionalism) was broken into eighteen questions which required the respondents to do self rating based on the Likert scale whereby: 1 represented Strongly Disagree; 2 for Disagree; 3 for Agree and 4 for Strongly agree, where necessary, they were requested to tick and at other instances they were requested to fill in with either „Yes‟ or „No‟ where No was taken to be 1 and Yes to be a 2. The dependent variable (teacher performance) was also broken down into seventeen questions also based on the Likert scale, whereby 1 again represented Rarely: 2 Regularly and 3 Neither Rarely nor Regularly. The researcher also requested the respondents to use the fill in aspect whereby they were to choose between a „Yes‟ or „No‟ and No was taken to be 1 and Yes to be a 2 Furthermore, respondents‟ opinion on questions concerning with; planning, teaching and assessment were also taken. Planning was described as conceptualized into eight questions while teaching was conceptualized into five questions and assessment was conceptualized into four questions. The researcher further requested the respondents to rate themselves by using the Likert scale where by a respondent was to fill in No or Yes and these were represented with 1 for No, and 2 for Yes, and at another instance, respondents were to tick either 1 for Rarely, 2 for Regularly, and 3 for Neither Rarely nor Regularly.
In order to test the significant relationship of the perception of the teachers of their code of conduct and its impact on teacher performance, the researcher opted to examine the relationship by checking on the variation of teachers‟ performance with teacher characteristics such as gender, age, designation, marital status, teaching experience, academic qualification, and employment status. To statistically analyze the data, the independent variable (teacher professionalism) was conceptualized into twelve questions that required each respondent to do self rating on teacher professionalism. The responses based on Likert scale were scored ranging from one, presenting Strongly Disagree, two Disagree, three Agree to four strongly Agree and there were chances provided for respondents to use False which was taken to be 1 and True which was taken to be 2. The dependent variable (teacher performance) was also broken down into seventeen questions also based on the Likert scale, whereby 1 again represented Rarely: 2 Regularly and 3 Neither Rarely nor Regularly. The researcher also requested the respondents to use the fill in aspect whereby they were to choose between a „Yes‟ or „No‟ and No was taken to be 1 and yes to be a 2. For the dependent variable (teacher performance), it was conceptualized using seventeen questions. The researcher further calculated the total scores on each item for each respondent. This was done for both variables (independent and dependent variables) by using Statistical Package for Social Scientist (SPSS). Thereafter, the researcher carried out a statistical analysis of the two objectives by using the Pearson‟s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient, and for the last objective she used the Student‟s two sample T-test to find out the perception of teachers towards their code of conduct.
3.5.2 Qualitative data analysis For the qualitative design, the researcher edited the field notes to ensure accuracy and consistence; then the tape-recorded interviews and discussions were transcribed and thereafter the researcher made thorough examination of data to gauge trends of respondents‟ views.
Furthermore, the researcher identified key ideas, categorized them and then condensed them.
The identified key ideas were then codified and organized into themes (Amin, 2005). The scheme of analysis was also worked out following the coding categories where in some cases respondents‟ comments were directly quoted.
3.6 Procedure and Ethical consideration The researcher, once the proposal was approved, started by obtaining an introductory letter from the Dean‟s Office School of Education, Makerere University; From there, selection and briefing of the two research assistants on the details of the research project was done. The researcher then proceeded to the schools to introduce herself and her research assistants.
Research assistants administered the questionnaires to the teachers and head teachers on the different days given by the different schools. They helped the researcher to photocopy related documents and borrowed some for the researcher‟s own further examination. Interviews and focus group discussion followed, and these were conducted by the researcher herself and some tape-recorded by the research assistants.
The study took into account ethical considerations meaning that the researcher first sought consent from all prospective participants and then explained to them what the study was all about and what the information given was going to be used for. She then confirmed to them that the information got was not going to be disclosed as well as the names of schools and respondents involved in the study. In this case Otto and Onen (2005: 47) state that respondents have to be assured that their right to remain anonymous has to be respected. The researcher respected the idea of these scholars. She also told the respondents that they were free to withdraw from the research project if need be. Finally, since the research topic seemed quite sensitive and contentious, the researcher tried her level best not to interfere with the informants‟ private life, most especially on the issue of the teachers‟ discipline.
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.0 Introduction This Chapter presents study findings on the influence of teachers‟ professionalism on teacher performance in Busiro County secondary schools, Wakiso District.
4.1 Background Information The researcher found it necessary to gather information on the background of the respondents.
This was due to the fact that such information would determine the ability of the respondent to offer reliable information that would help the researcher to understand the respondents. The background data would also enable the researcher to gather as much information as possible so as to be able to establish the influence of the code of conduct on teacher performance, teachers‟ attitude towards the core values of the teachers‟ code of conduct, and the influence of commitment on teacher performance in the sampled schools of Busiro County, Wakiso District. The background variables of interest to the researcher included: gender, age, and designation, marital status, teaching experience, academic qualification and the employment status of the respondents. Data on each of these background variables are summarized and analyzed in Table 4.1.