«INFLUENCE OF TEACHERS’ PROFESSIONALISM ON TEACHER PERFORMANCE IN BUSIRO COUNTY SECONDARY SCHOOLS, WAKISO DISTRICT BY MARGARET NABUKENYA BA (EDUC.) ...»
“I was taught about our code of conduct but I do not own a copy because during our time as students we were not given an official copy of the code of conduct, however, during my long years of teaching service, I have come to live by an implied teachers‟ code in all I do.” (Teacher in a denominational church founded school).
On whether head teachers punish teachers who act outside the code of conduct and how they do it, head teachers were asked: Do you punish teachers who break the code of conduct and how do you do it? The head teachers‟ responses were that punishing a teacher depends on the heaviness of the offence and so we do punish them where necessary. However, there are ways in which we handle the teachers who try to live outside the stipulated rules of the code of
conduct. These ways were presented by the researcher in Figure 4.1 below:
Figure 4.1: Ways head teachers use in handling teachers who break the teachers‟ code
The findings summarized in Figure 4.1 present ways head teachers use in handling teachers who break the code of conduct. The findings show that all head teachers do warn their teachers who break the code of conduct and almost all 11 (73.3%) head teachers counsel them.
However, slightly above a half 8 (53.3%) and a quarter 5 (33.3%) of them said that they summon them to the board of governors and also give them suspension. This could be an indication that such teachers are those that fail to heed to the stipulated rules of the teachers‟ code and hence their performance remains alarming. This therefore suggests that the code has great influence on teachers‟ performance. All in all, the above quantitative and qualitative findings imply that although the code positively influence teachers‟ performance, other extraneous factors such as nature of the school, nature of students and the explicit and implicit philosophy behind the vision and mission of the school set in and they too have a great impact on the implied performance of teachers.
4.3 Teacher performance 4.3.1 Planning On planning, the respondents‟ responses are as shown in table 4.3 in a summary form.
Table 4.3 indicates that 91.
1% of respondents set objectives to be achieved at the end of the lessons but 8.9% of respondent do not set objectives intended to be achieved at the end of the lessons. Also the study results indicated that 81.7% of the respondents do evaluating lessons after teaching by checking whether the lesson was taught successfully and slightly above half (51.7%) of the respondents maintain classroom organisation by ensuring student class discipline. This implies that in the area of setting objectives for a lesson and evaluating oneself at the end of the lesson are of importance in a teachers‟ performance. In regard to teachers participating in extra duties, being punctual for their school duties and beginning lessons on time, and making lesson plans a day before they go to teach students, Table 4.3 shows that majority of the respondents do not adhere to the above requirements. Therefore, the results imply that at least a big number of teachers who were included in the study seem not to participate in extra duties, be punctual for their school duties, begin lessons late, and they do not make lesson plans. This was thought to be so because, the majority of teachers 106 (58.9%) had not yet served in the teaching profession for long, so they act that way because they have a feeling that they can be recruited anywhere and at any time.
4.3.2 Teaching As regards teaching, the respondents gave their views and they are summarized in Table 4.4.
Analyses results in Table 4.4 indicate that 88.3% of respondents regularly create a conducive environment for student learning; the same applies to 80.6% of respondents who use a variety of strategies to guide students, 90.6% of respondents apply various methods in teaching, 89.4% maintain student discipline during lessons, and 76.7% keep records of work for all the lessons they conduct. Also the study results reveal that 10.6%, 9.4%, 9.4%, 2.2%, 6.1%, and 20.6% rarely create a conducive environment, use a variety of strategies, apply various methods in teaching, maintain student discipline, and keep records of work for all the lessons they conduct. However, also a fewer number (2 respondents or 4.4%, 18 respondents or 10.0%, 13 respondents or 7.2%, 8 respondents or 4.4%, and 5 respondents or 2.8%) neither rarely nor regularly create a conducive environment, use a variety of strategies, apply various methods in teaching, maintain student discipline, and keep records of work for all the lessons they conduct. Therefore, the findings demonstrate that a good number of teachers carry out the teaching aspect very well especially as the activity requires. However, the findings revealed that majority of the teachers 163 (90.6%) seemed to be more contented with the application of the various methods could be because many of them find them effective for imparting knowledge better to students and they also make students participate fully and later on creating a better way for student understanding.
4.3.3 Assessment Concerning the assessment aspect, teachers responded as is indicated in Table 4.5 Results in Table 4.5 indicate that 62.2% of respondents give constant exercises in their lessons but 30.6% of the respondents do not. Also the results indicated that only a quarter 25.0% conduct quizzes during their lessons, slightly above a quarter (27.8%) of the respondents carry out debates in class, and almost all respondents give students examinations at the end of the term. This demonstrates that teachers attach much emphasis on giving students exercises and examinations because they are great indicators of depicting their performance because from them they are able to evaluate whether their students understood them or not.
As for the conduct of quizzes and debates slightly above 50% of the respondents rarely do use them as measures of student understanding of what they teach implying that teachers have less interest in quizzes and debates. However, also a fewer number (13 respondents or 7.2%, 20 respondents or 11.1%, 12 respondents or 6.7%, and 2 respondents or 1.1%) neither rarely nor regularly give constant exercises in their lessons, conduct quizzes, carry out debates, and give examinations. Therefore, the study results imply that at least a big number of teachers who were included in the study appear to use the commonly known ways of evaluating students from which their own performance is reflected. This was thought to be so because majority of the teachers 102 (56.7%) are permanently employed and so they seem to be having enough time marking the exercises and examinations that they give their students.
The above findings were supplemented by findings from a qualitative research where the researcher continued to interrogate teachers in a focus group discussion by asking them, „do you often give exercises in your lessons? Here one teacher was noted to have said;
In fact in lessons where English and Mathematics are taught it is hard not to give exercises, so constantly the students are kept busy by being given exercises. (Teacher
Another one added that;
Exercises are very vital because they help us to get to know whether our students understand what we teach or not, so it is good they are given constantly. (Another teacher in a Focus Group Discussion) As regards whether quizzes are given, teachers were asked in a focus group discussion, „How often do you give quizzes to students?
In response one respondent answered;
Quizzes are not often given to students but when one sees it is necessary to give them we use them in checking the progress of students especially in English. (Teacher in a denominational church founded school).
Yet on the issue of encouraging students to carry out debates, one respondent said;
This is not very much encouraged by the teachers and so students rarely involve themselves in such an activity. Like one respondent has said, this strategy is only used by the teachers of English (Teacher in a Focus Group Discussion).
As for the giving of examinations, one other respondent reported that;
Giving examinations is one of the major ways used to assess students and whether one likes or not they have to set the examinations to give a clear picture of student performance as well as that of the teachers. (Teacher in a Focus Group Discussion).
4.4 Statistical analysis of the teachers’ code of conduct and teacher performance This Section shows the statistical analysis of the first objective which aimed at attaining the influence of the code of conduct on teacher performance in Busiro County secondary schools, Wakiso District.
4.4.1 Hypothesis One From the first objective of the study, the researcher derived the first research hypothesis. The hypothesis stated that, “code of conduct has a positive relationship with teacher performance in Busiro County secondary schools, Wakiso District”. For the purpose of verifying this research hypothesis, a null hypothesis which stated that, “code of conduct has no effect on teacher performance”, was derived. This null hypothesis was thus tested with the use of Pearson‟s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient. The results of the analysis are presented in Table 4.6.
Table 4.6: Pearson’s Correlation coefficient on the code of conduct and teacher
Table 4.6 showed that, the Pearson‟s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient for the code of conduct and teacher performance was r = 0.
814. This relation is not significant because it exceeds the benchmark of 0.05. This means that the code of conduct does not have a positive effect on teacher performance. Therefore, the research hypothesis which stated that, “the code of conduct has a positive relationship on teacher performance” was rejected and the null hypothesis was accepted.
4.5 Teachers‟ commitment on teacher performance The researcher also sought information from the respondents on commitment by using six questions. Respondents‟ responses appeared as it is shown in Table 4.7.
Findings in Table 4.7 show that slightly below a half (86 or 47%) of the respondents do not dedicate most of their time to attending to students‟ consultation during their free time compared to 94 (53%) who accepted indicating that in most of the secondary schools sampled in Busiro County, teachers‟ commitment to their students is very minimal in terms of allocating extra time for their students to consult them. The study results also indicated that 27 (15.0%) respondents do not set adequate amounts of written and practice exercises promptly for effective teaching and learning compared to the 153 (85.0%) of the respondents who actually take it to be important. This further demonstrates that a good number of teachers are not committed when it comes to evaluating students using written and practice exercises to ensure effective teaching and learning.
The study findings also revealed that nearly all 164 (91.1%) of the teachers follow the programme discussed with and approved by the head of department and they do cooperate with him and other teachers in carrying out the programme. However, it was noted in the study too that over three quarters 82.2% of the respondents undertake voluntary remedial teaching as effective teaching require. This implied that most of the teachers in the sampled schools have a high sense of commitment in attending to students and therefore they follow what effective teaching requires.
Findings in Table 4.7 further show that three quarters 156 (86.7%) of the respondents attend where practically possible, religious functions of their persuasion and respect other recognised religious within the school where they are teaching and nearly less than a quarter 24 (13.3%) do not. This implied that most of the teachers are committed to school religious functions and so they fully participate. Table 4.7 also indicate that 163 (90.6%) accepted that the schools where they teach offer them a conducive environment for their commitment compared to over a quarter 17 (9.4%) who did not accept indicating that majority of the teachers are comfortable with the environment in which they are carrying out their duties.
The above findings in Table 4.7 are enhanced by a qualitative response by one school inspector who said;
“It is hard to find teachers absent in well established church and government schools but in the private sector, even the head teachers are absent land lords” (School inspector interviewed in April, 2009).
Furthermore, in order to establish the level of commitment, the study sought to establish reasons which motivate commitment and the implied performance. From the interview and focus group discussions, with the school inspectors, head teachers, district education officials and members of the BOG, the following were revealed. These are presented qualitatively;
i. Adequate remuneration ii. Constant supervision and monitoring iii. Good relationship and personality of the head teacher and other staff members teaching
v. Greater input from parents and students vi. Recognition of work done vii. Provision of chances for staff development (in-service training) viii. Prompt pay of salaries ix. Job security and low labour turn-over in the school x. Frequent visits and discussions with members of BOG xi. Teachers availed with soft loans and salary advance xii. Availability of pedagogical and no pedagogical facilities such as laboratories, teaching aids, lesson plan books, and chalk and in break meals or tea.
Head teachers‟ supervision techniques are not punitive, that is, they do not annoy xiii.
As regards teacher commitment in the interview guide for head teachers and their deputies, to establish whether the code of conduct enhance teachers‟ commitment and how, the researcher posed a close-ended question to the head teachers and their deputies. Does the code of conduct enhance teachers‟ commitment? If it does, how? Here both the head teachers and their deputies gave a strong response „yes‟. For all agreed saying that on observation, all teachers who live in line with the stipulated rules of the code of conduct have been identified to be committed and on how the code does influence their performance; their answers are given in Figure 4.2.