«The Impacts of Teachers, Beliefs and teachers, gender on Stimulating Self-regulated Learning among first Grade of High School Students of Zanjan City ...»
International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences
© 2015 Available online at www.irjabs.com
ISSN 2251-838X / Vol, 9 (9): 1482-1486
Science Explorer Publications
The Impacts of Teachers, Beliefs and teachers,
gender on Stimulating Self-regulated Learning
among first Grade of High School Students of Zanjan
Azadeh Mehrjou1, Behzad Rahbar2
1. Department of Applied Linguistics, Maragheh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Maragheh, Iran
2. Department of Applied Linguistics, Zanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, Iran Corresponding Author email: firstname.lastname@example.org ABSTRACT: Self-regulated learning is a vital component of educational goal. The recognition of self- regulated learning is mostly associated with personal teacher characteristics. On the other hand, teachers, educational beliefs play a crucial role in the introduction and development of self-regulated learning practices. This study explored “The Impact of high school teachers’ Beliefs and demographic characteristics on stimulating self-regulated learning among high school students in Zanjan city”. To fulfill this objective, the researcher administered two kinds of questionnaires. The first one was Belief about Primary Education Scale (BPES) and the second one was Self-Regulated Learning Inventory for Teachers (SRLIT) to sample of 46 high school teachers.54% of participants were male and 46% were female with mean average age of 37years old. 47.8% of teachers had less than 10 years teaching experiences and 52.2% had 11 to 20 years teaching experience. Teachers, university degrees were as follows: 14% associate degree, 71% bachelors and 15% master degree. The convenient sampling was run. Results revealed that developmental beliefs of teachers had positive effect on practice of self- regulation and transmissive beliefs of teachers had negative effect on implementation of self-regulation.
The variable of gender did not affect to implementation of self- regulation among students. Findings of the present study would suggest educational system pay more attention on training of pre-service and in - service teachers who will have knowledge and competence regarding self-regulated learning.
Key Words: Developmental Beliefs of teachers; Gender; High school; Self-regulated learning; Trans missive Beliefs of teachers.
List of Abbreviations BPES……………………….Beliefs about Primary Education Scale SRL ………………………... Self-regulated Learning SRLIT………………………..Self-Regulated Learning Inventory for Teachers
INTRODUCTIONSelf-regulated learning is total-engagement activity involving multiple parts of the brain. It encompasses full attention and concentration, self-awareness and introspection, honest self-assessment, openness to change, genuine self-discipline, and acceptance of responsibility for one’s learning (Pintrich, 2000; Zimmerman 2001, 2002;
Zimmerman and Schunk, 2001).
Accordingly, the term self-regulated learning (SRL) is used to describe independent, academically effective forms of learning including metacognition, intrinsic motivation, and strategic action (Zimmerman, 1989, 1990, 2002;
Winne and Perry, 2000). The metacognitive dimension refers to planning, setting goals, organizing, self-monitoring, and self-evaluating at various points during the process of acquisition. The motivational dimension emphasizes high self-efficacy, self-attributions, and intrinsic task interest. Finally, the behavioral dimension covers selecting, structuring, and creating environments that optimize learning (Zimmerman, 1989, 1990, 2001; Winne and Perry, 2000).
Intl. Res. J. Appl. Basic. Sci. Vol., 9 (9), 1482-1486, 2015 According to Zimmerman's cyclical model of self-regulation (Zimmerman, 1989, 2000) processes of selfregulated learning consist of three cyclical phases: forethought, performance control and self-reflection. The forethought phase refers to influential processes and beliefs preceding the actual learning effort and designed to increase performance and prepare for the forthcoming learning condition. This phase involves metacognitive processes and a variety of motivational beliefs. Second, the performance control phase is designed to improve the learning performance and involves self-control and self-observation. Thirdly, the self-reflection phase consists of processes that occur after learning efforts such as metacognitive self-evaluation, and affective and motivational reactions to one's self-regulatory efforts. Self-reflections influence on forethought phase processes during future learning attempts. This is called self-regulatory cycle (Cleary and Zimmerman, 2002; Puustinen and Pulkkinen, 2001; Zimmerman, 1998, 2000, 2002; Zimmerman and Tsikalas, 2005).
When students got self –regulated, they can be more successful in academic achievement and future career. In academic achievement, they accept responsibility of their own learning and they know how to do tasks effectively perhaps actively listening, taking notes, outlining, visually representing the material, occasionally selfquizzing, reviewing, or writing a summary. In future career, they know how to use knowledge and skills in their career and to retool into a new career after graduating university (Nilson, 2013). The important point is that, students cannot be directed without supporting from their teachers. But SRL does not develop spontaneously (Winne, 2005) and a large number of learners encounter difficulties to regulate their learning (Perry et al., 2004).
Teachers play a crucial role in developing student’ SRL.
Indeed, it has become clear, that for self- regulated learning to develop, teachers must create a learning environment in which pupils are allowed and inspired to design their own learning experiences (Boekaerts, 1997).
Paris and Paris (2001) supposed that it was possible to enhance children's understanding of SRL in several ways:
indirectly through experience, directly through instruction, and elicited through practice. All three probably operate together in classrooms as children create their theories on learning in school and their own abilities as they work with teachers, parents, and peers (Paris and Paris, 2001).
On a teacher level, the most important factor is teachers, beliefs. Furthermore, beliefs are thought to influence on teachers’ perceptions and judgments (Errington, 2004; Haigh, 1998; Marland, 1997) and, in turn, affect their behavior in the classroom (Ertmer, 2005; Pajares, 1992). This result are consistent with the statement that teacher beliefs also affect innovations in learning and teaching (Calderhead, 1996; Errington, 2001, 2004; Hofer and Pintrich, 1997; McDiarmid, 1990; Pajares; Richardson; Tatto, 1998) and thus influence the introduction and development of SRL practices.
Hermans et al. (2008) distinguished a transmissive and a developmental dimension of teachers’ beliefs.
Teachers by transmissive beliefs believe in education serves as an external goal and closed curriculum. On the other hand, teachers by developmental beliefs believe that education should be oriented towards broad and individual development, which are process-oriented with an open curriculum. In this dimension, learners are considered as active participants and teachers pay attention to their needs and experiences as starting points. In this dimension, teachers have broad outlook to SRL and they are more responsible to practice SRL.
Another important factor is teachers, gender can play a role in the implementation of SRL as well as (Hargreaves, 2005).
At last self-regulated learning perspective on students learning and academic achievement is one dimension and another dimension is the way teachers should interact with students and the manner in which schools should be organized. This perspective shift the focus of educational system from students learning ability and environments as fixed entities to their personally initiated processes and responses designed to improve their ability and their environments for learning.
Sample and Setting In this study convenient sampling was done. The target population for this study included all the high school teachers in Zanjan city in fall 2014.Total number of teachers was 46. The teachers distributed across grade 45% female and 54% male with mean average age of 37. 47.8% of teachers had less than 10 years teaching experiences and 52.2% had 11 to 20 years teaching experience. Teachers, university degree were as follows: 14% associate degree, 71% bachelors and 15% master degree.
Research Instrument The instrument consisted of two sections: Educational beliefs (BPES) and Self-Regulated Learning Inventory for Teachers (SRLIT).
Beliefs about Primary Education Scale (BPES) Beliefs about Primary Education Scale (BPES), developed by Hermans, Van Braak and Van Keer (2008) are a standard tool to access teachers’ beliefs toward SRL. Teachers answered through Likert Scale from 0) totally Disagree to 5) totally agree.
Self-Regulated Learning Inventory for Teachers (SRLIT) Self-Regulated Learning Inventory for Teachers (SRLIT), developed by Lombaerts, Engels and Athansou (2007) is a standard tool to access teachers’ action in promoting SRL.
The respondent answered through Likert Scale from 0) never to 5) always. The SRLIT consists of three subscales representing the cyclical phases of the SRL process: (a) Forethought, (b) Performance control, and (c) Self-reflective. Teachers answered through Likert Scale from 0) never to 6) always.
Procedure Permission was obtained from the school principal and the English class teachers. Three schools refused to collaborate. At first, the aim of study was explained to teachers. The research was run among participants in regular class time in fall 2014. This research was run during one semester. English classes were held two times a week and the duration of each session was 45 minutes.
At first, self-regulation concept was explained to teachers, then three phases of self-regulation expressed to teachers precisely. At the beginning of term educational beliefs were evaluated by BPES. Then, SRLIT was run.
The correlation between two groups of teachers showed that there was negative and significant relationship between two groups.
To answer the second research question whether gender had effect on teachers’ action in promoting SRL among students, the ANOVA test was run. The researcher used ANOVA test to find which gender was better in promoting self-regulated learning among students.
Result of above tables revealed that gender did not have any significant impact on teachers’ action to promoting SRL. These results were agreement with (Lombaerts et al, 2009; Vandevelde, S, Vandenbussche, L and Van Keer, H, 2012).
The results regarding the impact of teachers’ educational beliefs and beliefs about the value of SRL as educational goal supported the assumption of congruence between beliefs and practice (Ertmer, 2005; Hermans et al., 2008). The current results suggest that the implementation of SRL practices will be more successful if teachers hold developmental educational beliefs as these are in line with the assumptions of SRL (Vandevelde, S, Vandenbussche,L and Van Keer,H.,2012). Consequently, a first step towards implementing SRL, should be the examination – and if necessary – modification of deeply, ingrained assumptions, beliefs, and habits (Waeytens et al., 2002). Therefore, SRL instruction for pre-service teachers an professional development for in-service teachers should be regarded by consideration of their personal beliefs both considering education in general and regarding SRL in particular.
Based on the present study, further research can elaborate on the determinants of SRL practices in high school classrooms by integrating other factors. As determinants on student level were not incorporated in the current study, future research could include student-level factors, like motivation, cognitive and metacognitive abilities and social factors and explore how these factors affect teachers’ promotion of SRL and vice versa (Vandevelde, S,Vandenbussche,L. and Van Keer,H.2012).
Currently, the researcher has not investigated the school-level factors. School level is one of the important factors. If principals of schools have clear vision on the importance of SRL, they can stimulate teachers to implementation of SRL.
The present study was done to explore the impact of teachers, beliefs and teachers gender of interactive strategies of scaffolding in. The results of this study revealed that developmental beliefs of teachers had positive effect on practice of SRL and trans missive beliefs of teachers had negative effect on practice of SRL.
Teachers by developmental beliefs are more flexible than teachers by trans missive beliefs. They (teachers by developmental beliefs) let students collaborate with teachers and classmates actively in class and they believe in learners can be autonomous.these beliefs stimulate SRL practices in class. But teachers by transmissive beliefs see learners as passive participants, they believe in closed curriculum. They are resistant across changing designed planning. These beliefs of transmissive teachers hamper practices of SRL.
Another finding of this study is that gender had not any significant effect on teachers action on implementation of SRL.
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The results of this study have important implications for teachers, principals of schools and teachers trainers. Because teachers are important models for students and beliefs of them have direct influence on students perception, action, learning, performance……. Educational system should be considering the teachers, beliefs in training teachers.
In spite of the above contributions, current study is not without its limitations. One limitation of this in the downtown area of city, teachers rarely got familiar with self-regulation concept. It was hard for the researcher to conceive and performed research.
Another important limitation is that this research was run only on the first grade of high school students.
The results of this research can make other researchers motivated to go through other dimensions of SRL.