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«Title of Document: AN EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF INSTRUCTIONAL CONSULTATION TEAMS ON TEACHER EFFICACY: A MULTIVARIATE, MULTILEVEL ...»

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ABSTRACT

Title of Document: AN EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF THE

EFFECT OF INSTRUCTIONAL

CONSULTATION TEAMS ON TEACHER

EFFICACY: A MULTIVARIATE, MULTILEVEL

EXAMINATION

Jessica Robyn Koehler, Doctor of Philosophy, 2010 Directed By: Professor Gary Gottfredson Counseling and Personnel Services Teacher efficacy, the extent to which teachers feel they can influence student learning (Berman, McLaughlin, Bass, Pauly, & Zellman, 1977), has been repeatedly linked to important student and teacher outcomes (Gibson & Dembo, 1984). Although the results of many studies support the claim that teacher efficacy is an important educational construct, few studies have investigated interventions to influence these teacher beliefs.

The current study evaluated whether a specific teacher intervention, Instructional Consultation Teams (IC Teams), positively affected teachers’ sense of self-efficacy as measured by two efficacy instruments. Participants included 1203 in-service elementary school teachers in 34 elementary schools within a large suburban school district—17 randomly assigned to the IC Team intervention and 17 assigned to the control condition.

Because teachers are nested within schools, hierarchical linear modeling was utilized to evaluate whether scores on measures of teacher self-efficacy were influenced by IC Teams. A multivariate model was also used to evaluate the effects of IC Teams on both measures, simultaneously. The results imply that IC Teams significantly increased teachers’ scores on the efficacy scales. The current study provides one of a few attempts to evaluate the effects of a specific school intervention on teacher efficacy within an experimental framework.

AN EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF INSTRUCTIONAL

CONSULTATION TEAMS ON TEACHER EFFICACY: A MULTIVARIATE,

MULTILEVEL EXAMINATION

by Jessica Robyn Koehler Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Maryland, College Park in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy 2009

Advisory Committee:

Professor Gary Gottfredson, Chair Professor Sylvia Rosenfield Associate Professor William Strein Professor Patricia Alexander Professor Dennis Kivlighan Acknowledgements The completion of my doctoral dissertation would not have been possible without the love, support, and guidanceof my family, friends, and professors. To everyone who provided encouragement and guidance, I extend my warmest gratitude.

My dissertation chair, Dr. Gary Gottfredson, deserves a special thank you. Gary, your encouragement and guidance enabled me to have the confidence to undertake and complete my dissertation. Without your support, I would not have attempted to write such a complex paper. Please understand how much I appreciate all of the time you gave to help me complete my dissertation. In addition, please know how much you have influenced my future professional path.

Dr. Sylvia Rosenfield also deserves a special thank you. Sylvia, your passion for your work is truly inspiring! You re-ignited my passion for our profession. I hope you are aware of how much I appreciate your mentorship. Thank you for all of your guidance and for allowing me the opportunity to work on such a wonderful project.

I would also like to thank my other committee members, Dr. William Strein, Dr.

Patricia Alexander, and Dr. Dennis Kivlighan. Your encouragement and feedback were excellent and enabled me to complete my dissertation. It was such a pleasure to work with each of you.

I would also like to thank the entire IC Teams research team (past and present), with a special thanks to Kate Bruckman and Phuong Vu. You both were very helpful in providing me with the data I needed to complete my study.

On a personal note, although I am thankful to all of my family members, two women in my family inspired me to become a school psychologist and provided

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a special education teacher, is truly and has always been the “wind beneath my wings.” Without your love and support, I would not be the person I am today. Thank you mom!

My grandmother, Genevieve Savani, was a school psychologist beginning in the 1940’s.

Grammy, thank you so much for your support and guidance and for inspiring me to become a school psychologist!

The person who is deserving of the most gratitude is my husband, Chris Koehler.

Without your love and support, I never would have finished my dissertation. Your confidence in my abilities and pride in my accomplishments is truly moving. Finally, Alexander Fox, although you made the completion of my dissertation significantly more difficult, you also inspire me to be a better person. Chris and Alex, I love you both beyond words!

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Acknowledgements………………………………………………………………………ii Table of Contents………………………………………………………………………..iv List of Tables……………………………………………………………………………..v Literature Review…………………………………………………………………………1 Teacher Efficacy: An Important Educational Construct………………………….1 History of Teacher Efficacy Measurement……………………………………….3 Interventions that Affect Teacher Efficacy……………………………………….4 Standards-Based Professional Development Program





Cognitive Coaching………………………………………………...……12 Dare to be You Teacher Training………………………………………..15 Responsive Classroom Approach………………………………………..16 Instructional Consultation Teams………………………………………………..18 IC Teams Hypothesized Effect of Teacher Efficacy………...……………21 Consultation and Teacher Efficacy………………………………………………22 Research Questions and Framework……………………………………………………..24 Method……………………………………………………………………………...……25 Subjects…………………………………………………………………………..26 Data Collection Procedures………………………………………………………26 Measures…………………………………………………………………………27 Teacher Efficacy Scales………………………………………………….27 Teacher Demographics…………….…………………………………….30 Intervention Design and Implementation…………………………………...……30 Research Design………………………………………………………………….32 Power Analysis…………………………………..………………………………32 Multilevel Analysis………………………………………………………………33 Analytic Approach……………………………………………………………….33 Attrition and Treatment Diffusion……………………………………………….36 Multilevel, Multivariate Model…………………………………………….…….36 Results……………………………………………………………………………………40 Attrition and Treatment Diffusion……………………………………………….40 Unconditional Model…………………………………………………………….41 Correlations at Level-2 and Level……………………………………………….41 Within-School Model……………………………………………….…………....42 Between-School Model……………………….…………………….……………43 Proportion of Variance Explained………………………………….……………45 Multivariate Testing of Total Treatment Effect………………….………….…...46 Analyses with Cases with Complete Data………………………….……………46 Discussion………………………………………………………………….……….…....47 Treatment Effect…………………………………………….……….…………..47 Relationship Between the Teacher Efficacy Scales…………………..………….48 Relationship Between Efficacy Scales and Predictors…………………………...48 Limitations……………………………………………………...………………..49 Future Research………………………………………………………………….51 Implications………………………………………………………………………53 iv Appendix A………………………………………………………………………………55 Appendix B………………………………………………………………………………56 Appendix C………………………………………………………………………………57 Author Note……………………………………………………………………………...58 References………………………………………………………………………………..71

v List of Tables

Table 1: Factor Loadings for TISA and TSES Efficacy for Instructional Strategies Scale……………………………………………………………………………...59 Table 2: Level of Implementation and Utilization for Treatment Schools………………61 Table 3: Descriptive Statistics for TISA and TSES Efficacy for Instructional Strategies Scale…………………………………………………………………..62 Table 4: Teacher-level Predictor Variables……………………………………………...63 Table 5: Correlations Among Teacher-Level Variables…………………………………64 Table 6: Correlations Between Scales at Each Level……………………………………65 Table 7: Final Within School Model, Grand Mean Centered with Fixed Effects……….66 Table 8: Final Between School Model…………………………………………………..67 Table 9: Variance Components and Proportion of Variance Explained…………………68 Table 10: Final Between School Model Dropping Cases with Missing Data…………...69 Table 11: Descriptive Statistics for the TISA and TSES Efficacy for Instructional Strategies………………………………………………………………………....70

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Research has repeatedly demonstrated a strong relation between beliefs, behavior, and outcomes. Two influential psychological theories of the twentieth century, selfefficacy and locus of control, focus on personal beliefs and their influence on human behavior and outcomes. Self-efficacy concerns whether a person believes he or she has the capability to produce a given action (Bandura, 1997), while locus of control focuses on whether outcomes are determined by external forces or one’s own actions (Rotter, 1966). These concepts are similar and sometimes incorrectly viewed as the same construct. However, locus of control and self-efficacy are distinct constructs. Beliefs about whether actions influence outcomes (locus of control) are not equivalent to beliefs about whether one can produce certain actions (self-efficacy).

One line of investigation that evolved from a blending of self-efficacy and locus of control theories is teacher efficacy research (Rose & Medway, 1981). Three decades of inquiry indicate that teacher efficacy is related to various educational outcomes, such as student achievement and motivation (Tournaki & Podell, 2005; Tschannen-Moran, Woolfolk Hoy, & Hoy, 1998). Defined as the extent to which a teacher believes he or she has the capacity to affect student performance (Berman, McLaughlin, Bass, Pauly, & Zelman 1977), teacher efficacy has been repeatedly linked to important educational variables.

Teacher Efficacy: An Important Educational Construct Teacher sense of efficacy is important because it is related to student achievement. An investigation by Rand Corporation researchers (Armor et al., 1976) became the catalyst for decades of teacher efficacy research. Armor et al. found that the

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portion of the California Test of Basic Skills. Later researchers, (Anderson, Greene, & Loewen, 1988; Ashton & Webb, 1986; Ross, 1992) have also provided support for the link between teacher efficacy and student achievement. Ross (1998) found that teachers scoring higher on teacher efficacy measures were more likely to attempt innovative teaching practices that led to increased student achievement. Aside from achievement, other student outcomes, such as motivation and students’ own sense of self-efficacy, have been positively correlated with teacher efficacy (Anderson, Greene, & Loewen, 1988;

Midgely, Fellaufer, & Eccles, 1989).

In addition to student variables, teacher efficacy has been associated with many important teacher characteristics. For example, Allinder (1994) found that teachers with higher efficacy displayed better planning and organizational skills in the classroom.

Several researchers (Coldarci, 1992; Evans & Tribble, 1986; Gibson & Dembo, 1984) have shown that teachers with greater efficacy have more commitment to struggling students and refer fewer students to special education (Soodak & Podell, 1993). Teacher efficacy has been found to be related to success in curriculum innovation (Berman et al., 1977), quality of student-teacher relationships (Ashton & Webb, 1986), confidence in working with parents (Hoover-Dempsey, Bassler, & Brissie, 1987), time spent on academic learning (Allinder, 1995), ability to hold students accountable for their own learning (Ashton & Webb, 1986), teacher valuing of educational innovations (Cousins & Walker, 2000), classroom management skills (Woolfolk, Rosoff, & Hoy, 1990), pedagogical beliefs (Fives & Alexander, 2004), and reduced teacher stress (Greenwood, Olejnik, & Parkay, 1990). Soodak and Podell (1994) found that personal teaching

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