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«_ A Dissertation Presented to the Faculty of the School of Theology Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary Fort Worth, Texas _ In Partial ...»

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John 14:15-17, 25-26; 15:26-27; 16:7-11, 12-15.

Calvin Mercer, “Jesus the Apostle: ‘Sending’ and the Theology of John,” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 35 (December 1992): 462.

upon the various interpretations of the term, paravklhto~.40 Jesus identifies the Paraclete as to; pneu`ma th`~ ajlhqeiva~ (John 14:17; 15:26; 16:13). The phrase indicates “the Spirit who communicates truth.”41 The concept of truth, hJ ajlhvqeia, needs further

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Hebrew term tm,a. In a general sense, tm,a denotes that which is solid, valid, or trustworthy.42 When used in connection with God’s revelation, however, tm,a denotes that which corresponds to fact or that which is not false.43 When the OT prophets spoke, they communicated God’s truth to others.

In this communication, they spoke the word of God as tm,a (Jer 23:29). Quell, therefore, suggests that one who “Eschatological comforter,” [J. G. Davies, “The Primary Meaning of paravklhto",” Journal of Theological Studies 4 (1953): 35–38]; the spirit of messianic proclamation [C. K. Barrett, The Gospel According to St.

John, 2nd ed. (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1978), 461–63];

“sponsor” or “supporter” [K. Grayston, “The Meaning of PARAKLETOS,” Journal for the Study of the New Testament 13 (1981): 67–82]. Brown suggests that transliteration is best since the term is so packed with significance [Raymond E.

Brown, “The Paraclete in the Fourth Gospel,” New Testament Studies 13 (1967): 118–19].

C. K. Barrett, Gospel According to St. John, 463.

G. Quell, s.v. “ajlhvqeia,” in Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, 10 vols., ed. G. Kittel, trans. and ed. G. W. Bromiley (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1967; reprint, 1978), 1:232-33. Hereafter cited, TDNT.

Ibid., 1:234-35.

communicates tm,a shares “the incontestable fact of truth, and exercises truth, just as truth is the foundation in

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denotes the “eternal reality as revealed to men.”45 Therefore, truth is the divine reality disclosed by God to humanity.46 The Spirit is the “mediator of divine revelation.”47 This stands in direct contrast to the

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Spirit reveals truth, which corresponds to fact and eternal reality.

Barrett indicates that John employs ajlhvqeia as “the Christian revelation brought by and revealed in Jesus.”48 Indeed, in the context of chapter 14, ajlhvqeia in verse 17 calls to mind the self-appellation of Jesus in verse 6: ejgwv eijmi hJ oJdo;~ kai; hJ ajlhvqeia kai; hJ zwhv (John 14:6).49 The Spirit of truth unveils, not merely a concept of truth, but the person

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C. H. Dodd, The Interpretation of the Fourth Gospel (Cambridge: University Press, 1953), 177. Dodd makes this contention in light of John’s specific use of the term in his Gospel.

Dennis R. Lindsay, “What Is Truth? jAlhvqeia in the

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who is truth.50 As Kelly Monroe suggests, truth in reference to divine revelation is “neither an abstract concept nor a social construct,” but truth is Christ.51

This follows the proposal of Emil Brunner, who writes:

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[but also] He at once fulfills and realizes the will of God.”52 The Spirit makes divine reality accessible -ultimately in the person of Jesus Christ.53

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verse 26 Jesus promises, oJ de; paravklhto~, to; pneu`ma to; a{gion, o} pevmyei oJ path;r ejn tw`/ ojnovmativ mou, ejkei`no~ uJma`~ didavxei pavnta kai; uJpomnhvsei uJma`~ pavnta a} ei\pon uJmi`n.54 The consideration of didavxei pavnta D. A. Carson, The Gospel According to John (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1991), 500.

Kelly Monroe, “Finding God at Harvard: Reaching

the Post-Christian University,” in Telling the Truth:

Evangelizing Postmoderns, ed. D. A. Carson (Grand Rapids:

Zondervan, 2000), 298.

Emil Brunner, Truth as Encounter (Philadelphia:

Westminster, 1964), 154.

B. H. Jackayya, “ALHQEIA in the Johannine Corpus,” Concordia Theological Monthly 41 (March 1970): 171But the Paraclete, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in My name, that one will teach you all presents a difficulty in interpretation. Some commentators, such as Dunn, conclude that the didavxei pavnta of 14:26 includes “new revelation,” albeit controlled by the original revelation of Christ.55 The Holy Spirit directs the minds of the followers of Christ to the doctrine taught by Jesus.

D. A. Carson, however, indicates that the Spirit of truth speaks directly to the disciples. Accordingly, the Paraclete’s work is to help the disciples grasp the significance of Christ’s teaching following the resurrection.56 Carson, however, does allow for the implication of illumination by the Spirit at work in believers today.57 Stuhlmacher indicates, on the other hand, that “das Johannesevangelium erklärt ausdrücklich, das Jesuszeugnis der nachösterlichen Gemeinde sei vom Geist-Parakleten bevollmächtigt und getragen (Joh 16,7ff.). Bei der biblischen martyria handlet es sich also durchgängig um ein Wortzeugnis in der Kraft des den Menschen zur Erkenntnis und

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zur Verkündigung Gottes befähigenden hl. Geistes.”58 Stuhlmacher maintains the uniqueness of the inspiration of Scripture through the Holy Spirit. The Spirit, also, illumines the deposit of divine revelation to believers.

Through this ministry, the Spirit equips believers to proclaim the gospel to others. Through the Spirit the believers of Christ “bis heute die Stimme Gottes und seines Christus vernimmt” through Scripture.59 Erickson also indicates that the ministry of the Spirit of truth helps “believers today to understand Scripture.”60 The role of the Paraclete as the Spirit of truth is to teach and to remind disciples of the revelation of God through the life and ministry of Jesus Christ so that they might share the gospel of Christ with the conviction that it is absolute truth.

The Paraclete aids followers of Christ for the Peter Stuhlmacher, Vom Verstehen des Neuen Testaments: Eine Hermeneutik (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, 1986), 53. “The Gospel of John emphatically declares that the testimony of Jesus of the post-Easter community was empowered and born by the Spirit-Paraclete (John 16:7ff.). With the biblical martyria it is generally a question of a word-testimony which equips humanity for the knowledge and proclamation of God in the power of the Holy Spirit.” Ibid., 222. Through the Spirit believers of Christ “today hear the voice of God and His Christ.” Millard J. Erickson, Christian Theology, 2nd ed.

(Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1998), 890.

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illumines the followers of Christ today so that they might bear witness to the gospel in their world with conviction.61 Rather than promoting personal opinion, the Spirit invests believers with the conviction that the gospel is truth.

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elucidates the Paraclete’s role in the conviction of truth.

The Spirit of truth works in the world as witness to Jesus (marturhvsei peri; ejmou`). In this passage Jesus declares, {Otan e[lqh/ oJ paravklhto~ o}n ejgw; pevmyw uJmi`n para; tou` patrov~, to; pneu`ma th`~ ajlhqeiva~ o} para; tou` patro;~ ejkporeuvetai, ejkei`no~ marturhvsei peri; ejmou: kai;

uJmei`~ de; marturei`te, o{ti ajp j ajrxh`~ met j ejmou` ejste.62

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Trites indicates that the witness-motif presents an historical apologetic concerning the miracles and

Todd Hahn and David Verhaagen, Reckless Hope:

Understanding and Reaching Baby Busters (Grand Rapids:

Baker, 1996), 39.

“Whenever the Paraclete whom I send to you from the Father may come, the Spirit of truth who comes from the Father, that one will testify concerning Me; and you testify, because you are with Me from the beginning” (John 15:26-27).

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resurrection of Jesus for a lost world.64 Indeed, the apostolic approach for the evangelization of the ancient world centers upon the concept of witness.65 Jesus sends the Spirit of truth to empower His followers as witnesses through His own activity of witness. The Spirit empowers witnesses sufficiently in the postmodern world.

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conjoins with the witness of His followers in John 15:27.

Bultmann suggests that “the Spirit is the power of the proclamation in the community.”66 John uses different tenses of marturevw in verses 26 and 27. When he describes the testimony of the Spirit of truth, John uses the future tense, marturhvsei. This represents the future work of the Spirit of truth, which is to bear witness concerning Jesus.

In verse 27, John uses the imperative, marturei`te, which denotes a command and mandate.67 The followers of Christ have the mandate to join with the mission of the Spirit of Allison A. Trites, The New Testament Concept of Witness (Cambridge: University Press, 1979), 78-90, 138.

This subject will be examined in chapter five.

Rudolph Bultmann, The Gospel of John, trans.

George R. Beasley-Murray (Oxford: Blackwell, 1971), 553-54.

Fritz Rienecker, Linguistic Key to the Greek New

Testament, ed. and trans. Cleon Rogers Jr. (Grand Rapids:

Zondervan, 1976; reprint, 1980), 253. This could be the second person indicative, but the context appears to suggest the imperative.

truth and bear witness concerning Jesus Christ.68 The Spirit clothes the followers of Christ and their testimony for effective evangelization. Hoyt further suggests that the Spirit provides the duvnami~ for “credible witness.”69 John further describes the Spirit’s work in 16:13.

He highlights the work of the Spirit in the illumination of Christ’s followers. The role of the Spirit, according to John Frame, is to meet the need in believers “for inward change, a need to reconcile ourselves to what God has already revealed.”70

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which is hostile toward Jesus and the gospel. The Holy Spirit is on mission “to bear witness to Christ and to make Christ real to men.”71 This is the work of the Spirit in

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suggests that ejlevgcw usually means “to show someone his sin Leon Morris, The Gospel According to John (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1971), 684.

Herman A. Hoyt, “The Frantic Future and the Christian Directive: Acts 1:8,” Grace Journal 10 (Winter 1969): 38. The concept of a “credible witness” is specifically pertinent to the postmodern person who is immersed in skepticism about absolute “truth-claims.” John Frame, “The Spirit and the Scriptures,” in Hermeneutics, Authority, and Canon, eds. D. A. Carson and John D. Woodbridge (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1986), 231.

W. T. Connor, Work of the Holy Spirit, 89-90.

and to summon him to repentance.”72 Bultmann posits a legal setting in which the Spirit stands as the prosecuting

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passage is “démontrer l’erreur ou les torts de quelqu’un.”74 Kovsmo~ is the object of the Spirit’s work of ejlevgcw.

In distinctively Johannine language, the kovsmo~ consists of those who are apart from Christ and opposed to Him. The kovsmo~ is the aim of the redemptive mission of God through the Spirit.75 John indicates that the Paraclete works in the world to lead lost humanity to repentance.

The o}ti clauses provide further indication of the Spirit’s work (John 16:9-11). Bauer indicates that “die drei o{ti-Sätze 9-11 gehen an, inwiefern der Geist bezüglich der genannten Dinge die Welt zu ihrer Beschämung

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Bultmann, The Gospel of John, 564–65; George R.

Beasley-Murray, John, Word Biblical Commentary (Dallas:

Word, 1987), 280-81.

I. De la Potterie, La Vérité dans Saint Jean, 2 vols. (Rome: PBI, 1977), 2:404: “to demonstrate the error or the wrongs of somebody.”

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Walter Bauer, Das Johannesevangelium (Tübingen:

Mohr, 1933), 149: “the three o{ti-sentences concern, in what way the Spirit condemns regarding the named entity the world to its humiliation.” explicative, by which the Spirit demonstrates how the world is wrong about sin, righteousness, and judgment.

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three o{ti clauses and concludes that the Spirit speaks to the world’s sin, pseudo-righteousness, and wrong estimation of Jesus and their spiritual reality.77 Through witness, the Spirit reveals the truth of sin, demonstrates the pathway to righteousness, and warns of impending judgment.

The proclamation of the followers of Jesus is the instrument which the Spirit of truth uses to accomplish His work in the world.78 Through the witness of Christ’s followers, the Paraclete penetrates the evangelistic obstacles to bring individuals to the awareness of their need for repentance and salvation through Christ.79 The promise of the “visionary gift” and the promise of the Paraclete become a reality at Pentecost. God pours out His Spirit upon believers in fulfillment of the OT prophecy and Christ’s promise. Believers, then and now, live in personal intimacy with the Father and continue the Carson, “The Function of the Paraclete in John 16:7–11,” 548.

Beasley-Murray, John, 281.

Thomas C. Oden, Life in the Spirit, 91.

ministry of His Son.80

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The evangelization of postmodern people occurs in a chaotic kovsmo~ in which postmodernism is hostile to the gospel as objective truth. Bearing witness to Jesus in the postmodern world presents the challenge of epistemology.

The ministry of the Spirit, however, provides a bridge between the gospel metanarrative and postmodern incredulity.

David Wells correctly argues that the evangelistic witness is effective “because of the mighty power of the Holy Spirit, who alone is able to turn rebellious sinners into obedient followers of Christ.”81

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