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We thank Miguel Canals of the University of Puerto Rico for introducing us to PIV methods and Michael Shulters, Dale Cox, and Sandra Bond of the USGS for their help in collection and processing of TLS data. We thank Dianne Brien of the USGS for assisting with GPS data collection. We thank Janet Becker of University of Hawaii and Rex Baum and Brian Collins of the USGS for their very helpful comments. We also thank George Hilley, two anonymous reviewers, the Associate Editor and Editor Alexander Densmore for detailed and insightful reviews that significantly improved this contribution. We are grateful to the NASA Earth Surface and Interior program for funding.

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FIELDS Prepared to submit to Geology as Aryal, A., Brooks, B.A., and Reid, M.E., 2013, Landslide subsurface slip character inferred from

surface displacement fields:

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The stability of many large landslides is determined in part by deformation along buried, often inaccessible, slip surfaces. Factors such as rainfall cause changes in stress on the slip surface leading to changes in stability. Yet, locating this slip surface is challenging without information from expensive boreholes. Here we examine the hypothesis that depth and orientation of the buried slip surface and the subsurface slip rate can be estimated using ground-surface displacements measured by repeat terrestrial laser scanner data. Our approach adapts a technique used in earthquake geodesy, along with particle image velocimetry to estimate a 3D grounddisplacement field for a slow moving Cleveland Corral landslide in California. We test the efficacy of two models to estimate slip depth and slip rate of a translational slide - a 2D balanced cross-section method commonly applied to landslides and an elastic dislocation model widely applied to study geologic faults. The balanced cross-section method provides slip-surface depth;

a dislocation model determines slip-surface depth as well as orientation and slip magnitude. We compare model results with in-situ measurements from shear rods installed in the slide. The estimated slip-surface depth using both methods matches direct observations indicating that these approaches may offer more efficient and less costly means of inferring landslide geometry and slip behavior. Such knowledge enables assessment of the hazards posed by large, slow-moving landslides.

2.1 Introduction Analysis of surface displacement and subsurface slip can lead to a better understanding of landslide mechanics (Baum et al., 1998) and their attendant hazards (Keefer and Larsen, 2007).

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