WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 19 | 20 || 22 | 23 |   ...   | 33 |

«NETWORKING IN EVERYDAY LIFE by Bernard J. Hogan A thesis submitted in conformity with the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy ...»

-- [ Page 21 ] --

Whereas the analysis of linking by role was done using every alter that was elicited in the interview, communication frequency with network members was only done with a subset of these individuals. Recalling Chapter 4, the interviewer administered ‘minisurveys’ for many network members. Specific members were chosen using a purposive scheme that was designed to maximize the spread among network members. Prior analysis of the distribution of those sampled compared to the remaining network members demonstrated that these individuals did not vary significantly on either tie strength, gender or role, with one small exception. Extended family were less likely to be sampled relative to their presence in the network (Hogan et al., 2007). This is because only one alter per household could be selected for the minisurvey. Since many extended family members were named alongside their spouse, this accounts for the discrepancy.

The minisurvey asked about five points of contact: in person contact, contact while socializing, telephone contact, email contact and instant message contact. Undoubtedly, this is not a complete list of points of contact. Individuals also send greeting cards and in recent years, use social software for contact. However, this analysis precedes social software and greeting cards are not relevant, since I am interested in active (read: monthly) contact. Greeting cards are usually sent at special occasions rather than on a regular basis.

Table 6.3 summarizes the percent of alters contacted monthly or more via any

CHAPTER 6.

WITHIN-NETWORK VARIATIONS AND NETWORKED INDIVIDUALISM 150

medium/social context. The table is organized very similarly to Table 6.2. In both, the roles are ordered by their value and two columns are presented, weighted, and unweighted. Accordingly, the weighted values represent the average percent of alters contacted monthly per role, averaged across networks, whereas the unweighted values represent the average percent of alters contacted monthly per role regardless of their distribution in different networks.

Unsurprisingly, immediate family are the most likely group to be contacted via any medium. In addition to being the most dense, they also share a special place with most individuals as their first and most stable ties. What is more novel is that the second most often contacted group are online only alters. This reinforces hypothesis 2, as online alters are generally isolated from each other, and link, if anywhere, to other non-online network members. By virtue of being online and sparsely connected, it appears that their inclusion in the network is very sensitive to the amount of contact ego has with these alters.

A majority of alters from work are also contacted at least monthly, as are a slight majority of friends. Also, when examining the percent of friends contacted at least monthly, one can see that the weighted average is much higher than the unweighted average. Recall that this situation indicates that smaller networks play a greater role when the weighted average is higher than the unweighted. This means that as people increase the number of friends they recall for inclusion in the network, they will recall individuals who they see less frequently. This helps to further the idea that what one sees as ‘the network’ varies not only objectively, but also according to ego’s subjective threshold for who belongs in the network.

The idea that different roles have different thresholds for inclusion certainly reinforces the other groups on the lower end of the contact scale. Only one third of relatives and organizational member dyads are contacted monthly. This number is smaller than the weighted number, again reinforcing the idea that larger networks inCHAPTER 6. WITHIN-NETWORK VARIATIONS AND NETWORKED INDIVIDUALISM 151 clude more of these individuals who they would not contact as regularly. So why are these individuals included in the first place? As mentioned above, both relatives and organizational members are a part of a clearly intelligible structure, thus if one recalls one member, one might recall another. Individuals also think about their wider kin network as a structure of aunts, uncles, cousins, in-laws, and so forth. Thus, these individuals are included in the network not because their relationships are as actively maintained, but because they are part of group-like structures which themselves are actively maintained.

Given this pattern, neighbours might appear to be a fly in the ointment, so to speak.

They are not densely knit like organization members and relatives, nor are they frequently contacted like online friends and workmates. Yet, they are also a part of a perceptible structure—the structure of households on the street. Individuals can recall specific neighbours just by thinking about who lives near them and are close enough to be included in the network. By virtue of living near, they need not be as actively maintained (since they will be accessible regardless). That said, it is certainly possible to increase how many neighbours are ‘top of mind’ as Hampton and Wellman (2003) have noted in their Netville study. Therein, under relatively artificial conditions, those individuals who had the additional group focus of “high-speed Internet” were more likely to socialize and know their neighbours. However, given that subsequent studies of wired neighbourhoods have not seen such a similar phenomenon (Hampton, 2007), it is hard to tell whether there was a true effect of the Internet, or merely a Hawthorne effect of these individual being pro-social because they had a new and novel shared activity.





6.3.4 Summarizing the results from Part I The first research question was focused on the group-like structure of roles. I examined both the connectivity of individuals by role along with the proportion of individCHAPTER 6. WITHIN-NETWORK VARIATIONS AND NETWORKED INDIVIDUALISM 152 uals contacted by role. Both of these analyses were at the network level. As such, I cannot make a direct strong claim about the relationship between role structure and contact frequency. However, the two hypotheses given earlier in the chapter appear to be validated. Roles that are perceived as group-like due to pre-existing structures are indeed more inward linking than roles that do not possess such an obvious structure. Also, roles that show a group-like structure are more likely to be recalled even though there is less contact per individual—individuals show up in the network by virtue of their membership rather than ego’s activity with alter. The only exception to this is immediate family members (rather than all kin). They are both densely knit and frequently contacted.

There are significant consequences of these findings for a study of networked individualism. This study, like many that have come before, uses interpersonal closeness as a measure of inclusion in the network. This measure is partly a cognitive construct since it refers to how close individuals feel towards each other. Yet, people can feel (at least somewhat) close to a group of individuals, as evinced by numerous large cliques in the network. Of course individuals will feel closer to some group members than to others, but they are all still ‘close enough’ to warrant inclusion in the personal network.

Wellman talks about how individuals function in networks. Functioning in networks is not necessarily the same as thinking in networks. Functioning is also sensitive to the perceptual cues available from contexts for interaction. Some cues, like those on instant messenger and via mobile phone, are oriented towards individual interaction. By contrast, other cues, like a mailing list, or the membership list for a voluntary organization are oriented towards groups. Below I examine how individuals customize their interaction with specific network members, and whether the presence of certain groups leads to a notable difference in how individuals use media.

CHAPTER 6. WITHIN-NETWORK VARIATIONS AND NETWORKED INDIVIDUALISM 153

6.4 Part II: Variation by interaction pattern Taken solely as structures of relationships, social networks are clearly ordered, and roles help to define this order. By positing networked individualism as a theory of network composition, we can classify some roles as being more networked individualistic by virtue of their linking patterns (e.g., spanning the network rather than linking inwards towards homophilous roles). However, this is merely a secondary task (here, at least) to an appreciation of the networks as points of access for media use.

Networked individualism is a theory of media use with networks as much, or more than a theory of network composition.

One premise of this theory is that networked individuals will make use of new media technology to facilitate more person-to-person interaction and less place-to-place interaction. Media use will not superimpose itself cleanly over groups, but rather cut across specific boundaries, as individuals fine-tune their networking patterns with others (Wellman and Frank, 2001). This theory works well within an analysis of the social accessibility with alters. Namely, it suggests that access (both one’s ability to access alters and one’s actual behaviour) has changed as a result of the introduction of new media—or more precisely, that new media affordances facilitate new ways of interacting with alters enabling new patterns that are person/dyad specific rather than globally applied (Wellman et al., 2003).

For example, consider the description of “portability” as an affordance for networked individualism:

The person is the node to which communication is directed. Person-toperson communication is supplanting door-to-door and place-to-place communication...Personalization recognizes anywhere who people are. With portability, people take their devices with them. The combination facilitates the emphasis on individuals connecting and (mobilizing) to individuals, rather than individuals connecting to groups or groups connecting to

CHAPTER 6. WITHIN-NETWORK VARIATIONS AND NETWORKED INDIVIDUALISM 154

–  –  –

First, it is worth specifying whether or not personalization would be considered an affordance under my framework. The answer is somewhat clouded. Indeed, personalization fits the criteria of being a perceptual cue that is used when acting on one’s network. But personalization of “what”? As an informational affordance, it refers to the specific representation and organization of content based on the user’s actions, either explicitly (whereby users select what sort of content they want to see, such as showing movie listings on one’s “start” page) or implicitly (whereby algorithms select content based on a user’s behaviour—a common practice for targeted ads and online shopping recommender systems). As a relational affordance it is more obviously social. This is the fact that specific technologies provide individually tailored conduits to a specific person. This is the distinction between a person’s cellular phone and a home telephone, or a person’s inbox and a house’s mailbox.

Following through on Wellman’s idea of personalization as an affordance is the idea that individuals will have personalized repertoires between each other. Networked individualism is not simply a theory of mass media, where a medium would filter content based on the individual, but a theory of interpersonal communication where devices are tuned to the individual and her communication patterns. At the interpersonal level, this is precisely his point on how media connect people to each other when thinking about individuals versus groups. It is a point made again in his work with Kennedy on the house as a network (Kennedy and Wellman, 2007). Again, the authors focus on the use of personal new media and portable gadgets within the household, in contrast to focusing on the household as itself a point of contact.

CHAPTER 6. WITHIN-NETWORK VARIATIONS AND NETWORKED INDIVIDUALISM 155

6.4.1 How does the variation in contact with network members relate to structure?

So, to reiterate the general research question: what is the role of multiple media in linking the way people think about their network and how they act upon it? From

Wellman’s point of view, we should find:

Hypothesis 1 (On media use): That mere use of the Internet does not lead to more specific person-to-person media use behaviours.

Hypothesis 1a: But since the Internet affords personalization, heavy Internet users will have more specific person-to-person media use behaviours.

Hypothesis 2 (On group composition): Individuals with more alters from heterogeneous roles (e.g., roles that link to different roles) will be associated with more specific media use behaviours, and conversely individuals with alters from more homogeneous roles (e.g., alters who link to individuals of the same role) will be associated with more general and less per-alter media use behaviours.

Hypothesis 3 (On network structure): Individuals with a more fragmented network (either through lower density, greater numbers of components or more isolates) will exhibit more specific media use behaviours. And again, conversely, more coherent networks will exhibit more general media use behaviours.

However, to these general aspects of networked individualism I can add few other expectations based on insights from the previous chapter. The first relates to the planning variable used in the previous chapter. It is known that the partitions that use more media also plan more frequently. It was implied that these individuals use this media in order to attain additional “coverage” of their network—however, such coverage is not really necessary if everyone in a person’s network uses primarily the same

media. So I should find that:

Hypothesis 4 (On planning): Increased planning will be associated with more specific person-to-person media use behaviours.

CHAPTER 6. WITHIN-NETWORK VARIATIONS AND NETWORKED INDIVIDUALISM 156



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 19 | 20 || 22 | 23 |   ...   | 33 |


Similar works:

«FLEXIBLE NEURAL IMPLANTS Thesis by Ray Kui-Jui Huang In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Pasadena, California (Defended June 25, 2010) ii © 2011 Ray Kui-Jui Huang All Rights Reserved iii To My Family and Friends iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This dissertation not only reflects the countless hours spinning photoresist, cleaning parylene machines, and mixing epoxy in Caltech Micromachining Laboratory, but it is also a...»

«MALARIA CONTROL STRATEGIES IN THE KILOMBERO VALLEY, TANZANIA INAUGURAL-DISSERTATION Zur Erlangung der Würde eines Doktors der Philosophie vorgelegt der Philosophisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Basel von Salim Mohammed Khamis Abdulla aus Zanzibar Tansania Basel, November 2000 Genehmigt von der Philosophisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Basel auf Antrag der Herren Prof. Dr M. Tanner, PD Dr. C. Lengeler and PD Dr Tom Smith Basel, den 7. November 2000...»

«DESIGN, FABRICATION, AND OPERATION OF HYBRID BIONANODEVICES FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS By ROBERT MATTHEW TUCKER A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA © 2009 Robert Tucker To my Family and Friends, for their unwavering support ACKNOWLEDGMENTS First and foremost, I thank my advisor Dr. Henry Hess for his guidance, friendship, and support throughout the...»

«FACTORS INFLUENCING RESIDENTS'ATTITUDE TOWARDS TOURISM DEVELOPMENT ON THE REMOTE ISLAND OF SOCOTRA, YEMEN HUSSEIN ABDULQADER AL-GAHURI DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY LINIVERSITI UTARA MALAYSIA JULY 2014 FACTORS INFLUENCING RESIDENTS'ATTITUDE TOWARDS TOURISM DEVELOPMENT ON THE REMOTE ISLAND OF SOCOTRA, YEMEN BY HUSSEIN ABDULQADER AL-GAHURI Thesis Submitted to Ghazali Shafie Graduate School of Govrnment, Universiti Utara Malaysia, in Fl~lfillment the Requirement for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy of...»

«Cosmo Girls, Cheetah Boys and Creatures Unlike Any Other: Relationship Advice and Social Change in North America by Sarah Kathryn Knudson A thesis submitted in conformity with the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Department of Sociology University of Toronto © Copyright by Sarah Knudson 2012 Cosmo Girls, Cheetah Boys and Creatures Unlike Any Other: Relationship Advice and Social Change in North America Sarah Kathryn Knudson Doctor of Philosophy Department of Sociology...»

«Structure Investigations of Membrane Protein OEP16 by James Duncan Zook A Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy Approved May 2012 by the Graduate Supervisory Committee: Petra Fromme, Chair Julian Chen Rebekka Wachter ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY August 2012 ABSTRACT Membrane protein structure is continuing to be a topic of interest across the scientific community. However, high resolution structural data of these proteins is difficult...»

«THE CERTIFIED REGISTERED NURSE ANESTHETIST: OCCUPATIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES, PERCEIVED STRESSORS, COPING STRATEGIES, AND WORK RELATIONSHIPS Tristan Roberts Perry Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy In Curriculum and Instruction Kerry Redican, Chair Jane Abraham Charles Baffi Bonnie Billingsley John Burton November 6, 2002 Blacksburg, Virginia Keywords:...»

«MARIEKE VAN PUYMBROECK, Ph.D., CTRS, FDRT Clemson University mvp@clemson.edu Department of Parks, Recreation, & Tourism Management 864.656.1189 (phone) 278 Lehotsky Hall, Box 340735 864.656.2226 (fax) Clemson, SC 29634-0735 864.986.1843 (cell) FORMAL EDUCATION Doctor of Philosophy in Rehabilitation Science May 2004 University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida Emphasis: Social and Behavioral Integration Concentration: Rehabilitation Counseling Minor: Gerontology Dissertation: “Predictors of...»

«Richard L. W. Clarke LITS2306 Notes 05A RENÉ DESCARTES MEDITATIONS ON FIRST PHILOSOPHY (1641) Descartes, René. Meditations on First Philosophy. Selected Philosophical Writings. Trans. John Cottingham, Robert Stoothoff and Dugald Murdoch. Cambridge: CUP, 1988. 73-122. Meditation I: What can be called into Doubt (“The General Demolition of My Opinions” [76]) Here, Descartes’s concerns are epistemological in nature as he plunges into the depth of skepticism, coming to the view that almost...»

«UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Stress in the Lithosphere from Non-Tectonic Loads with Implications for Plate Boundary Processes A dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree Doctor of Philosophy in Earth Sciences by Karen Marie Luttrell Committee in charge: David Sandwell, Chair Bruce Bills Donna Blackman Steve Cande Yuri Fialko Xanthippi Markenscoff 2010 © 2010 Karen Marie Luttrell All rights reserved The Dissertation of Karen Marie Luttrell is...»

«Sex ratios of sea turtle hatchlings: direct and indirect estimates by Matthew Howland Godfrey A thesis submitted in conformity with the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Graduate Department of Zoology University of Toronto ©Copyright by Matthew Howland Godfrey 1997 i Sex ratios of sea turtle hatchlings: direct and indirect estimates ©1997 by Matthew Howland Godfrey. A thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Graduate Department of Zoology, University of...»

«Does the Race of Police Officers Matter? Police Officers on Interactions with Citizens and Police Procedures By Copyright 2014 Solomon Woods Submitted to the graduate degree program in Public Affairs and Administration and the Graduate Faculty of the University of Kansas in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. _ Chairperson Charles R. Epp Steven Maynard-Moody Rosemary O’Leary Shannon Portillo William G. Staples Date Defended: May 20, 2014 The...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.