WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 29 | 30 || 32 | 33 |

«NETWORKING IN EVERYDAY LIFE by Bernard J. Hogan A thesis submitted in conformity with the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy ...»

-- [ Page 31 ] --

My father comes from a large Irish Catholic family. He has six siblings, and a widowed mother. The mother as well as four of the siblings still live in my hometown. On many nights of the week, Dad will leave after supper and drop-in to most of his kin in town. The door is usually open, and he’ll simply call out to find out if anyone is home.

If not, he’ll move on to the next house, usually ending at my Grandmother’s place. I had my father’s networking in mind when I included “dropping in” in the social activity questions that were used in chapter 5. It is spatiotemporal—he’ll drop-in during the evenings to fixed places from a reasonably well defined set of relations. My father does little planning, calling ahead or checking. And from what I understand of other visitors in rural Newfoundland, this is the norm rather than the exception. However, in this survey, those people who did the most dropping in were, by contrast, the most heavy planners. They would use a diversity of media to continually renegotiate their dropping in, or hanging out. Networking in Toronto does not permit such easy access across alters. No doubt, part of this is because of the geographic size. However, that is only part of the explanation. Here dropping in appears to take on a different character. People plan ad hoc, rather than assume permeable social boundaries and just drop-in unannounced. It is a shift from maintaining ties based on rhythmic patterns (and accessibility using spatial boundaries and temporal norms) towards maintaining ties based on who one can get ahold of through various media.

Within this shift in networking towards access, one can see the relevance of social affordances. Access is understood through affordances. Whether it is the list of people

–  –  –

people one can easily find at a regular meeting or the list of alters on a social media site like Facebook, affordances guide access. An affordance of asynchronous interaction permits access at any time whereas the affordance of a buddy list is a cue to who is available for conversation at any given time, regardless of place. Yet, these social affordances are often based on the intuitions of media designers, or even planners, coupled with the contingencies of history rather than the cognitive biases of individuals. An unlocked back door in a rural town affords “come on in, our door is [literally] open”. But there are subtle norms at play about when people will show up, when they leave and how frequently they visit. Simply because the door is unlocked does not mean anyone can stroll in without good reason, nor can people do it at any time (Zerubavel, 1985; Melbin, 1987). The unlocked door does not give the same sort of cues about when is a good time to access others—that is managed through larger cultural norms of dropping in. By contrast, new media clearly articulate the affordances of access—by responding to messages promptly, or reading a person’s status message one is given contingent and often personalized perceptual cues of availability. For example, it is not important that I am home, or that it is in the evening: if I am on instant messenger and I say I am available, then I am available. This shift implies a change from culturally understood norms of public and private time and space, as per Zerubavel’s original conception of social accessibility (1979) to dyadically negotiated per-media combinations leveraging specific social affordances from software and individual styles.

It is not an entirely welcome shift, as individual negotiations are often mediated by power. For example, bosses can now individually negotiate work hours with subordinates, encouraging email use on off hours or cell phone access regardless of place (Middleton and Cukier, 2006; Hogan and Fisher, 2006; Salaff, 2002; Perlow, 1998).

Users of the Blackberry (a mobile email, web, and cellular device) appear perpetually

–  –  –

uals can also hold non-regular hours, believing that the people who need get ahold of them will know how to do so, regardless of the time (when in fact that is not always the case). In their study of mobile phone adoption, Sarker and Wells eloquently pointed to this issue. “Interestingly, users of mobile devices experienced a simultaneous sense of freedom from being bound to their desks with a tethered device, yet, at the same time, a sense of captivity” (2003, 36). This quote captures the inherent contradiction of a shift to networking based on access. What the users felt was not liberation nor oppression—it was a yet unnamed shift in thinking about how to regulate personal boundaries and manage ties. I would name this shift as a transition from spatiotemporal networking to networking based on access. And the resulting anomie (considered as captivity in the quote above) is based on a shift from maintaining ties with one’s closest ties in specific spatiotemporally bounded behaviour settings to networking with one’s most accessible alters regardless of spatiotemporal boundaries.

Yet, one may argue that these drawbacks are themselves a technological, rather than a social, failing. It is possible that with better affordances such as “contextualawareness” (Bolchini et al., 2007; Schilit, Adams, and Want, 1994), the media themselves will provide additional cues. Such cues should enable people to have the benefit of individually negotiated interactions (bridging the gap between the more strongly tied individuals and the more accessible ones) without reverting to broad cultural norms of spatiotemporal regularity.





If one believes that networking should be about facilitating interaction with those with whom we share the strongest bonds, then this can be taken as a design challenge for new media entrepreneurs. For example, SNARF, a project from Microsoft Research, sought to reorganize mail according to social network metrics (Fisher, Brush, Hogan, Smith, and Jacobs, 2007). Facebook is presently experimenting with how it can fine-tune social networking with gradated forms of access by closeness, and Google’s mail client intelligently lists addresses to help with auto-complete features.

CHAPTER 8. CONCLUSION: NETWORKING AS ACCESSIBILITY 226

In all cases, these products are creating a “next-generation” style of online interaction that seeks to bridge the gap between who is accessible (by virtue of being at the top of a list, or included in a series of messages) and who an individual wants to access (by virtue of being a strong or significant tie). However, these products still have a long ways to go, if this analysis is any measure. Most importantly, they are still at the social network-on-one-medium level, whereas one can observe from this work that networks are pan media. Most people use multiple media with their network, or at the very least one medium in addition to in person contact. Groups that may exist in one medium may not exist in another, or may only be partially formed by looking at the connections in a given media. Also, individuals who are more spatially proximate seem to benefit differentially from multiple media access and those who are embedded in the overall network also seem to be given multiple media access.

That this may be a technological failing is not necessarily a bad thing. In fact, it suggests that research on how individuals conceive of their networks, act upon them and regulate access in myriad sociohistorical contexts can be leveraged in the design of smarter technologies. This is a practical and hasty role for sociologists in the creation of new media devices and interoperability between existing ones. While sociologists are not the designers of these systems, we need not exclusively look on as detached critics. In between these two poles of engaged designer and disengaged critic is a place for a sociologically informed analysis of networking that can identify differential access and pressure points. By using a language of affordances and access it is possible that we can translate these pressure points and the gap between closeness and accessibility into an operational language for next generation systems. At the very least, we can diagnose the anomie, articulate the contradictions and hope that the others will take up where we leave off with ever more parsimonious ways to network in everyday life.

References Adamic, Lada and Eytan Adar. 2005. “How to search a social network.” Social Networks 27:187–203.

Anderson, Ben. 2008. “The Social impact of broadband household internet access.” Information, Communication & Society 11:5–24.

Antonucci, Toni. 1986. “Measuring Social Support Networks: Hierarchical Mapping Technique.” Generations 10:10–12.

Archer, Margaret. 1995. Realist Social Theory: The Morphogenetic Approach. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Arnold, M., M. R. Gibbs, and P. Wright. 2003. “Intranets and Local Community: ‘Yes, an intranet is all very well, but do we still get free beer and a barbeque?’.” In Communities and Technologies, edited by M. Huysman, E. Wenger, and V. Wulf, pp. 185–204, Norwell, MA. Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Bacher, Johann. 1995. “Goodness-of-fit measures for Multiple Correspondence Analysis.” Quality & Quantity 29:1–16.

Baker, Wayne E. 1994. Networking smart: how to build relationships for personal and organizational success. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Barker, Roger G. 1968. Ecological psychology: concepts and methods for studying the environment of human behavior. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.

Baron, Naomi. 2008. Always On: Language in an Online and Mobile World. Oxford, UK:

Oxford University Press.

Baron, Reuben A. 2007. “Situating Coordination and Cooperation Between Ecological and Social Psychology.” Ecological Psychology 19:179–199.

Barthes, Roland. 1973. Mythologies. Hill & Wang.

Bearman, Peter and Paolo Parigi. 2004. “Cloning Headless Frogs and Other Important Matters: Conversation Topics and Network Structre.” Social Forces 83:535–557.

Bell, Daniel. 1973. The coming of post-industrial society: a venture in social forecasting.

New York: Basic Books.

Bernard, H. Russell, Peter D. Killworth, and Lee Sailer. 1979. “Informant Accuracy in Social Network Data IV: A Comparison of Clique-Level Structure in Behavioral and Cognitive Network Data.” Social Networks 2:191–218.

Boase, Jeffrey. 2006. America Online and Offline: The Relationship of Personal Networks to Email and Other Communication Media. Ph.D. thesis, University of Toronto,

References 228

Toronto.

Boase, Jeffrey, John Horrigan, Barry Wellman, and Lee Rainie. 2006. Pew Report:

The Strength of Internet Ties. Washington, DC: Pew Internet and American Life Project.

Boissevain, Jeremy. 1974. Friends of Friends. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing.

Bolchini, Cristiana, Carlo A. Curino, Elisa Quintarelli, Fabio A. Schreiber, and Letizia Tanca. 2007. “A data-oriented survey of context models.” SIGMOD Rec. 36:19– 26.

boyd, danah and Nicole Ellison. 2007. “Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship.” Journal of Computer Mediated Communication 13:210–230.

Bradner, Erin, Wendy A. Kellogg, and Thomas Erickson. 1999. “The Adoption and Use of ’BABBLE’: A Field Study of Chat in the Workplace.” Proceedings of the Sixth European conference on Computer supported cooperative work pp. 139–158.

Burt, Ronald. 1984. “Network Items and the General Social Survey.” Social Networks 6:293–339.

Burt, R.S. 1992. Structural Holes: The Structure of Competition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Cairncross, Frances. 1997. The death of distance: how the communications revolution will change our lives. Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press.

Calinksi, T and J Harabasz. 1974. “A dendrite method for cluster analysis.” Communications in Statistics 3:1–27.

Campbell, Scott W. and Tracy C. Russo. 2003. “The Social Construction of Mobile Telephony: An Application of the Social Influence Model to Perceptions and Uses of Mobile Phones within Personal Communication Networks.” Communication Monographs 70:317–334.

Carrasco, Juan Antonio, Bernie Hogan, Barry Wellman, and Eric Miller. Forthcoming.

“Agency in Social Activity and ICT Interactions: The Role of Social Networks in Time and Space.” Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie [Journal of Economic and Social Geography].

Carrasco, Juan Antonio and Eric Miller. 2006. “Exploring the propensity to perform social activities: Social networks approach.” Transportation 33:463–480.

Castells, Manuel. 2000. The Rise of the Network Society. Oxford, UK: Blackwell, 2nd edition.

Castells, Manuel, Mireia Fernandez-Ardevol, Jack Linchuan Qiu, and Araba Sey. 2006.

Mobile Communication and Society: A Global Perspective. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1 edition.

Cope, Mick. 2003. Personal Networking. London: Financial Times/Prentice Hall.

Coser, Rose Laub. 1975. “The Complexity of Roles as a Seedbed of Individual Autonomy.” In The idea of social structure: Papers in honor of Robert K. Merton., edited by Lewis A. Coser, pp. 237–264. New York: Harcourt Bruce Jovanovich.

Daft, R. L., R. H. Lengel, and L. K. Trevino. 1987. “Message Equivocality, Media SeReferences 229 lection, and Manager Performance: Implications for Information Systems.” MIS Quarterly 11:355–366.

DiMaggio, Paul, Eszter Hargittai, W. Russell Neuman, and John P. Robinson. 2001.

“Social Implications of the Internet.” Annual Review of Sociology 27:307–336.

Dimitriadou, Evgenia. 2007. “Convex Clustering Methods and Clustering Indexes.” Technical report, Vienna University of Technology.

Dobbs, Michael. 2007. “Candidate Watch: Rudy’s ’Spontaneous’ Cell Phone ’Stunt’.” ´ Durkheim, Emile. 1915. The elementary forms of the religious life. Free Press paperbacks.

New York: Free Press.

Durkheim, Emile. 1933. The division of labor in society. Free Press paperbacks. Free Press of Glencoe.

Durkheim, Emile. 1982. Rules of Sociological Method. New York: Free Press.

Ellison, Nicole, Charles Steinfeld, and Cliff Lampe. 2007. “The Benefits of Facebook “Friends”: Social Capital and College Students’ Use of Online Social Network Sites.” Journal of Computer Mediated Communication 12.

Emirbayer, M. 1997. “Manifesto for a relational sociology.” American Journal of Sociology 103:281–317.



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 29 | 30 || 32 | 33 |


Similar works:

«Interpreting Variability Through Multiple Methodologies: The Interplay of Form and Function in Epipalaeolithic Microliths by Danielle Aviva Macdonald A thesis submitted in conformity with the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Department of Anthropology University of Toronto © Copyright by Danielle Aviva Macdonald 2013 Interpreting Variability Through Multiple Methodologies: The Interplay of Form and Function in Epipalaeolithic Microliths Danielle Aviva Macdonald Doctor of...»

«University of Iowa Iowa Research Online Theses and Dissertations 2015 Computational methods to model disease and genetic effects on optic nerve head structure Mark Allen Christopher University of Iowa Copyright 2015 Mark Allen Christopher This dissertation is available at Iowa Research Online: http://ir.uiowa.edu/etd/1959 Recommended Citation Christopher, Mark Allen. Computational methods to model disease and genetic effects on optic nerve head structure. PhD (Doctor of Philosophy) thesis,...»

«The Philosophical Basis of Kazantzakis’s Writings Peter Bien My subject tonight is the philosophical basis of Nikos Kazantzakis’s writings. Let me start by saying that Kazantzakis was way ahead of his time philosophically and is still way ahead of our own time in many ways. When I use the word “philosophically” in this context, I really mean “religiously,” because Kazantzakis’s basic philosophy is a cosmology—namely, a study of what makes the universe tick. This is what religion...»

«DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ RESEARCH REPORT No. 9/2010 ANALYSIS OF FLUID FLOW THROUGH POROUS MEDIA BASED ON X-RAY MICRO-TOMOGRAPHIC RECONSTRUCTIONS BY VIIVI KOIVU Academic Dissertation for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy To be presented, by permission of the Faculty of Mathematics and Science of the University of Jyväskylä, for public examination in the old grand hall (S212) of the University of Jyväskylä on 22nd October 2010 at 12 o’clock Jyväskylä, Finland...»

«“STINKY AND SMELLY – BUT PROFITABLE”: THE CAPE GUANO TRADE, c.1843 – 1910 HENDRIK SNYDERS DISSERTATION PRESENTED FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY (HISTORY) IN THE FACULTY OF ARTS AND SOCIAL SCIENCES AT STELLENBOSCH UNIVERSITY PROMOTOR: PROFESSOR SANDRA S. SWART CO-PROMOTOR: PROFESSOR ALBERT. M. GRUNDLINGH DECEMBER 2011 1 University of Stellenbosch http://scholar.sun.ac.za DECLARATION By submitting this dissertation electronically, I declare that the entirety of the work contained...»

«Worlds of Wonder: National Parks, Zoos, Disney, and the Genealogies of Wonder in U.S. Culture By Geneviève Ardouin Creedon A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Comparative Literature) in the University of Michigan Doctoral Committee: Professor June M. Howard, Co-Chair Professor Peggy S. McCracken, Co-Chair Professor Philip J. Deloria Professor Vassilios Lambropoulos Professor Patricia Smith Yaeger (Deceased) © Geneviève...»

«Copyright Statement This copy of the thesis has been supplied on condition that anyone who consults it is understood to recognize that its copyright rests with its author and that no quotation from the thesis and no information derived from it may be published without the author’s prior consent. Thecla Henrietta Helena Maria Schiphorst, 2008 2009. THE VARIETIES OF USER EXPERIENCE BRIDGING EMBODIED METHODOLOGIES FROM SOMATICS AND PERFORMANCE TO HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION by Thecla Henrietta...»

«UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Santa Barbara Analysis of Geographically Embedded Networks A dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree Doctor of Philosophy in Geography by John Alan Glennon Committee in charge: Professor Michael Goodchild, Chair Professor Richard Church Professor Keith Clarke Professor Shih-Lung Shaw March 2013 The dissertation of John Alan Glennon is approved. Richard Church Keith Clarke Shih-Lung Shaw Michael Goodchild, Committee Chair...»

«INTERSECTIONS, INTERTEXTUALITY AND INTERPRETATION: THE GRAPHIC NOVEL AS POSTMODERN LITERARY PASTICHE A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of Purdue University By Katrina L. Imison-Mázy In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy May 2010 Purdue University West Lafayette, Indiana ii To Tristan Alexander Imison-Mázy for changing my life in all the best ways. iii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author would like to thank all the family and friends who have supported,...»

«RELATIONSHIP OF EMOTION AND COGNITION TO WANDERING BEHAVIORS OF PEOPLE WITH DEMENTIA by Kyung Hee Lee A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment Of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Nursing) in The University of Michigan 2011 Doctoral Committee: Emeritus Professor Donna L. Algase, Chair Associate Professor Bruno J. Giordani Clinical Associate Professor Laura M. Struble Professor Reg A. Williams To my parents ii     ACKNOWLEGEMENTS This dissertation could not be...»

«A PRINCIPLED APPROACH TO MANAGING ROUTING LARGE ISP NETWORKS IN YI WANG A DISSERTATION PRESENTED FACULTY TO THE PRINCETON UNIVERSITY OF CANDIDACY DEGREE IN FOR THE DOCTOR PHILOSOPHY OF OF RECOMMENDED ACCEPTANCE FOR BY DEPARTMENT THE OF COMPUTER SCIENCE ADVISOR: PROFESSOR JENNIFER REXFORD JUNE 2009 c Copyright by Yi Wang, 2009. All rights reserved. Abstract Internet Service Providers (ISPs) are the core building blocks of the Internet, and play a crucial role in keeping the Internet...»

«Alterations in endogenous opioid neurotransmission associated with acute and long-term use of drugs of abuse by Emily Buitron Nuechterlein A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Neuroscience) in the University of Michigan Doctoral Committee: Professor Jon-Kar Zubieta, Chair Professor J. Wayne Aldridge Professor Daniel J. Clauw Professor Robert A. Koeppe Professor Stephan F. Taylor ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to express my...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.