WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 12 | 13 || 15 | 16 |   ...   | 32 |

«RELIGIOUS DIFFERENCES: SUBJECTIVITY AND ALTERITY IN THE CHANSON DE ROLAND by Normand Raymond Bachelor of Arts, Laurentian University, 2001 Master of ...»

-- [ Page 14 ] --

These antagonisms are, in effect, manifestations of differing, or subjective, modes of establishing a sense of honour. It is important to remember that honour is binary. On the one hand, honour is a physical and ritualized manifestation of a social “code”, since it is an amalgamation of a complex structure of rites, gestures, and varied outward markings which all serve to establish degrees of propriety and status within a given society123. Honour is related to propriety inasmuch as honour serves to institute what is proper or due to one in such and such a situation.

Now what is proper, what is honourable, can only be proper or honourable to the degree that it is a function of a difference from what is not itself. A subject can only be honoured if the process honouring him is distinguished from those manifestations where other subjects are not being honoured, or, are being dishonoured. The social dimension of honour serves as a marking for the subject. Rituals of honour, for instance, would mean nothing if its function of differentiation were not in relation to other terms, rituals and gestures of honour or dishonour.

On the other hand, honour is also a deeply subjective, or a personal “sentiment”. Honour displays the degree to which a subject is interested in his social status, and the recognition that such a status confers upon himself. Honour suggests that the subjectivizing process is not disinterested but to the contrary, characters are vexed or pleased by the honour they receive since such displays contribute to their view of the relationship they must maintain to their continued fidelity to the subjectivizing process. It is here that the subjectivizing model evidenced in the « Chanson de Roland » distinguishes itself from the kind of model proposed by Alain Badiou.

The poetic model is deeply interested in subjectivity, in cultural formation and identity, and in the gratification (temporal and Transcendent) that can be sought and obtained from pursuing the

logic of this model. This is far removed from a vision wherein:

As Huizinga has remarked : “Every order and estate, every rank and profession, was distinguished by its costume. The great lords never moved about without a glorious display of arms and liveries, exciting fear and envy.

Executions and other public acts of justice, hawking, marriages and funerals, were all announced by cries and processions, songs and music. The lover wore the colors of his lady; companions the emblem of their confraternity;

parties and servants the badges or blazon of their lords.” Huizinga, The Waning of the Middle Ages. Translated by F. Hopman, Penguin Books, London, 1987, p. 9.

(F)idelity, the commitment to a truth, amounts to something like a disinterested enthusiasm, absorption in a compelling task or cause, a sense of elation, of being caught up in something that transcends all petty, private or material concerns. 124 As a consequence, honour, with respect to a situation and the determinate aspects of that situation, varies according to the manner in which the subject chooses to remain faithful to some code, morale, or creed that he identifies with, and which, in turn, in the case of Roland, orientates subjectivity in its turn towards continuity, or away from it. But all of this suggests that there can arise contrasting views as to what may count as “faithfulness”, or the best procedure to maintain the subjectivizing process. As Hegel has demonstrated, the sense of having been

honoured/dishonoured is directly related to one’s private sense of self-worth:

Ici l’offense ne regarde plus la valeur réelle de l’objet qu’il s’agisse de propriété, du rang, d’un droit etc… ; mais la personnalité en soi, l’opinion que le sujet a de lui-même, la valeur qu’il s’attribue. Or, cette valeur, au point où nous sommes, est infinie, comme le sujet est infini à ses propres yeux. Dans l’honneur, l’homme a donc la conscience la plus intime de sa subjectivité infinie, comme étant indépendante de son contenu. … la mesure de l’honneur n’est donc pas dans ce qu’est l’individu en lui-même, mais dans ce

–  –  –

In many respects, it would not be an exaggeration to say that honour is closely connected to a subject’s understanding of himself. Any given knight or warrior (or any given individual for that matter) can have a particular sense of what is honourable for himself, of what best allows for his subjectivity to continue in the here-and-now, or in the hereafter. Honour is to be understood Peter Hallward ‘Translator’s Introduction’, in Badiou, Ethics. An Essay on the Understanding of Evil. Translated by Peter Hallward, Verso’ New York, 2001, p. x.

Hegel, Esthétiques. Textes choisis et traduit par Claude Khodoss, PUF, Paris, 1953, p. 197.

as that which is due a subject. Any particular knight or warrior can assign this idea or sense of honour as his subjectivizing standard. Where honour is lacking, the subjectivizing process has been diminished or impeded in some fashion. Where honour is lacking, as would be the case with the songs of ill-repute that Roland fears so much, the subjectivizing process would be both continued and perverted: continued inasmuch as the subjects fallen at Roncevaux would be remembered, and perverted insofar as they would be remembered for not having gained immortality (the transcendent version), while being set up as the very antithetical paradigm to Frankish Christian subjectivizing.





That members of the same society could disagree as to the best means of actions, allows us to understand that these members are not all the same, nor should they be viewed merely as “types” (the traitor, the hero, the wise etc…). The differences which separate these characters unites them in their all having subjectivities that are to be. They are united in that all of them must choose to recognize a truth, they must choose a manner of adhering to that truth (or betraying it), and they must choose how they will be continue in this decision, playing out their subjective decision with respect to this adherence or betrayal. It is precisely this subjectivizing presence within the Frankish realm that creates the potential for conflict, and disaster. Simply put, a subjective appreciation of how to best establish honour fixes its meaning in a manner that inevitably engenders tension and conflict, since there is bound to be a degree of misunderstanding between the quotidian expression of honour (ritualized and outwardly expressed), and the subjective valuation of honour that generates a highly volatile standard 126 that is hard to define127.

This is precisely what we find in the “Chanson de Roland”. The tension between outward expressions of honour/respect, and a subjective sense of injury or dishonour, is at the very heart of the conflict between Ganelon and Roland. The first “subjective” flourish or insult happens when Ganelon, in the presence of all of the king’s most noble barons, publicly belittles Roland’s counsel to the king (itself a violation of the code or etiquette of counsel, since Roland, faithful to his faithfulness in warring against the enemies of God, speaks first, an “honour” that is not his by rank128) by counselling Charlemagne to discount the advice of fools129.

Notwithstanding the content of Ganelon’s rebuke, one could argue that he is, to some extent, correct in chastising Roland for having violated the ritualized order of the council chamber.

However, it is not the outward expression of rebuke that seems to chafe Roland, but rather, the fact that Ganelon’s attack is an attack on his very subjectivity, on the legitimacy of his subjectivizing process. To be called a fool, is, of course, a way of discrediting a person’s subjectivity, by indicating that there is something rash, hazardous, or unstable about that subject.

In other words, what this subject says, and is willing to do (thereby evoking its subjectivizing Standards that waxe and wane with the precariousness of the sense of personhood, as Hegel states: "Car, aussi loin que j’étende mes prétentions, quelles que soient les objets sur lesquels elles se portent, leur fondement est toujours ma volonté arbitraire". Hegel, Esthétiques, p. 198.

Questions of personal honor are not unrelated to questions of private languages, and the volatility of the former is also suggested in the volatility, the uncertainty (epistemological, sociological and linguistic) of the latter. As Wittgenstein has stated: “The essential thing about private experience is really not that each person possesses his own exemplar, but that nobody knows whether other people also have this or something else. The assumption would thus be possible –though unverifiable- that one section of mankind had one sensation or red and another section another”. Wittgenstein, Philosophical Investigations. Translated by G.E.M. Anscombe, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 1958, p. 95e.

As Ian Short remarks in his translation of the "Chanson de Roland" : "Roland, le premier à prendre la parole, et cela aux mépris de l’ordre hiérarchique feudal, est le seul à s’inscrire en faux contre la politique de l’apaisement".

La chanson de Roland, n.194 à la p. 41.

“E dist al rei: “Ja mar crerez bricun”. Verse 220. Now it should be remembered that Ganelon says this immediately after Roland has advised Charlemagne to ignore Marsile’s pleas for peace, and to continue his military endeavours in Spain.

process) is not to be trusted. Given the terms of Ganelon’s critique, given the words he uses to describe Roland, his negative description of Roland serves to demean and undermine his worth both as a warrior/counsellor to Charlemagne, and as a subject proposing a manner for subjectivities to be conducted. Simply put, Ganelon is stating that Roland simply cannot be trusted, there is a degree of unreasonableness, of madness in his speech (and likely, his acts) and therefore should not be listened to since he is rash, unwise, and a fool. Ganelon is personally

attacking Roland. He is attacking the subject-Roland. As T. Atkinson Jenkins has remarked:

Ganelon, then, in a fiery speech (vv. 220-29), refers to Roland as a bricon (which seems to mean "a worthless fellow"), again as a fol, and accuses his step-son of criminal indifference to dangers run by others than himself: Roland, says Ganelon, has given us

–  –  –

subject in a place of ritualized honour, a public space. If things were to remain as they were, Roland might be vexed, but the damage would indeed be limited. Such, of course, is not the case. One insult will give way to another, and this second attack will be both verbal and physical (at least by proxy) in nature.

Undoubtedly vexed at having been “made the fool” in front of his peers, Roland then designates Ganelon to lead the king’s embassy, publicly instituting him in a role rife with the potential for great personal harm. Roland, by naming Ganelon, places Ganelon’s subjectivity in harm’s way, and endangers Ganelon’s potential for continuity. If Roland has been attacked by

Ganelon, he reverses the field by placing Ganelon in a situation where:

Jenkins, ‘Why did Ganelon Hate Roland?’, in MLA. Vol. 36, No. 2, (June 1921), p. 121.

a) Ganelon will be dishonoured if he refuses to accept the king’s mission and is replaced by Roland131. In this case, Roland will be allowed to continue in his subjectivizing process (warring against the enemies of God) while Ganelon will be contained in his potential process.

b) Ganelon risks certain death if he accepts the king’s mission given the prior treachery of the Saracens132. It is interesting to note that this death would allow Ganelon to continue his subjectivizing process since: i) he would, in a sense be dying in “combat” against the enemies of God. ii) his fateful mission would, as with Basan and Basil133, allow him to be remembered by the collective body of the Franks, and, most likely, would also guarantee him transcendent immortality. That Ganelon does not consider these possibilities undoubtedly says something about his devotion to the Frankish/Christian cause.

What we should retain is that Roland’s designation of Ganelon is itself an insult to him as a subject. Roland seems to be condemning the subject-Ganelon to certain death as one of the Franks who should not benefit from the king’s protection. As Robert Hall has stated, the context within which Roland’s designation is situated further demonstrates his undermining of Ganelon’s

subjective honor:

As shown by the fate of Basan and Basile on an earlier mission (verses 207-13), this mission is so dangerous as to be almost certainly fatal; consequently Charlemagne is absolutely unwilling to sacrifice any of his best men, and rejects their offers to go, with such emphasis that his reason should be evident to all (verses 244-73). The resultant That such a substitution would be seen as a violation of status and honour is suggested by Ganelon himself when he responds to Roland’s suggestion : “Guenes respunt : Pur mei n’iras tu mie!/ Tu n’ies mes hom ne jo ne sui tis sire”. Verses 298-299.

See verses 201-209.

See verses 205-209.

implication is that anyone chosen for this mission must necessarily be of second rank, and clearly “expendable”.134 This undermining of Ganelon’s subjectivity is compounded further when Roland proceeds to publicly insult him by treating him as a fool in turn135. Once again, this is clearly a means of devaluing his subjective worth.

I would suggest that the best way to understand the goings-on between Roland and Ganelon is to recognize that, in both cases, we are confronted with situations in which a subject deems that some slight has been made to their sense of honour, and therefore, to themselves. In other words, one injury to the subject necessitates a return of injury, a correction or punishment

–  –  –



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 12 | 13 || 15 | 16 |   ...   | 32 |


Similar works:

«DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY Headquarters United States Marine Corps Washington, D.C. 20380-1775 21 July 1997 FOREWORD This publication describes the theory and philosophy of military planning as practiced by the U.S. Marine Corps. The intent is to describe how we can prepare effectively for future action when the future is uncertain and unpredictable. In so doing, this publication provides all Marines a conceptual framework for planning in peace, in crisis, or in war. This approach to planning is...»

«MORAL LITERACY Michael Clifford Mississippi State University Social critics, ranging from William Bennett to Derek Bok, have lamented the demise of formal moral education in American schools and universities. Ethics had once been such a major focus of higher education, they point out, that college seniors were required to take a year-long capstone course in moral philosophy. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, however, ethics training of any sort became conspicuously absent, except for...»

«The Color of Change? Race and Charter Schools in an Age of Neoliberal Education Reform By Ebony M. Duncan Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Vanderbilt University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in Sociology August, 2014 Nashville, Tennessee Approved: Katharine M. Donato, Ph.D. Tony N. Brown, Ph.D. Richard N. Pitt, Ph.D. Stella M. Flores, Ed.D. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work would not have been possible without the...»

«DIFFERENTIATING AMONG STUDENTS: THE VALUE ADDED OF A DYNAMIC ASSESSMENT OF MORPHOLOGICAL PROBLEM-SOLVING by Kathleen M. Stanfa B. A. in English, University of California, Los Angeles, 1989 M. A. in English, New York University, 1994 M. Ed. in Special Education, Slippery Rock University, 1997 Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of School of Education in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Special Education University of Pittsburgh 2010 UNIVERSITY OF...»

«Professional Athletes and their Duty to be Role Models Professional Athletes and their Duty to be Role Models Sandra Lynch (Centre for Faith, Ethics & Society, University of Notre Dame, Australia) Daryl Adair (University of Technology, Sydney) Paul Jonson (University of Technology, Sydney) ABSTRACT This chapter takes an interdisciplinary approach combining expertise in sports management and in philosophy to examine the premises underpinning the contested claim that professional athletes have a...»

«ISSUES IN INQUIRY-BASED SCIENCE EDUCATION SEEN THROUGH DEWEY’S THEORY OF INQUIRY BY MIHYE WON DISSERTATION Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Secondary & Continuing Education in the Graduate College of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2009 Urbana, Illinois Doctoral Committee: Professor Bertram C. Bruce, Chair Professor Marilyn Johnston-Parsons Associate Professor Fouad Abd-El-Khalick Assistant Professor Barbara Hug...»

«Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines Ph.D Dissertation A thesis submitted to the graduate faculty in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Major: Computer Science by Ivan BEDINI Thesis Title: Deriving ontologies automatically from XML Schemas applied to the B2B domain PhD Co-Advisors: Georges GARDARIN Université de Versailles Thesis Director Benjamin NGUYEN Université de Versailles Co-advisor Thierry BOURON France Telecom Co-advisor...»

«FINE SEDIMENT DYNAMICS IN DREDGE PLUMES _ A Dissertation Presented to The Faculty of the School of Marine Science The College of William and Mary In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy _ by Stanley Jarrell Smith II 2010 APPROVAL SHEET This dissertation is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy _ Stanley Jarrell Smith II Approved, by the Committee, October 2010 _ Carl T. Friedrichs, Ph.D. Committee...»

«MINING PREDICTIVE PATTERNS AND EXTENSION TO MULTIVARIATE TEMPORAL DATA by Iyad Batal BS, University of Damascus, 2005 MS, University of Pittsburgh, 2008 Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Kenneth P. Dietrich School of Arts and Sciences in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Computer Science University of Pittsburgh 2012 UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT This dissertation was presented by Iyad Batal It was defended on...»

«Kinetic Investigations of Thiolate Protected Gold Nanoparticles: Protein Interactions, Electron Transfer, and Precursor Formation By Brian N. Turner Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Vanderbilt University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Chemistry December, 2011 Nashville, Tennessee Approved: Professor David E. Cliffel Professor John A. McLean Professor James E. Crowe, Jr. Professor David W. Wright In Memory of...»

«CONTEMPORARY RITUAL PRACTICE IN AN ABORIGINAL SETTLEMENT: THE WARLPIRI KURDIJI CEREMONY Georgia Curran School of Archaeology and Anthropology, Australian National University A thesis submitted in fulfilment of a Doctor of Philosophy in Anthropology, Australian National University June 2010 WARNING: The names of people who have recently died have been included in this thesis. This has been done solely so their contribution to the research can be recognised in the future. Please do not continue...»

«Well-being and using persons Paulus Kaufmann Introduction In this paper I approach the topic of well-being by analysing its relation to the idea that it is morally wrong to use persons merely as means. The assumption that it is morally wrong to use a person is deeply entrenched in common sense morality. The prohibition against using people plays an important role in the theoretical discussions of moral philosophy, and in Applied Ethics diverse practices are judged by asking if they involve the...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.