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«RELIGIOUS DIFFERENCES: SUBJECTIVITY AND ALTERITY IN THE CHANSON DE ROLAND by Normand Raymond Bachelor of Arts, Laurentian University, 2001 Master of ...»

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This narrative thrust hides perhaps the poem's greatest fiction: it seeks to mask the very real nature of our existing, of our having to compose essentially with others, and with other groups who do not live "on the borders" or outside the confines of our empire, since these others are always present in our thinking and perception of ourselves and the world, given that, in the phenomenology of martial valour, they help to ground any Christian character's acting upon his will if he is to function as a knight. It is this fiction of the other as outsider which lends weight to the poem's visceral xenophobia and violence. Since it obscures the manner in which, borrowing from Heidegger, one subject evolves in relation with another as being-with-other, it easily lends itself to the kind of moral thinking that rejects and refuses the moral imperatives that would derive from our taking our interrelatedness seriously.

Taking this view seriously, we would see that there are no distant others living in terre gaste outside the comfortable confines of our world. Likewise, that the other's presence is implicit in the formation and understanding of a subject would involve our coming to the realization that there are no "objects" in our coming to deal with the world. There are no objects that need only submit to our will. Objects to be used up, converted into something for our use (and conversion in the poetic model is precisely just such an enterprise), or simply cast aside when we discard it of its presence. The absence of objects within this dynamic might also compel us to change the terms with which we have analyzed the "Chanson de Roland". For it could imply that the very idea of a subject, as one standing over and against an other as object, must be gotten rid of, and a new dynamic put in its place. There would be no subject Roland slaughtering others and transforming them into objects, rather there are to be participants. In contradistinction to the Rolandian phenomenology that separates the two sides, and only sees them come together in order to better eliminate any potential difference, a recognition of the foundational presence of the other within my understanding of myself would admit of the possibility of divergent ideas, opinions, and personalities. Instead of excluding any import as the prejudice and errors of a demonic other, the concept of participatory recognition would strive to work with, and through, the diverging beliefs, ideas, and opinions. The participants would no longer be so preoccupied with the question of occupying and moving across spatial boundaries, since their "movement" would occur in two directions. Firstly, the move backwards towards the preunderstanding of how we approach the world, since nothing would better prepare for such a movement than to be confronted in participation with an other whose grounding does not merely reinforce those tenets that we hold most dear. Secondly, our participation would involve our moving forward, since the moral requirement that is concomitant with our coming to see the other as being foundational to ourselves, would compel us to attempt to achieve some form of commonality, even if such a mode of thought recognized nothing more than an understanding of the very terms on which we disagree.

I am not sure that such an exercise will necessarily lead to a consensus, nor should we perhaps wish that poetic texts be treated in such a way. After all, there is something to be said for the cathartic effect that the fictionalization violence can have on a reader. However, when dealing with a text such as the "Chanson de Roland", a text that can be said to be a Christian miroir du prince or, a miroir du Chrétien, the ability to understand a text's weakness, its hermeneutical one-sidedness can lead the reader to a recognition of the important moral dimension which is not contained once and for all in a Truth that stands as the dominant subject to others which are subject to It, since our interrelatedness with others involves a very different form of striving. A striving that is not teleologically determined and has as its goal a finalized Truth. Rather, it is a striving that is peculiar to those having come to the realization that participation with an other, along with the mutual back and forth involved in understanding oneself, as well as attempting to understand the other, is itself its own legitimate striving, not needing the legitimization of some exterior Truth. It represents its own struggling, its own "spiritual" warfare, sharing in the joys and anguish of the sharing of a truth which, perfectly immanent, historical and contextual, and regardless of whether any resolution is firmly achieved, remains always tentative and temporary, since its very possibility, as its openness to the presence of the other, must continue to be open to the next opportunity for interrelatedness participation.

This, I would assert, is the space for a conception of narrative and subjective becoming.

This process, as a continuity, wherein there is an attempt to understand oneself, and to understand the other as being simultaneous with the attainment of a truth, allows for the conquest of larger horizons than merely our own, it enriches by incorporating the insights of the other, even as the participation of both involves challenges, disputations, and potentially competing assertions. Truth, in this case, would be that which comes out of the participation. This would certainly involve the rejection of a hard Truth, however, it would not imply a situation in which anything goes. Given that participation is itself a somewhat violent process, since the participants are altered, since participants are challenged in their innermost beliefs, such a view of participation permits the flourishing of only those elements that can withstand the encounter.





Everything else is left to be discovered, to be subjectivized, because there is no guaranteed method for finding absolute solutions, and there will of course be no assurances that what will be attained is likely to be continually sufficient. Nonetheless, what will have been attained by having the subject and his other participate, will not be determined to be completely insufficient.

Grounding subjectivizing in this process of truth is to recognize that we do not dispose of a panoramic view of the world where everything is known to us, yet it still allows us to see well. It invites us to reflection, and therefore, I choose to leave the "Chanson de Roland" at its last laisse, with Charlemagne serious and ponderous, disquieted by the suffering that is his in his relationship to a Truth that demands evermore slaughter, and evermore antagonism. Perhaps here, Charlemagne, lamenting the fate which is his, has come to distinguish a legitimate truth process from a false one: one that involves his having to risk everything in order to gain everything, one that involves his becoming a subject only by subjecting himself to a Truth that demands that he lose everything first.

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«Soldiering in the Canadian Forces: How and Why Gender Counts! Lynne Gouliquer Department of Sociology McGill University, Montreal A thesis submitted to McGill University in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy © Lynne Gouliquer, 2011 Table of Contents List of Tables Abstract Sommaire Acknowledgements Chapter 1 Introduction Historical  Synopsis Thesis  Overview Chapter 2 Theorizing Gender and Organisations Analysing  Gender  Inequalities  at...»

«VISUALIZING AND MODELING JOINT BEHAVIOR OF CATEGORICAL VARIABLES WITH A LARGE NUMBER OF LEVELS A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS AND THE COMMITTEE ON GRADUATE STUDIES OF STANFORD UNIVERSITY IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Justin S. Dyer November 2010 c Copyright by Justin S. Dyer 2010 All Rights Reserved ii I certify that I have read this dissertation and that, in my opinion, it is fully adequate in scope and quality as a...»

«SINGLE-PARTY RULE IN A MULTIPARTY AGE: TANZANIA IN COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE A Dissertation Submitted to the Temple University Graduate Board in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement of the Degree DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY by Richard L. Whitehead August, 2009                     © by Richard L. Whitehead All Rights Reserved   i      ABSTRACT Title: Single-Party Rule in a Multiparty Age: Tanzania in Comparative Perspective Candidate's Name: Richard L. Whitehead Degree: Doctor of...»

«CHARACTERIZATION OF CANINE BONE MARROW-DERIVED STROMAL CELLS: A POTENTIAL CELL SOURCE FOR TREATMENT OF NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS By HIROAKI KAMISHINA A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA © 2007 Hiroaki Kamishina To my wife Harumi for her constant encouragement and support. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS There are a number of people whose assistance proved invaluable. I...»

«« Reflecting the Other: The Thing Poetry of Marianne Moore and Francis Ponge » by Vanessa Jane Robinson A thesis submitted in conformity with the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Centre for Comparative Literature University of Toronto © Copyright by Vanessa Jane Robinson 2012 « Reflecting the Other: The Thing Poetry of Marianne Moore and Francis Ponge » Vanessa Jane Robinson Doctor of Philosophy Centre for Comparative Literature University of Toronto Abstract Across...»

«CRYPTOGRAPHIC KEY DISTRIBUTION IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS USING BILINEAR PAIRINGS By Piotr Szczechowiak BEng, MSc THESIS DIRECTED BY: DR. MARTIN COLLIER AND PROF. MICHAEL SCOTT A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY DEGREE OF September 2010 FACULTY OF ENGINEERING & COMPUTING DUBLIN CITY UNIVERSITY I hereby certify that this material, which I now submit for assessment on the programme of study leading to the award of Doctor of Philosophy is...»





 
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