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«DIPLOMA THESIS Linking Climate Change with Food Security in the highlands of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Northwest Pakistan Presented by: Martin Kienzler ...»

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Mishra, J.V. Revadekar, K. Kamala & G.B. Pant (2006): High-resolution climate change scenarios for India for the 21st century. - Current Science, 90, 3: 334– Saeed, F., S. Hagemann & D. Jacob (2009): Impact of irrigation on the South Asian summer monsoon. - Geophysical Research Letters, 36, 20: 1–7 Saeed, F., S. Hagemann & D. Jacob (2011): A framework for the evaluation of the South Asian summer monsoon in a regional climate model applied to REMO. International Journal of Climatology Salzmann, N, C Huggel, P Calanca, T Jonas, C Jurt, T Konzelmann, P Lagos, M Rohrer, W Silverio & M Zappa (2009): Integrated assessment and adaptation to climate change impacts in the Peruvian Andes. - Advances in Geosciences, 22: 35–39 SARC (2011): Summer Agrciculture Research Station, Kaghan Sarfaraz (2007): Monsoon dynamics: Its behavioral impact in Pakistanâs perspective.

- Pakistan Journal of Meteorology, 4, 7: 55–73 Schickhoff, U. (1993): Das Kaghan-Tal im Westhimalaya (Pakistan). - Bonner Geographische Abhandlungen, 87: 1–268 Schickhoff, U. (1995): Himalayan forest-cover changes in historical perspective: A case study in the Kaghan valley, Northern Pakistan. - Mountain Research and Development, 15, 1: 3–18 Schmidhuber, J. & F.N. Tubiello (2007): Global food security under climate change.

- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104, 50: 19703–19708 Schönwiese, C.-D. (2006): Praktische Statistik für Meteorologen und Geowissenschaftler, 4. Aufl., Berlin, Stuttgart: Gebrüder Borntraeger, 302 pp.

Shahbaz, B., T. Ali, I.A. Khan & M. Ahmad (2010): An analysis of the problems faced by farmers in the mountains of Northwest Pakistan: Challenges for Agri.

Extension. - Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 47, 4: 417–420

–  –  –

Sheikh, M. Munir, M. Mohsin Iqbal, Ghazanfar Ali & Arshad M. Khan (2010): Global warming in the context of Pakistan: Major concerns and remedial strategies. - Symposium on "Changing Environmental Pattern and its impact with Special Focus on Pakistan". Global Change Impact Studies Centre (GCISC), Islamabad, Pakistan,, Paper No. 287 Singh, S.P., I. Bassignana-Khadka, B.S. Karky & E. Sharma (2011): Climate Change in the Hindu Kush-Himalayas - The State of Current Knowledge. - International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), Kathmandu, Nepal Sivakumar, M.V.K. & R. Stefanski (2011): Climate Change in South Asia, - R. Lal, M.V.K. Sivakumar, S.M.A. Faiz, A.H.M. Mustafizur Rahman & K.R. Islam (Hg.) Climate Change and Food Security in South Asia, Springer, Chapter 2, 13–30 Sultana, H., N. Ali, M. Mohsin Iqbal & Arshad M. Khan (2009): Vulnerability and adaptability of wheat production in different climatic zones of Pakistan under climate change scenarios. - Climatic Change, 94, 1-2: 123–142 Syed, F.S. (2011): On the intra-seasonal to decadal climate variability over South-Asia.

- Stockholm University, 1–30 Thomas, D. S. G., C. Twyman, H. Osbahr & B. Hewitson (2007): Adaptation to climate change and variability: farmer responses to intra-seasonal precipitation trends in South Africa. - Climatic Change, 83: 301–322 Trenberth, K.E. et al. (2007): Observations: Surface and Atmospheric Climate, In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press Treydte, K.S., G.H. Schleser, G. Helle, D.C. Frank, M. Winiger, G.H. Haug & J. Esper (2006): The twentieth century was the wettest period in northern Pakistan over the past millennium. - Nature, 440, 27: 1179–82 Troll, C. & K.H. Paffen (1964): Karte der Jahreszeitenklimate der Erde. - Erdkunde, 18: 5–28 Tubiello, N. T., J.-F. Soussana & M. Howden (2007): Crop and pasture response to climate change. - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104, 50: 19686–19690 ul Islam, S., N. Rehman & M. Munir Sheikh (2009): Future change in the frequency of warm and cold spells over Pakistan simulated by the PRECIS regional climate model.

- Climatic Change, 94, 1-2: 35–45 von Braun, J. (2007): The World Food Situation: New Driving Forces and Required Actions, IFPRIâs Biannual Overview of the World Food Situation presented to the CGIAR Annual General Meeting held in Beijing, China, in December 2007.

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von Storch, H. & F. W. Zwiers (2004): Statistical Analysis in Climate Research, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 484 pp.

Wang, B. & LinHo (2002): Rainy Season of the AsianâPacific Summer Monsoon. Journal of Climate, 15: 386–398 Wang, S.-Y., R. E. Davies, W.-R. Huang & R. R. Gillies (2011): Pakistanâs twoâstage monsoon and links with the recent climate change. - Journal of Geophysical Research, 116: 1–15 Xue, Y. & M. Yanai (2005): Asia, Climate of South, - J.E. Oliver (Hg.) Encyclopedia of World Climatology, 115–120 Yadav, R.R., W. Park, J. Singh & B. Dubey (2004): Do the western Himalayas defy global warming? - Geophysical Research Letters, 31, 17: 1–5 Appendix A - Interview Guide Part I - Agriculture

• Do you plant your crops mainly for your own food supply, fodder production, or do you sell it?

• Do you plant crops in kharif season as well as in rabi season?

– If yes, was there a time when you couldn’t plant crops in rabi season?

– If not, do you think it will be possible in future?

• What kind of crops do you plant in – kharif season (Jun-Sept)?

– rabi season (Nov-Apr)?

• Do you plant other crops/varieties now than (30yrs) before?

– If yes: which, since when and why?

• Growing Season Length: Do you realize changes in Growing Season Length / Vegetation Period?

• Sowing Date: Do you seed the crops on an earlier/later date nowadays than (30yrs) before?

• Harvest Date: Do you harvest the crops on an earlier/later date nowadays than (30yrs) before?

• Can crops be grown in higher elevations than previously? How much higher?

Yields

• Could you estimate the amount of yields of your crops?

• Have crop yields changed significantly over the last years?

– Why do you think they have changed?

• If yes, could you estimate the amount of change (positive/negative)?

• Did the yields of different crops change differently?

• Do you use chemical fertilizer?

– If you do, since when?

– positive/negative impact?

–  –  –

• Do you realize differences/changes in the level/volume of the rivers/streams?

• Do you have to irrigate your fields artificially?

• Do you need more water now for planting the crops than before (30yrs)?

• Do you have problems in getting enough water?

Part II - Livestock

• Do you also practice livestock breeding?

– If yes, is livestock serving as additional income or else?

• If yes, what kind of animals do you have and how much?

• Were you able to enlarge your livestock in the last years?

• Are you able to lead your herds in areas at higher elevation now than before?

• Are you facing problems of fodder supply? Why?

General Agriculture

• Is agriculture your only source of income?

• If not, what kind of sources of income do you else have?

Part III - Climate (all questions compared to 30yrs before)

• Do you realize changes in day / night temperature in summer?

• Do you realize changes in day / night temperature in winter?

• Do you realize that there are more / less frost days?

• Is there more / less rain falling now than before in summer months?

• Is there more / less rain falling now than before in winter months?

• Are there more intensive rain showers?

• Are there more drought periods / longer periods with high temperature and scarce rain?

• Is snow coming earlier / later in winter now?

• Do you realize changes regarding the surrounding glaciers?

–  –  –

Hiermit erkläre ich, dass ich die von mir am heutigen Tage dem Prüfungsausschuss der Philosophischen Fakultät I eingereichte Diplomarbeit zum Thema

–  –  –

vollkommen selbständig verfasst und keine anderen als die angegebenen Quellen und Hilfsmittel benutzt sowie Zitate kenntlich gemacht habe.

Würzburg, den 16. Februar 2012

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