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«By ZIVIN PARK A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

A BEAM STEERING, BROADBAND MICROSTRIP ANTENNA FOR NON-CONTACT

VITAL SIGN RADAR DETECTION

By

ZIVIN PARK

A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL

OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT

OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2011 1 © 2011 Zivin Park 2 To my father, mother, and grandmother, for their support and encouragement 3

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my advisor Dr. Jenshan Lin for his advice, encouragement, and mentoring throughout my PhD study. I would also like to thank Dr. Sheng Li, Dr. Huikai Xie, Dr. Changzhi Li, and Dr. Paul Holloway for their time and for being on my committee. I am also thankful to Dr. Lance Covert for his unconditional help when I first started antenna research and for his sincere friendship.

Also, I am thankful to Dr. Changzhi Li, who is now one of my committee members, for showing me the epitome of being excellent in research, diligence, and his sincere friendship. I am also thankful to Dongha Shim for the technical advices, equipment, and his sincere friendship. I am thankful to all of the RFSOC group members for their technical support, guidance, and friendship. The antenna measurements performed by Yazid Yusuf under Dr. Xun Gong’s research group at the University of Central Florida are greatly appreciated. I would like to thank my parents for their encouragement and unconditional support.

4

TABLE OF CONTENTS

page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

LIST OF FIGURES

Abstract

CHAPTER

1 MOTIVATION AND BACKGROUND INFORMATION

1.1 Motivation

1.2 Requirements

1.3 Background Information

1.3.1 Yagi Dipole Antenna

1.3.2 Coupling Mechanism of Patch Antenna

1.4 Summary

2 PROPOSED APPROACHES vs. EXISTING APPROACHES

2.1 Wideband Microstrip Antennas with a Partial Ground Plane

2.2 Microstrip Antennas using Parasitic Patches

2.3 Beam Steering Patch Antennas

2.4 Patch Antennas using Diodes

2.5 Proposed Design Approaches

2.6 Summary

3 BROADBAND DIRECTIONAL MICROSTRIP ANTENNA

3.1 Fabricated Broadband Directional Microstrip Antenna

3.2 Input Reflection Coefficient (S11)

3.3 Far-Field Radiation Patterns

3.4 Isolation

3.5 Vital Sign Detection Performance

3.6 Summary

4 PRELIMINARY RESULT OF BEAM-STEERING BROADBAND MICROSTRIP ANTENNA

4.1 Director and Reflector

4.2 Influence of Gap Value between Patches on Beam Pattern

4.3 Influence of Shape or Location of Parasitic Patch on Beam Pattern................. 56

4.4 Influence of A Stub Added to Ground Plane on Beam Pattern

4.5 Simulated Layout of Various Stubs, Its Beam Pattern, and Its S11.................. 67 5

4.6 Simulated Layout of Various Parasitic Patches, Its Beam Pattern, and Its S11

4.7 Intermediate Fabrication and Measurement Results: Regular Diode and RF Diode

4.8 Rough Radiation Pattern Measurement Method

4.9 Intermediate Fabrication and Measurement Results: Alternate Approaches.. 102

4.10 Summary

5 A BEAM STEERING BROADBAND SINGLE MICROSTRIP ANTENNA USING DIODES

5.1 Horizontal Beam Steering

5.2 Vertical Beam Steering

5.3 Fabricated Proposed Antenna

5.4 Input Reflection Coefficient (S11)

5.5 Far-Field Radiation Patterns

5.6 Limitation of the Proposed Antenna

5.7 Summary

6 SUMMARY

LIST OF REFERENCES

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

–  –  –

4-1 Trend of Gain vs. gap between main and parasitic patch

4-2 Trends of E-field distribution and gain as the stub changes

5-1 Beam Steering Comparison of ON-OFF vs. OFF-ON at each frequency........ 127

–  –  –

1-1 Geometry of the Yagi–Uda dipole array antenna [Pozar1]

1-2 Mutual conductance between two parasitic patches [Derneryd]

1-3 Mutual coupling between two coax fed microstrip antennas

2-1 An example of a wideband microstrip antenna with a partial ground plane....... 21 2-2 Another example of a wideband microstrip antenna

2-3 Yet another example of wideband microstrip antenna

2-4 Geometry of the microstrip Yagi array antenna [Huang1]

2-5 Microstrip Yagi array concept for MSAT application [Huang2]

2-6 Improved bandwidth using parasitic patches [Kumar]

2-7 Three-element array for beam steering [Yusuf1]

2-8 Reconfigurable antenna for dual frequency operation [Lee]

2-9 Reconfigurable antenna for dual frequency operation [Caverly]





2-10 HFSS layout of antenna; Left: bottom layer with diodes

2-11 Layouts of conventional broadband antenna as a reference antenna............... 31 2-12 The examples of layouts of the arrays of the reference antennas

2-13 Examples of the reference antenna adopting microstrip Yagi array.................. 34 2-14 Layouts of broadband directional microstrip antenna

2-15 A layout of the proposed antenna

3-1 Layouts of fabricated broadband directional microstrip antenna

3-2 Agilent Vector Network Analyzer (Courtesy of Agilent Technologies, Inc.)........ 40 3-3 Input reflection coefficients of the reference antenna

3-4 Inside of an anechoic chamber for the radiation pattern measurement............. 42 3-5 One of the configurations of mounted AUT

–  –  –

3-7 Comparison of simulated/measured radiation patterns

3-8 Antenna gain comparison

3-9 Antennas implemented in the radar

3-10 Illustration of the antenna and the radar installation

3-11 Measured isolation

4-1 Modifications to the broadband directional microstrip antenna

4-2 A gap between parasitic patch and radiating edge of the wideband antenna.... 54 4-3 The relationship between gap value and the 3-D radiation pattern

4-4 The relationship between parasitic patch shape and the 3-D radiation pattern. 57 4-5 A parasitic patch placed in – Z direction separated from main patch................. 58 4-6 An example of an added stub and its 3-D radiation pattern

4-7 Another example of an added stub and its 3-D radiation pattern

4-8 Yet another example of an added stub and its 3-D radiation pattern................. 62 4-9 Yet another example of an added stub and its 3-D radiation pattern................. 63 4-10 Reflection coefficient of the antenna shown in Figure 4-8

4-11 Reflection coefficient of an antenna with shortened stub

4-12 Broadband microstrip antenna with added stub

4-13 Design 1: Stub shape variation

4-14 Design 2: Stub location and gap

4-15 Design 3: Stub location and gap

4-16 Surface current density of Design 3

4-17 Design 4: Stub shape variation

4-18 Surface current density of Design 4

4-19 Design 5: Stub shape variation

–  –  –

4-21 Design 7: Stub shape variation

4-22 Design 8: Stub shape variation

4-23 Design 8: Stub shape variation

4-24 Beam patterns of design 8 at different frequencies

4-25 Design 9: Stub shape variation

4-26 Surface current density of Design 9

4-27 Design 10: Stub shape variation

4-28 Surface current density of Design 10

4-29 Design 11: Stub shape variation

4-30 Design 12: Parasitic patch variation

4-31 Design 13: Parasitic patch variation

4-32 Design 14: Parasitic patch variation

4-33 Design 15: Parasitic patch variation

4-34 Design 16: Parasitic patch variation

4-35 Design 17: Combination of Parasitic patch and stub

4-36 Antenna with diodes

4-37 Antenna with circuit

4-38 Forward current characteristic of 1N914

4-39 S11 of the antenna shown in Figure 4-36

4-40 Antenna with fixed ON/OFF status using wire

4-41 S11 of the antenna shown in Figure 4-40

4-42 LED as switching device for the antenna

4-43 Forward current characteristic of AVAGO 5082-3039 RF diode

4-44 Capacitance vs. reverse voltage of AVAGO 5082-3039 RF diode

–  –  –

4-46 Measured s11 of antenna with RF diode, ON/OFF status

4-47 Rough radiation pattern measurement method diagram

4-48 HP E8254A Signal Generator

4-49 HP E4448A Spectrum Analyzer

4-50 HyperLOG 60100 Yagi antenna

4-51 Gain of the Yagi antenna

4-52 Rough radiation pattern measurement method picture

4-53 Rough radiation pattern measurement method: Antenna rotation

4-54 Rough radiation pattern sketch

4-55 Antenna with circuit for rough radiation pattern measurement

4-56 Beam steering using parasitic patch

4-57 MEMS switching example

4-58 Mechanical switch: Slide switch (Radioshack 275-0004)

4-59 Mechanical switch:Tact switch (Radioshack 275-0006)

4-60 Antenna with handmade slide switch

4-61 Relay (Radioshack 275-005)

4-62 Antenna with relay in a platform

4-63 S11 comparison of simulation and antenna/relay measurement

4-64 Schematics and switch

4-65 Pad configuration

4-66 Isolation between RF1 pin and RF2 pin

4-67 Pin connection between the stub and the partial ground plane

4-68 Wiring of RF switch

4-69 Antenna with one of the stub connected in RF switch configuration................. 109

–  –  –

4-71 Radiation pattern of antenna shown in Figure 4-69

4-72 Antenna with pattern for RF switch and the antenna with RF switch................ 111 4-73 Microscopic view of the RF switch on the antenna

4-74 Forward resistance as a function of forward current

5-1 A layout of the electronic beam steering broadband single microstrip............. 115 5-2 Reflection coefficient of the antenna shown in Figure 5-1(B)

5-3 Radiation patterns of the antenna shown in Figure 5-1(B)

5-4 A layout of the vertical electronic beam steering broadband single microstrip 118 5-5 A layout of the vertical electronic beam steering broadband single microstrip 119 5-6 A layout for simulating the vertical electronic beam steering broadband......... 119 5-7 A comparison of the surface currents and radiation patterns

5-8 Reflection coefficients of the layouts of (A) Figure 5-4 and (B) Figure 5-6...... 121 5-9 Proposed antenna; (A) bottom layer; (B) top layer

5-10 Reference antenna; (A) bottom layer; (B) top layer

5-11 Reflection coefficient; Dashed: measured proposed antenna

5-12 Inside of an anechoic chamber for the radiation pattern measurement........... 129 5-13 One of the ways of how the AUT was mounted.

5-14 Comparison of measured radiation patterns of the proposed antenna............ 130

–  –  –

Chair: Jenshan Lin Major: Electrical and Computer Engineering The non-contact vital sign radar detection system requires a development of the high gain, broadband, and beam steering patch antenna. The proposed design approach combines the advantages of the wideband antenna, the advantage of the parasitic patch, and the advantage of beam steering antennas within a single microstrip patch antenna. As a result, a 2.8–4.8 GHz beam steering broadband microstrip antenna was designed, fabricated, and measured. The proposed antenna can steer beam in broadband range (sampled at 3, 3.5, 4, and 4.5 GHz) by switching PIN diodes that connect stubs and a partial ground plane. Its broadband beam steering is suitable for a vital sign radar. The proposed antenna requires no array for beam steering but requires only two additional diodes. The wide frequency tuning range allows the radar system to be tuned for an optimum transmission frequency. In addition, effects of modifying the proposed antenna on the antenna characteristics such as reflection coefficient, radiation pattern, gain, or beam steering capability are investigated.

–  –  –

Microwave Doppler radar has been used for detecting physiological movements.

The radar transmits a radio frequency (RF), single-tone continuous-wave (CW) signal, which is reflected off a target and then demodulated in the receiver. This technique enables non-contact detection of vital signs of humans or animals from a distance away, without any sensor attached to the body [Li1].

A non-contact solution is desired for several reasons. First, unlike methods using electrodes, it does not cause discomfort in the subjects. Second, the reliability can be increased since the subject is unaware of the measurement. Last, the detector can be ideal for long-term, continuous-monitoring applications. Compared to either infrared or visible light, microwave has a greater penetration capability through the building materials [Li1]. Therefore, an antenna transmitting an RF signal can be used with the Microwave Doppler radar. In particular, a microstrip patch antenna is desired because of its easy integration with the sensor, i.e., integration on a same substrate.

Microstrip patch antennas are low profile, conformable to planar and non-planar surfaces, simple, and inexpensive to manufacture using modern printed-circuit technology. It is mechanically robust when mounted on rigid surfaces, compatible with Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (MMIC) designs, and when the particular patch shape and mode are selected, they are very versatile in terms of resonant frequency, polarization, pattern, and impedance. In addition, by adding loads between the patch and the ground plane, such as pins and varactor diodes, impedance, polarization, and pattern can be designed [Balanis].

–  –  –



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