WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 48 | 49 || 51 | 52 |   ...   | 105 |

«Wartime Rescue of Jews by the Polish Catholic Clergy The Testimony of Survivors Edited and compiled by Mark Paul Polish Educational Foundation in ...»

-- [ Page 50 ] --

In addition, at the end of the calendar year, the parson sent a register of all baptisms in his parish to the archdiocese, where each baptism was entered in the archdiocesan books. Both the parochial and the archdiocesan offices were, at the same time, offices of the civil state, providing data on the population to state registers. Therefore, even with the access to the archdiocesan books, it was dangerous to enter Karolina’s name into them because it could be easily discovered that her baptism had not been registered in the parochial books. To avoid this danger, it was necessary to find a church in which the parochial books of the period close to her birth had been destroyed, burnt during the First World War, between the two wars, or at the beginning of the Second World War. … After telling the bishop how grateful Karolina’s family was for his generous offer, Ludwik [Andrzej’s father] asked for a short delay before giving a definite answer. After a lapse of two weeks, he went to the diocese with a negative answer, carrying the message of immense gratitude of Karolina’s family and trying to explain the attitude of Juliusz [Karolina’s father]. The bishop was sad, but not surprised: ‘Unfortunately it is not the first time that we have seen such an attitude. We will pray for them with the hope that they will accept our offer and that when this happens it will not be too late. Sometimes just one hour, one minute, means life or death. As long as there exists such a possibility, our doors stay open for them.’… The parson [of a small village close to Glinna Nawaria, about 20 kilometres from Lwów] welcomed him [Andrzej] warmly when he mentioned that he had been sent by Father Alojzy. The parson was in his seventies but still in good shape and agile. He handed Andrzej baptism and marriage forms printed before the outbreak of war in 1939. He did not ask any questions, but, as he passed to Andrzej a bunch of forms, mentioned: ‘Father Alojzy might need more. God bless you, young man. Take care when travelling.’ … Juliusz and his family had the same problems [with food and heating materials]. Great help was given to them by [Sister] Filomena. She became their frequent guest, always bringing vegetables and fruit from the convent garden. Some other nuns, from the nearby Convent of Sisters of the Holy Sacrament, were also bringing food from their garden. Andrzej never learned who had told them about Juliusz’s family, whether it was Filomena or Father Alojzy. … … They discussed with him [Juliusz] many times the proposal of Bishop Baziak. Ludwik went again to see Juliusz and told him that the proposal was still valid. But Juliusz did not revise his former decision … They [Andrzej and Karolina] went to see Father Alojzy before their departure. He was in a very depressed state, having been seriously affected by stories of Nazi atrocities. They discussed with him many problems, and they saw how openminded this priest was. They discussed with him the problem of informers, those who betrayed because of their profound anti-Semitism. Father Alojzy blamed the situation not only on the Germans. ‘We have to admit,’ he said, ‘that we have bred our own kind of anti-Semitism in Poland a long time before the war. It was advocated by our own pre-war government—taught by some teachers in the schools and universities, by some physicians in the hospitals, by some lawyers in the courts, by some industrialists in factories, merchants in shops, and, we have to confess, by some of our priests in offering public or private advice, even in the church. This was not what Jesus taught us to do. We need a better society after the war. We have to recognize what mistakes we made and never repeat them again. Our true Polish patriotism has nothing in common with hatred of other nations. Our Catholic religion has nothing to do with the hatred of other religions. The free will given by God means a good will, full of love for other human beings, whatever their religion, whatever their race, colour of skin or social class. Our God does not want false patriots whose principal program is to hate people of other religions or other nations. For the actions of some informers, we have to take partial responsibility. It is our sin that we have not fought hard enough against the hatred in human hearts.’ He appeared to them to be inspired by God. He blessed them and promised to be in contact: ‘Do not forget to notify me if you feel in danger. Remember that I am praying for you and I will act for you in any capacity that could be helpful.’ … … Andrzej went to see Father Alojzy in the monastery. The terrible story of Karolina’s family was an awful shock for him. He could not conceal his tears. He knelt and prayed for a long while. Then he told Andrzej about the terrible events that were taking place in the ghetto of Lwów. … Andrzej then went to the convent of Filomena. She was terribly moved by the story of the tragedy in Orelec.

On the way home from a village parish located about 150 kilometres distant from Lwów, Andrzej witnessed on the train in which he was travelling a betrayal of a Jewish man by a young woman. (Ibid., pp.95–96.) After a short time the train stopped in a small railway station. The [German] policeman kicked the already unconscious old man out of the train and shot him.

There was silence, full of fear and terror, in the train. Even the informer did not say a word. After a while, when the train 140 began to move, a peasant in the corridor between Andrzej and the informer asked: ‘Why did you do this? How could you be so cruel?’ ‘Shut up,’ she shrieked. ‘I will ask the policeman to check you. Perhaps you are also a disguised Jew.’ The peasant did not say a word and moved towards the end of the corridor. The train was moving slowly, leaving on the platform the body of the massacred man.





The informer returned to her compartment. Opposite her sat a young priest. After a while, he said: ‘God will never forgive you. You, and not the policeman, you yourself killed this innocent, poor man. Even when, after confession, some priests might absolve you and forgive on this earth, I can assure you that God has condemned you already for ever. You will suffer for ever, because you are not a human being. You are an Evil. For Evil there is only one place—hell.’ The young woman started at once to cry. The priest returned to his breviary.

Lala Fishman (née Klara Weintraub) recalled the assistance that she and her Jewish friend Mila received from their Polish friends in Lwów when they decided that they would attempt to pass as Christians. They needed to become acquainted with Catholic prayers and rituals and secure birth certificates, which were furnished by an unidentified priest. (Lala Fishman and Steven Weingartner, Lala’s Story: A Memoir of the Holocaust [Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press, 1997), pp.173–75.) It was time to leave Lvov [Lwów]. … Mila also felt as I did. When I broached the idea of leaving to her, she enthusiastically endorsed it. The success of the plan hinged on fulfilling two requirements obtaining “Aryan papers,” counterfeit documents that identified us as Poles; and learning how to pass ourselves off as Polish Catholics. We straightaway embarked upon a crash course in Catholic prayer and ritual. Our instructors were sympathetic Gentiles, boys and girls around my age. Several of them had been friends of Fima [her brother]; now they were my friends too.

Occasionally, they dropped by the apartment to drink tea and talk about the war and finally to help transform us into believable if not believing Catholics.

… Our friends taught us how to genuflect and make the sign of the cross with a convincing display of piety. They provided us with copies of the catechism, and we memorized all the material therein. They also gave us silver crucifixes to wear on chains around our necks, just like the ones every Gentile in Poland seemed to wear. I secretly resolved, however, that although I would attend mass and kneel and appear to pray like a Catholic, I would not take Holy Communion, I would go through all the motions of being a Catholic save this one; and when I prayed, I would make up my own prayer, silently asking God for his aid and protection. I meant no disrespect to the Catholic Church and Christians by these actions. Rather, I felt that it would be both sacriligious [sic] and blasphemous for me to do otherwise. I believed that for a Jew to willingly accept what Catholics believed was literally the body and blood of Christ would be a sin, an insult both to my Jewish heritage and to the Christians who were doing so much—and placing themselves in such danger—on my behalf.

At any rate, Mila and I engaged in our Christian studies with the diligence of nuns preparing to take their vows, and I daresay that before long we could have gone into any church in Poland and played the role of devout Catholics without arousing any suspicions whatsoever among the genuine Christians. Sadly, the same could not be said for my mother and sister. Rysia was just nine years old, and therefore too young to learn Catholic rites and prayers, much less comprehend the urgent necessity for doing so. And my mother, devastated by grief, had undergone what amounted to a nervous breakdown and was incapable of the intense effort that even a false conversion to Catholicism demanded from her.

Nevertheless, we pressed forward with the scheme. Getting Aryan papers would have to be our next step. But how? This problem was solved when some of Fima’s friends brought a Catholic boy named Staszek to the apartment for one of our evening get-togethers. Staszek had been told about our plans and wanted to help. He mentioned that he could get four blank birth certificates (metrycas [metryka]) from his parish priest. … Staszek got us the birth certificates. … We filled out the certificates with false names but with our actual birthdays. I decided that my name would be Urszula Krzyzanowska [Krzyżanowska].A very Christian name. My mother, Mila, and Rysia each took a different name. We did not want to appear in any way related—an important consideration if one of us was arrested. At the bottom of each document was a blank line where the parish priest was supposed to sign his name. I thought up a likely name for the priest and then, wielding my pen with a flourish, signed it on all the documents in bold, sweeping letters.

Rev. Kazimierz Romaszkan, a Pole of the Roman Catholic Armenian rite, and another unidentified priest from Lwów are mentioned as rescuers in testimonies found at Yad Vashem in Jerusalem. (Eliyahu Yones, Smoke in the Sand: The Jews of Lvov in the War Years 1939–1944 [Jerusalem and New York: Gefen, 2004], p.252.

[Rev.] Romashkian [Romaszkan] … concealed the fifteen-year-old daughter of Bertha Kahana and treated her devotedly

–  –  –

Irena Wilder (later Krystyna Winecka or Christine Winecki), a young girl from Stanisławów (born in 1928), took refuge with her aunt in Lwów. Her aunt approached a Catholic priest, Rev. Józef Czapran, the vicar of St.

Anthony’s Parish, who provided the child with a false birth certificate. She was taught Catholic prayers by a nun to assist her in passing as a Pole. These lessons proved to be invaluable when Irena Wilder was later apprehended and interrogated in Warsaw. (Christine Winecki, The Girl in the Check Coat: Survival in Nazi-Occupied Poland and a New Life in Australia [London and Portland, Oregon: Vallentine Mitchell, 2007], pp.61–62.) When the train slowly arrived at the railway station in Lwow [Lwów] I was 130 kilometres from home … By midnight I found myself in the caring arms of Aunt Lucja [Łucja]. … At the sight of me she started to cry, and before long I too burst into tears. I was not aware at the time that Jews were also being killed in Lwow. … The Jews of Lwow were prepared for the worst. They knew their days were numbered and that those who could still save themselves had no time to lose. The following day Aunt Lucja took me to St Anthony’s Church in the suburb of Lyczakow [Łyczaków], where the local vicar, Father Czapran, issued me with a birth certificate from the parish registry of births, marriages and deaths for the year 1930. thus disappeared Irena Wilder, born in Stanislawow [Stanisławów], daughter of Oscar and Janina, of Jewish denomination, her place taken by Maria Wilska, female, aged 11, daughter of Katarzyna (father unknown), of Roman Catholic faith.

The same day Aunt Lucja placed me in the care of Uncle Ludwik and his wife Aunt Stefa who both lived in Grandmother Amalia’s hose in Mala [Mała] Street. Every morning now I would go to church, where the good Sister Benedykta taught me the words of the Catholic prayers. In the quiet, semi-dark atmosphere of the church permeated with the smell of incense, I felt safe there and I could cry uninterrupted.



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 48 | 49 || 51 | 52 |   ...   | 105 |


Similar works:

«Chinese Military Modernization and Asian Security Michael Swaine August 1998 1 2 Chinese Military Modernization and Asian Security* Michael Swaine I’ll speak on the question of Chinese military defense modernization and its implications for the Asian security environment. I’ll try to keep my remarks at a level where we can talk about broader issues and concepts, and the implications of all this for regional evolution in the security environment, U.S. security interests, U.S.-Japan...»

«A WARHAMMER 40,000 NOVEL BLOOD PACT Gaunt’s Ghosts 12 (The Lost 05) Dan Abnett (An Undead Scan v1.1) For Dave Taylor It is the 41st millennium. For more than a hundred centuries the Emperor has sat immobile on the Golden Throne of Earth. He is the master of mankind by the will of the gods, and master of a million worlds by the might of his inexhaustible armies. He is a rotting carcass writhing invisibly with power from the Dark Age of Technology. He is the Carrion Lord of the Imperium for...»

«REWARD AND PUNISHMENT PROCESSING IN SUBGROUPS OF YOUTH WITH CONDUCT PROBLEMS: CHARACTERIZATION OF THE NEURAL RESPONSE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR INTERVENTION by Amy Lynn Byrd, Ph.D. B.S. in Psychology, College of Charleston, 2006 M.S. in Clinical Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, 2010 Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of The Kenneth P. Dietrich School of Arts and Sciences in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy University of Pittsburgh 2015 UNIVERSITY OF...»

«Citation: Horton, Matthew, Read, Janet, Fitton, Daniel, Toth, Nicola and Little, Linda (2012) Too Cool at School – Understanding Cool Teenagers. PsychNology, 10 (2). pp. 7391. ISSN 1720-7525 Published by: PsychNology Journal URL: http://www.psychnology.org/File/PNJ10(2)/PSYCHNOLOGY_JOURNAL_10_2_HORTO N.pdf This version was downloaded from Northumbria Research Link: http://nrl.northumbria.ac.uk/10923/ Northumbria University has developed Northumbria Research Link (NRL) to enable users to...»

«EDMUND GOSSE’S FATHER AND SON: RENEGOTIATING BIOGRAPHY THROUGH ILLUSTRATION KATHY REES Edmund Gosse (1849–1928) is known today for one classic text, Father and Son (1907), the account of his early life from 1849 to 1870 in his Plymouth Brethren home. It is a profile of mid-Victorian dissenter religion, where the recollections of the urbane narrator are periodically animated by the voice of the precocious but fragile child-focaliser. On publication the book was applauded for its...»

«Volume 1 of An Analytical Commentary on the Philosophical Investigations Wittgenstein: Understanding and Meaning Part II: Exegesis §§1–184 G. P. Baker and P. M. S. Hacker Fellows of St John’s College · Oxford Second, extensively revised edition by P. M. S. Hacker Wittgenstein: Understanding and Meaning Part II: Exegesis §§1–184 Other volumes of this Commentary Wittgenstein: Rules, Grammar and Necessity, Volume 2 of An Analytical Commentary on the Philosophical Investigations G. P....»

«Article Constructing the Cool Wall: A Tool to Explore Teen Meanings of Cool Fitton, Daniel Bowen, Read, Janet C and Horton, Matthew Paul Leslie Available at http://clok.uclan.ac.uk/7405/ Fitton, Daniel Bowen, Read, Janet C and Horton, Matthew Paul Leslie (2012) Constructing the Cool Wall: A Tool to Explore Teen Meanings of Cool. PsychNology Journal, 10 (2). pp. 141-162. ISSN 1720-7525 It is advisable to refer to the publisher’s version if you intend to cite from the work. For more information...»

«1 Sociocultural Issues in Learning English for Women in Northwest Pakistan Dissertation zur Erlangung des Grades eines Doktors Englische Philologie am Fachbereich Philosophie und Geisteswissenschaften der Freien Universität Berlin vorgelegt von Sabina Shah Berlin, February, 2015 2 Erstgutachter/in: Prof. Dr. Gerhard Leitner (Institut für Englische Philologie) Zweitgutachter/in: Prof. Dr. Ferdinand von Mengden (Institut für Englische Philologie) Tag der Disputation: 14. Juli 2015 3 Contents...»

«COGNITIVE SCIENCE 8, 1-26 (1984) Discrimination Nets as Psychological Models* LAWRENCE W. BARSALOU Emory University GORDON H. B O W E R Stanford University Simulations of human cognitive processes often employ discrimination nets to model the access of permanent memory. We consider two types of discrimination netsEPAM and positive-property-only netsand argue that they have insufficient psychological validity. Their deficiencies arise from negative properties, insufficient sensitivity to the...»

«Some Ways that Maps and Diagrams Communicate Barbara Tversky Department of Psychology, Stanford University Stanford, CA 94305-2130 bt@psych.stanford.edu Abstract. Since ancient times, people have devised cognitive artifacts to extend memory and ease information processing. Among them are graphics, which use elements and the spatial relations among them to represent worlds that are actually or metaphorically spatial. Maps schematize the real world in that they are two-dimensional, they omit...»

«YOU’RE a Grand Officer Head 2 Toe Intro As a Grand Officer YOU are expected to present yourself in a professional way at every event that you attend. This is not only important in Rainbow, but also in the professional business world. Keep that in mind!! Our Grand Officer dress code is to be used at all Rainbow functions. If you are not following the dress code, YOU will not be treated as a Grand Officer. The Mother Advisor and Grand Deputies are instructed NOT to escort you, but to introduce...»

«• HIGHLIGHTS OF PRESCRIBING INFORMATION Behavioral and mood disturbances: May Include euphoria, insomnia, mood These highlights do not include all the information needed to use Flo-Pred swings, personality changes, severe depression, and psychosis. Existing safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for Flo-Pred. conditions may be aggravated. (5.5) • Decreases in bone density: Monitor bone density in patients receiving longFlo-Pred (prednisolone acetate) Suspension for Oral...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.