WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 5 | 6 || 8 | 9 |   ...   | 105 |

«Wartime Rescue of Jews by the Polish Catholic Clergy The Testimony of Survivors Edited and compiled by Mark Paul Polish Educational Foundation in ...»

-- [ Page 7 ] --

At St. Casimir Hospital in Radom, where I was finally sent to have my eye attended to, the groans of the wounded seemed restful to my ears after the screams of Demblin [Dęblin]. The atmosphere of this hospital was tense and a little surrealistic: The Germans had taken charge of everything, from surgery to administration, but they had left the religious at their posts. The nuns were excellent nurses and especially strong Polish patriots, conspirators even. The sister who looked after me had a German-sounding first name, Kunegunda [actually this would have been an assumed religious name, that of Blessed Kinga or Kunegunda, the Hungarian-born wife of King Boleslaus V the Shy of Poland], but she would rather have had her tongue torn out that pronounce a word in that language. As with all the other religious, the occupiers had to speak to her through an interpreter. The German military doctors didn’t believe in talking to the wounded. I only learned the details of my operation from Sister Kunegunda. … Sister Kunegunda was very kind to me, perhaps in the hope of bringing me to religion, or more simply because of my relative youth. She sometimes brought me sweets and promised to contact my family with the help of another sister who happened to be traveling to Lodz [Łódź]. I wrote my parents a long letter, which ended by declaring my irrevocable decision to move to the provinces incorporated in the USSR, beyond the River Bug. … Then one morning the doctor announced the arrival of “eine Dame,” my mother. … He left us alone for a moment, then he returned to announce to my mother that she could take me home … At the home of some friends of Sister Kunegunda in Radom, my mother gave me a suitcase with all my things carefully arranged, and directions on the best way to cross the Bug. … Sister Kunegunda’s last piece of advice still resounded in my ears: “Badz Polakiem” [“Bądź Polakiem”] (“Be Polish”), with its unspoken implication: “Fight for Poland.” … [In Lwów] I managed to find a modest job in a chemist laboratory where I washed test tubes, and even more modest lodgings (a kitchen commode on which I stretched out at night, my feet dangling in the air) at the home of a retired Polish lady who was poor but very obliging; if I remember, correctly, she was an acquaintance of Sister Kunegunda.

In Polish Pomerania (the so-called Polish corridor), in the fall of 1939, thousands of Poles, as well as some Jews, 21 were rounded up and killed in mass executions in the forests near Piaśnica. One group of 300 prisoners, transported there in November from the jail in the nearby town of Wejherowo, included Jewish children. Sister Alicja, born Maria Jadwiga Kotowska, the superior of the convent of the Sisters of the Resurrection of Our Lord Jesus Christ in Wejherowo and school principal, took them into her care. She led them by their hands like Janusz Korczak would later lead his Jewish orphans from the Warsaw ghetto onto a train headed for Treblinka. (Lucyna Mistecka, Zmartwychwstanki w okupowanej Polsce [Warszawa: Ośrodek Dokumentacji i Studiów Społecznych, 1983], pp.94–96.) On the entry of the Wehrmacht into Wejherowo (September 9), the extermination action began. The jails were overcrowded, and prisoners occupied not only the cells but also the corridors and the chapel. There were over 3,000 of them …including members of the clergy … The Sisters were also blacklisted. They were placed in isolation in their convent which was occupied by the German army. … At 3:30 in the afternoon [of October 23]… during prayer the Gestapo burst into the convent, causing an uproar, with the aim of terrorizing the Sisters. They demanded that Sister Alicja leave. Upon leaving, they arrested her and took her to the courthouse. … The next day the Sisters … learned that Sister Alicja was in the local jail [where she remained despite numerous interventions] … Commencing November 5, every day six or more automobiles left the jail for Piaśnica … On November 11 a large transport counting 300 prisoners left for Piaśnica. Among them was Sister Alicja Kotowska. Before entering the automobiles they had to empty their pockets … Sister Alicja was the last member of the group to enter the courtyard of the building. She approached a group of Jewish children, took them by their hands and led them into the automobile.

In Piaśnica forest the prisoners, stripped to their undergarments, were lined up in front of the graves that had been prepared. They were forced to kneel [before being shot] … Their bodies were covered over with a thick layer of lime and soil over which sod was placed.

The Germans started to abuse the Jewish population as soon as they arrived in Żelechów near Garwolin. After a brief respite, matters came to a head again in November 1939, when hundreds of Jews were rounded up and were on the verge of being killed. A priest intervened with the Germans on behalf of the endangered Jews.

(“Zelechow,” in Encyclopedia of the Jewish Communities in Poland, Volume VII, Internet:

http://www.jewishgen.org/yizkor/Pinkas_poland/pol7_00199b.html; translation from Pinkas hakehillot Polin, Volume VII [Jerusalem: Yad Vahem, 1999], pp.199ff.) The Germans entered Zelechow [Żelechów] on 12 September 1939. Immediately upon their arrival, they seized Jews on the street, subjected them to harsh abuse, plundered their property, and set several of their houses on fire. The next day, the synagogue was set afire, and the blaze claimed the life of Hayyim Palhendler, who before the war had been a member of the municipal council. At the same time, the Germans seized Jewish and Polish public figures as hostages and imprisoned them for twenty-four hours. After a few days, the Germans gathered a group of Jews and sent them to OstrowMazowiecka [Ostrów Mazowiecka]; on the way, they shot many of them to death. … In November 1939 … That month also saw a serious incident that jeopardized the lives of hundred of Jews in Zelechow.





On a market day in town, a former Polish soldier shot at a German. The Germans immediately gathered hundreds of Jews and prepared to kill then, but through the lobbying of the priest, and after the actual culprit was captured, the Jews were set free.

In early November 1939, the Gestapo in Łódź carried out mass arrests of the intelligentsia, Catholic clergymen and political and social activists, both Poles and Jews, and confined them in a concentration camp created in nearby Radogoszcz. Józef (Josef) Saks, who arrived at the camp on December 23, 1939, recalled the atmosphere of solidarity that prevailed among the prisoners. (His account, recorded in October 1945, is found in the archive of the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw, Record Group 301, Testimony 1023.) On December 23, 1939, I arrived with a group of 39 Jews and 40 Poles from the [Gestapo] prison on Sterling Street (also some people from the prison [police detention for arrests] on Kopernik Street). There were a few dozen women in the camp, including a few Jewish ones. … In the camp there were 4 big rooms. The Jews were in two rooms, but there were no special ghettos.

The Poles’ attitude to the Jews, with the exception of particular individuals, was generally good. It should be pointed out that there were a few dozen priests in the camp. Most of the Poles were from the intelligentsia. The prisoners’ honesty

–  –  –

From western Polish territories incorporated directly into the German Reich, Jews were deported en masse to the General Government. Many of them passed through the Franciscan friaries in Limanowa near Nowy Sącz and in Niepokalanów near Warsaw. On January 2, 1940, Emanuel Ringelblum wrote in his diary Kronika getta

warszawskiego: Wrzesień 1939–styczeń 1943 (Warszawa: Czytelnik, 1983), at page 68:

In Limanowa, the behaviour of the Franciscans toward 1,300 Jewish refugees (500 from Kalisz, 500 from Lublin, and some 300 from Poznań) was very favourable. They gave them accommodations in their buildings and helped them [in various ways]… even giving them a calf to kill.

In a biography entitled A Man for Others: Maximilian Kolbe, Saint of Auschwitz (New York: Harper & Row, 1982; reissued by Our Sunday Visitor Publishing Division of Our Sunday Visitor, Inc., Huntington, Indiana, 1982), at pages 91–93, Patricia Treece writes about the extensive assistance provided to large numbers of Jewish refugees in Niepokalanów, Poland’s largest monastery, which was under the direction of Father Maximilian [Maksymilian] Kolbe.8 8 Father Kolbe’s beatification and subsequent canonization gave rise to an ugly campaign of vilification by uninformed sources, who hold themselves out as “experts” on Polish-Jewish relations. The charges against Father Kolbe were thoroughly discredited at the time but has been revived in recent years. In 1982, two historians—Daniel L. Schlafly, Jr., a Catholic, and Warren Green, a Jew—undertook extensive research on Father Kolbe’s prewar activities. In their report, “The Charges and the Truth,” published in the St. Louis Jewish Light (June 30, 1982), they stated that, in all of Father Kolbe’s published works, there were only 14 references to Jews, some very positive, five negative, and none racist. Another charge levelled at Father Kolbe had to do with Mały Dziennik, the popular daily newspaper produced at his friary, which was accused of promoting anti-Semitism. Father Kolbe was away in Japan for much of the 1930’s and issued instructions

not to publish articles that could be construed as being anti-Semitic. See Michael Schwartz, “The Deputy Myth,” The Persistent Prejudice:

Anti-Catholicism in America (Huntington, Indiana: Our Sunday Visitor, 1984), pp.235–38. The tone for the hatred spewed on Father Kolbe was set by Rabbi Lev K. Nelson, who wrote in the Boston Jewish Advocate (November 4, 1982): “…the sainted Kolbe was a notorious anti-Semite during the Hitler regime in Poland … How can we possibly say that Kolbe is Kosher when his whole life has been unclean—seared by the disease of anti-Semitism and sullied by the spewing of hatred towards human beings of a different faith? Is it irony or poetic justice that the man who was indirectly responsible for crowding Auschwitz with its victims, was in turn compelled to share their bitter lot and witness the result of the preaching of hatred!” Anne Roiphe, a literary editor of the liberal Jewish-American periodical Tikkun, who appears not to appreciate that the Nazis also built camps for and engaged in the systematic destruction of Christian Poles, especially the clergy, made the following remarks in A Season For Healing: Reflections on the Holocaust (New York: Summit Books, 1988), at p.130: “Father Kolbe was a nationalist of great fervor. His objection to the Nazis was nationalistic not moral … A known anti-Semite, even one caught in the machinery to kill the Jews, hardly seem a candidate for sainthood, at least to Jews. In making a pilgrimage to the camp and marking the death of Father Kolbe, [Pope John Paul II] seems once again to diminish the death of all Jews who died there.” Joseph Polak, director of the B’nai B’rith Hillel Foundation at Boston University, called a modest shrine erected in the Auschwitz cell where Father Kolbe was put to death “a landmark etched only in thoughtlessness and cruelty”. See his “Auschwitz Revisited: Icons, Memories, Elegies”, Midstream, June/July 1990, pp.17–18. In his best seller, Chutzpah (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1991), Alan M.

Dershowitz wrote, at p.143, that Father Kolbe was “a notorious anti-Semite who almost certainly would never have sacrificed his life for a condemned Jewish inmate. (In fact, it is unlikely that Kolbe ever even met a Jew at Auschwitz, since the Polish prisoners were kept entirely separate from the Jews.)” On August 1, 1994, The New York Times ran a letter from Alfred Lipson, Senior Researcher, Holocaust Resource Center and Archives, City University of New York, which stated: “The Polish priest’s canonization caused a controversy because of past anti-Semitism, especially his attacks on Jews in his popular publications and preachings.” David M. Crowe, a historian who taught at Columbia University in New York and is former member of the Education Committee of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C., wrote in his study The Holocaust: Roots, History, and Aftermath (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 2008), at p.371: “Kolbe was a Franciscan priest from Łódź who operated a religious center near Warsaw. He was arrested on several occasions by the Germans for helping refugees. But most of Father Kolbe’s fame came from his willingness to die in place of another prisoner in Auschwitz. In 1971, questions were raised about his beatification after it was discovered that Kolbe was an anti-Semite who accepted the fictitious Protocols of the Elders of Zion as authentic [as did Winston Churchill, at the time—ed.]. He wrote about the ‘perverse Jewish-Masonic press’ and claimed that the Talmud ‘breathes hatred against Christ and Christians’ [which reputable scholars such as Peter Schäfer (Jesus in the Talmud [Princeton, New Jersey and Oxford: Princeton Univerity Press, 2007]) readily acknowledge— ed.]. He also thought that the Holocaust was God’s punishment for Jewish sins. [This is a totally preposterous charge, as the Holocaust did not get underway until after Kolbe’s death. Ed.] In 1982, Pope John Paul II canonized him as a ‘martyr of charity.’” 23 Truckloads (Brother Juventyn [Juwentyn] estimates as many as 1,500 Jews and 2,000 gentiles at one time) were dumped at the friary by the Nazis, displaced persons who had been forced from their homes as “undesirables” in territory annexed by the Reich.9 The first group (Jews and gentiles from the Poznań area), many times outnumbering the Franciscans, was practically waiting on the doorstep when Kolbe and his malnourished friars returned from imprisonment. … Kolbe and the Brothers somehow managed to feed their bedraggled guests until the Germans began allotting food for them. To do so, the friars begged in the neighborhood. … Kolbe not only provided housing (the guests were given about three-fourths of the friary) and food, but clothing and every other kind of assistance as well.



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 5 | 6 || 8 | 9 |   ...   | 105 |


Similar works:

«Louisiana Architecture: 1945-1965 The Contemporary House NATIONAL BACKGROUND Introduction: “I am not going to sit on furniture that continually reminds me of a machine shop or a hospital operating room.” Albert Einstein Machined modernism in art and architecture wasn’t for everyone. If Einstein had been talking about houses, he might have had in mind the high-art Farnsworth House near Chicago, a serene steel and glass box designed by the supreme modernist Mies van der Rohe (Photo 1). But...»

«Diffusion: the UCLan Journal of Undergraduate Research Volume 4 Issue 2 (December 2011) The role of religion in social transformation within Poland since1970 Paul Ryder (Religion, Culture and Society) The political and social structure of the state At the close of the Second World War in 1945, Poland was consumed by the totalitarian, communist regime of Joseph Stalin’s Soviet Union. The ideology of Stalinism was heavily based on the work of Karl Marx and what later became known as Marxism....»

«TECHNISCHE UNIVERSITÄT MÜNCHEN Lehrstuhl für Aquatische Systembiologie Bioindication tools for measuring the success of stream restoration Joachim Wolfgang Pander Vollständiger Abdruck der von der Fakultät Wissenschaftszentrum Weihenstephan für Ernährung, Landnutzung und Umwelt der Technischen Universität München zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades eines Doktors der Naturwissenschaften genehmigten Dissertation. Vorsitzender: Univ.-Prof. Dr. A. Melzer Prüfer der Dissertation: 1....»

«STRAIGHTENING OUR HAIR bell hooks On Saturday mornings we would gather in the kitchen to get our hair fixed, that is straightened. Smells of burning grease and hair, mingled with the scent of our freshly washed bodies, with collard greens cooking on the stove, with fried fish. We did not go to the hairdresser. Mama fixed our hair. Six daughters—there was no way we could have afforded hairdressers. In those days, this process of straightening black women’s hair with a hot comb (invented by...»

«David Barlow and Panic Disorder 1 RUNNING HEAD: DAVID BARLOW AND PANIC DISORDER The Contribution of David Barlow to the Understanding and Treatment of Panic Disorder Brett J. Deacon, Ph.D.* Tamer I. Fawzy, M.A. University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY University of Wyoming, Department of Psychology, Dept. 3415, 1000 E. University Ave., Laramie, WY 82071, USA *Corresponding author, Tel: 1-307-766-3317, fax 1-307-766-2926 e-mail address: bdeacon@uwyo.edu David Barlow and Panic Disorder 2 The...»

«ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF EDUCATION AND BEHAVIORAL STUDIES SCHOOL OF PSYCHOLOGY Perceived parental supports and children’s psychological wellbeing: The case of Children living with stepparents around Sheromeda area By Matewos Gena ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF EDUCATION AND BEHAVIORAL STUDIES SCHOOL OF PSYCHOLOGY Perceived parental supports and children’s psychological wellbeing: The case of Children living with stepparents around Sheromeda area A Thesis Submitted to the School...»

«ÉTUDES ROMANES DE BRNO 35, 1, 2014 SAMUEL BIDAUD SUR LES SIGNIFIES DES MOTS ITALIENS CHE ET COSA Introduction Si elle est aujourd’hui très largement utilisée dans la linguistique francophone, la psychomécanique du langage est reçue de façon inégale à l’étranger. Si l’on excepte les travaux de quelques linguistes comme Alvaro Rochetti, Louis Begioni, Alberto Martone, Alberto Manco, Roberto Silvi ou Sophie Saffi, et le fait que les Principes de linguistique théorique et Temps et...»

«Intergroup Schadenfreude 1 Running Head: Intergroup Schadenfreude Malicious Pleasure: Schadenfreude at the Suffering of Another Group Colin Wayne Leach Russell Spears Nyla R. Branscombe Bertjan Doosje Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (in press). Keywords: intergroup relations, emotion, intergroup emotion, social identity theory, schadenfreude Intergroup Schadenfreude 2 Abstract Two studies examined intergroup schadenfreude malicious pleasure at an outgroup’s misfortune. Study 1...»

«The Effect of Early Rearing Experience on Adult Reproductive Behavior in Captive Giant Pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and Spectacled Bears (Tremarctos ornatus) A Thesis Presented to The Academic Faculty by Pei Sun In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Psychology Georgia Institute of Technology November 2004 The Effect of Early Rearing Experience on Adult Reproductive Behavior in Captive Giant Pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and Spectacled Bears...»

«THE JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY Vol. XVII. APRIL, 1937 No. 68 Oriuuatnal 1apers AN ENQUIRY INTO THE CAUSES OF MESCAL VISIONS BY C. R. MARSHALL, TUNBRIDGE WELLS INTRODUCTION MESCAL hallucinations have recently been investigated in the hope that their elucidation might help to unravel other hallucinatory phenomena. Zucker 1 administered mescaline to patients with hallucinations. From the protocols given many of the effects obtained (coloured lights, tapestry patterns, visions of...»

«*** Free EBOOK*** Your Journey of Personal Transformation Begins HERE: An Introduction to Understanding Your Human Design Chart by Evelyn Levenson, MBA Certified Human Design Specialist Your Success By Design Coach Your Journey Begins HERE www.HumanDesignforSuccess.com This Report is for your personal use. You MAY SHARE it, in its entirety with all author and contact information. However, You May NOT Trade, Sell or Resell This Intellectual Property in Any Way. You may not reprint any part of it...»

«ADVERSITY QUOTIENT IN PREDICTING JOB PERFORMANCE VIEWED THROUGH THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE BIG FIVE MASTER THESIS MAY 2007 MASTER’S DEGREE PSYKOLOGISKE INSTITUTT UNIVERSITY OF OSLO Elizabeth Le Thi ABSTRACT The aim of the present study is to theoretically and empirically investigate a theory labeled the Adversity Quotient (AQ). Its claim of being able to predict all facets of human capacity and performance is being tested by comparing it with the more established Five Factor Model (also known as...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.