FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 89 | 90 || 92 | 93 |   ...   | 105 |

«Wartime Rescue of Jews by the Polish Catholic Clergy The Testimony of Survivors Edited and compiled by Mark Paul Polish Educational Foundation in ...»

-- [ Page 91 ] --

Also in Warsaw, at 7, Oczki St., we ran a canteen in which we cooked an average of 2,000 meals every day on behalf of the Central Relief Council (RGO). Lots of people milled about the street until 4 p.m. After that hour, when everything calmed down, Jewish children turned up as if they had sprung from the earth. They penetrated to that district all the way from the ghetto. In the main, they were small boys and were excellently organized. One of them would stand guard at the point where Oczki St. runs into Starynkiewicz Square and another at the intersection of Oczki St. and Chałubiński St. In case of danger the little tot would whistle and the children vanished like air. Usually, there were several sometimes over a dozen children, each carrying a can. The food was always there for the Sisters would already have made an allowance for the arrival of the children. Quietly and efficiently, the cans were filled. This became part of the daily routine at Oczki St.

throughout the existence of the ghetto. Not once was there a bad break and, although the ghetto was at a distance of from 7 to 8 minutes brisk walk from the canteen, the children always managed to keep the appointment.

After the demolition of the house on Łowicka St., we lived in a villa of Mrs Potocka at 107a Puławska St., also in Warsaw. In the years 1942–1943, Sisters Konstantyna and Imelda took a charming Jewish girl into safekeeping. Her assumed name was Marta Krzywicka. The Sisters rented a room with Mrs Horwat for her. Shortly afterward, a policeman took an interest in her and she had to change her domicile. Marta remained in hiding in Warsaw until her father sent her a passport from Uruguay. She went with the whole transport full of misgivings: will the Germans keep an agreement? Alas, the entire transport was exterminated in Frankfurt.

At about the same time, a certain Jewish female physician was hiding at Puławska St. under Mrs Potocka’s and our care.

She was from Stanisławów. She later died of cancer. We also took into safekeeping the mother-in-law of Professor [Szymon] Askenazy and placed her at Królikarnia as a purported cancer patient. This we could do thanks to the assistance of Mrs Potocka and Father Wojtczak. She died a natural peaceful death there, and was baptized before passing away. We likewise helped professor Askenazy’s daughter Janina, whom a traitor later gave up to the Gestapo. She was tortured and murdered at the Gestapo headquarters in Warsaw at Szucha Avenue.

Our Cracow convent on Starowiślna Street and the subordinated convent in Siercza also assisted the Jews, though the task was difficult in view of German presence in the Siercza house. For example, we hid Janeczka, one of the third-form pupils from the primary school away for a few months. We gave financial assistance to rescue our seventh-form pupil, Hala Friedman, from the hands of the Gestapo. Unfortunately, that worthy girl did not survive despite frantic efforts of her faithful nanny. The money, as it later turned out, was pocketed by blackmailers and we never again heard of Hala.

Also, we concealed in our house a woman whose first name was Felicja (we do not know her surname). A very painful experience was the kidnapping by the Gestapo of two little girls—Ludka and Hanka Boroniec, whom we were hiding away among Polish and several other Jewish girls in Siercza. … Also in Siercza, a Mr Hilman was our cart driver for a long time.

On behalf of the RGO [Rada Główna Opiekuńcza, a social welfare agency] we ran a home for resettlers in Cracow on Krupnicza St. For a while the director of that home was the Mother Superior of our Lvov [Lwów] convent, a fine human being with a perspicacious mind and the best of hearts. There were Jewish children among the resettlers. Among others, Sister Celestyna T. escorted a Jewish child from Kołomyja in the east there. There were also Eryka M., Genia K., and others.

After the abolition of that home, thirty children, one-half of them Jewish, were moved to Rękawki St. One day, another four-years-old tenant was added. He was brought by a tram conductor who told us the boy had been left on his tram all day, nibbling at a piece of bread. We called the boy ‘Antoś’. He later went to Kochanów where the RGO moved the children’s home from Rękawki St. with the others. Our Ursuline Sisters tidied up an abandoned house there, preparing it for the same complement of children. Apart from the Sisters, the little Jews had other invisible caretakers; their next of kin of those families which escaped from the hands of the enemy. From time to time, one or another would turn up for a momentary visit to see their beloved children and then would disappear in a mysterious fashion. One night, for example, a Sister saw a father sitting at the bed of a sick child. All of those children survived.

Jagusia, a 15-years-old, fled to our house in Tarnów while Jews from the local ghetto were being driven to the railway station. She stayed with us in hiding for a fortnight, and then we put her somewhere else. The girl survived.

Many resettlers passed through our Lublin convent during the war. There was a considerable number of Jews among them who hid away for shorter or longer periods. Among them was 18-years-old Marysia from Chełmno, who spent a month there. Mr Stanisław D. worked and lived with us for a couple of years, and thanks to that he survived. We also gave material assistance to our former pupils of Jewish origin. Our Sister Wiktoria Bogacz helped the Lublin community in an especially selfless manner. People used to call her ‘Mother of the Poor’. Thanks to the unqualified endorsement to the 250 action, given by the then Mother Superior of the convent, the splendidly righteous Mother Tekla Busz, Sister Wiktoria doled out up to a thousand bowls of soup every day. Nobody ever asked: who are you with a Semitic face? The nature of Sister Wiktoria Bogacz was best defined by her name (Bogacz stands for ‘rich’ in Polish). This simple-hearted but magnanimous Sister never seemed to run short of bread, soup, or even ‘delicacies’ like a piece of sausage or lard, which she gave away to Poles, Jews, and inmates from the Majdanek camp alike.

Mother Teresa Dettlaff [Dettlof?], the Mother Superior of our Kołomyja convent, aided Jews on a large scale, and the Sisters from her convent participated resolutely in her action. Most especially on grim days of terror—round-ups or executions—our Kołomyja house became an asylum for those that had managed to run away with their lives. With terrible despair, they would look through basement windows and see their relations and acquaintances being led away for execution. Sister Hiacenta S. [Suchla] served most frequently as our courier, escorting Jews to their hideouts. Situations were sometimes fraught with drama but, luckily, our aid was most effective. It required, however, plenty of vigilance, acumen, courage and sacrifice. Among her many charges, Sister Hiacenta escorted Mrs Rozalia Wrońska (an assumed name), [the daughter of a local pharmacist], to our convent in Zakopane, and then on to Raciechowice to her family who had selflessly been giving a helping hand in that action. She brought Mr Ebstein [Eckstein?], a dentist to that same place.

He later went into hiding in Nowy Sącz [with the family of Sister Celestyna Tatarczyk] where he spent a long time and managed to survive. At the beginning of 1943, Sister Hiacenta escorted 4-years-old Ewa Zawadzka (an assumed name) to her native regions of the country. The trip with the child was a dangerous ordeal for she panicked at the sight of troops and policemen and could easily betray both of them. Therefore, a few months later, she had to be moved to her mother who had been hiding away further eastward. The undersigned, being a member of the Lvov [Lwów] convent, escorted little Ewa from Tarnów to Stanisławów. The child behaved quietly, but just before reaching Stanisławów she addressed some woman with a telling Jewish accent: ‘I think I know you, Mrs’ … Naturally, I was greatly alarmed, but everything ended all right. A third nun took Ewa on her further journey east and the child survived the war.

Apart from the event related above, the Lvov convent helped Mother Teresa Dettlaff in rescuing Kołomyja Jews on several occasions. Accordingly, on 24 October, 1942, Sister Ewelina Z. [Zasada] escorted 10-years-old Ewa Kassler [Kesler?] from Lvov to Warsaw where she accommodated the girl with the Order of the Family of Mary. The girl survived the war. She was a step-daughter of the above-mentioned Mr Ebstein. His wife, Ewa’s mother, fared worse. She made her residence in Lvov but was not cautious enough and perished. Blackmailers cashed in on our contacts with her. They followed the tracks down to Kołomyja. The situation was dangerous. They threatened Sister Celestyna T. with arrest;

eventually, a hard-gotten ransom of 10,000 złotys saved us and calmed the storm. Acting with foresight, however, the superiors of the Order transferred Mother Teresa Dettlaff to Cracow.

In 1941 or 1942, we took Professor Józef Feldman into safekeeping for the two weeks’ duration of an anti-Jewish campaign. We placed him at 12, Jacek [św. Jacka] St. During that time, illicit identity documents were made out in his name. He got them, left for Warsaw, and survived.

Mother Elżbieta Łubieńska and Mother Władysława Lewicka assumed responsibility for our aid to Jews in Lvov. For both of them the Ebstein affair, related above, was a harsh experience. First one then the other headed the convent.

During her term as Mother Superior, Władysława Lewicka was truly fearless in aiding camp inmates and refugees. It was she who admitted a Mrs Roszko, an elderly Jewish convert, together with her adult daughter Maria to the convent for about a year. The elder Mrs Roszko later moved from the convent to the flat of Mrs Antoniewicz, the mother of one of our nuns, where she died a peaceful death. Her daughter took another hiding place, was eventually escorted by Sister Celestyna T. to a gamekeeper’s house, and survived the war.

We also gave a helping hand to a Lvov kiln manager (Rosenberg?). Mother Władysława took his jewelry and trunks and other belongings into safekeeping. Every once in a while, his 15-years-old daughter, Marysia, would come and spend part of the day with us while he was taking out some of his things for ransom. He survived for a long time. We do not know what happened to him later.

The Gadziński family, our neighbours in Lvov, also took a young Jewish couple into hiding. They deposited their belongings with us and then would select some of the things, little by little, to pay for their upkeep.

One more fragment from our Lvov contacts. We were on friendly terms with Doctor K. and his family. That excellent man devoted plenty of attention and loving care to the poor, whom he not only examined but also supplied with medicines.

Mrs K was of Jewish origin. One day, when he was in town, the Gestapo came and searched the flat. That brave woman, his wife, succeeded in destroying all papers compromising her husband (he was a member of an organization), and did it practically in the presence of the Gestapo. In the meantime, a chimney-sweep entered. … He then left the flat, but kept a watch in the street until he could warn the Doctor that the Gestapo had come to his home. Mrs K. and her son (a school boy) were arrested as hostages for the Doctor. The organization forbade him to report to the Gestapo and he despaired lest the Jewish origin of his wife be discovered. He spent a few days with us, later came every day to fetch some bread. Mrs K. was detained for six months, then set free together with the son.

–  –  –

In 1942, when the Germans deported the Jews from the village of Szreniawa to the nearby Cracow ghetto, the Sznajders tried to find a hiding place with Christian farmers in the village. However, the only member of the family who managed to find a hiding place was 16-year-old Genia Sznajder, who was taken in by Barbara Dobrolubow, an old school friend of hers who, together with her family, looked after Sznajder devotedly, without expecting anything in return. A few weeks later, the Dobrolubows decided to send her to relatives of theirs in Warsaw, where no one knew her, on the assumption that, with her Aryan looks, she had a better chance of surviving there. In Warsaw, Sznajder was taken in by Zygmunt and Jadwiga Koczorowski, Dobrolubow’s uncle and aunt, who looked after her, obtained Aryan papers for her, and registered her at a convent high school belonging to the Urszulanki [Ursuline] Sisters. The Koczorowskis showed loving concern for Sznajder, who stayed in the home run by the sisters until the outbreak of the Warsaw Uprising in late summer 1944.

Sznajder was sent to Germany with the other children of the home and Koczorowski was sent to a concentration camp.

After the war, they met up again in Warsaw and Sznajder stayed with the Koczorowskis until she finished her studies. In 1954, Sznajder immigrated to Israel.

Confirmation of the activities of the Ursuline nuns can be found in the accounts of Felicja Kohn from Lwów, and Wanda Z., a woman of Jewish origin from Kraków. (Bartoszewski and Lewin, Righteous Among Nations, pp.259, 262; Małgorzata Melchior, Zagłada a tożsamość: Polscy Żydzi ocaleni na “aryjskich papierach”.

Analiza doświadczenia biograficznego. [Warsaw: IFiS PAN, 2004], p.152.) [1] In Cracow I was put up for the night by the mother superior of a convent (Mother Superior Łubieńska of the Ursuline Sisters), despite continuous visitations by the Gestapo. Another sister from the same convent recommended me for suitable jobs, thus making it possible for me to survive. … Also in Cracow I was very warmly received by Myszka P., who got hold of a Kennkarte for me, from the Reverend [Edward] Lubowiecki.

[2] The nuns in the convent [in Kraków] were extraordinary. They helped us—my family, the PPS [Polish Socialist Party] organization, and later Żegota—tremendously during the war. I would have been unable to secure half of the birth certificates and identity documents without the help of that Ursuline convent. They behaved extraordinarily.

Extensive assistance was provided by the Albertine Sisters in their numerous convents throughout Poland. (The following accounts were compiled in 1961.) When the Servant of God Brother Albert [Adam Chmielowski] founded his orphanages in 1888, he helped everyone regardless of their status, nationality or religious beliefs. The orphanage took in Catholics, Ruthenians, Jews, in other words everyone.

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 89 | 90 || 92 | 93 |   ...   | 105 |

Similar works:

«ISSN(Online) : 2319-8753 ISSN (Print) : 2347-6710 International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology (An ISO 3297: 2007 Certified Organization) Vol. 5, Issue 8, August 2016 Design approach of Eye Tracking and Mind Operated Motorized System Susmita Das1, Sayan Kumar Swar2, Shrisom Laha2, Subhankar Mahindar2, Suchetana Halder3, Koushik Hati2, Sandipan Deb2 Assistant Professor, Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering, Narula Institute of...»

«A WARHAMMER 40,000 NOVEL BLOOD PACT Gaunt’s Ghosts 12 (The Lost 05) Dan Abnett (An Undead Scan v1.1) For Dave Taylor It is the 41st millennium. For more than a hundred centuries the Emperor has sat immobile on the Golden Throne of Earth. He is the master of mankind by the will of the gods, and master of a million worlds by the might of his inexhaustible armies. He is a rotting carcass writhing invisibly with power from the Dark Age of Technology. He is the Carrion Lord of the Imperium for...»

«The Real Thing 1. The Taste Test There’s something very special about a school fair. It’s the excitement of the weeks building up to it, and all the work that the kids do in the classroom, painting posters and making signs. It’s the colour and the bustle of the day itself, and how it always seems to be sunny, and the fact that on school fair day all the rules about what you’re allowed to eat, and not to eat, go straight out the window, and you’re allowed to stuff yourself with toffee...»

«Citation: Horton, Matthew, Read, Janet, Fitton, Daniel, Toth, Nicola and Little, Linda (2012) Too Cool at School – Understanding Cool Teenagers. PsychNology, 10 (2). pp. 7391. ISSN 1720-7525 Published by: PsychNology Journal URL: http://www.psychnology.org/File/PNJ10(2)/PSYCHNOLOGY_JOURNAL_10_2_HORTO N.pdf This version was downloaded from Northumbria Research Link: http://nrl.northumbria.ac.uk/10923/ Northumbria University has developed Northumbria Research Link (NRL) to enable users to...»

«Diffusion: the UCLan Journal of Undergraduate Research Volume 4 Issue 2 (December 2011) The role of religion in social transformation within Poland since1970 Paul Ryder (Religion, Culture and Society) The political and social structure of the state At the close of the Second World War in 1945, Poland was consumed by the totalitarian, communist regime of Joseph Stalin’s Soviet Union. The ideology of Stalinism was heavily based on the work of Karl Marx and what later became known as Marxism....»

«Tiedemann, K. B., D. F. Ventura and C. Ades. 1986. Spectral sensitivities of the eyes of the orb we b spider Argiope argentata (Fabricius). J. Arachnol., 14 :71-78. SPECTRAL SENSITIVITIES OF THE EYES OF THE ORB WE B SPIDER ARGIOPE ARGENTATA (FABRICIUS ) Klaus B. Tiedemann, Dora Fix Ventura and Cesar Ade s Department of Experimental Psychology Institute of Psychology University of Sao Paul o Sao Paulo, Brazil ABSTRACT Spectral sensitivity curves to light between 425 and 650 nm for the...»

«Fools Die Mario Puzo Book I Chapter 1 “Listen to me. I will tell you the truth about a man’s life. I will tell you the truth about his love for women. That he never hates them. Already you think I’m on the wrong track. Stay with me. Really—I’m a master of magic. “Do you believe a man can truly love a woman and constantly betray her? Never mind physically, but betray her in his mind, in the very ‘poetry of his soul.’ Well, it’s not easy, but men do it all the time. “Do you...»

«ecipe policy brief — 02/2016 POLICY BRIEF No. 2/2016 Xi Jinping’s long road to somewhere? China’s OBOR initiative and how Europe should respond by Guy de Jonquières, Senior Fellow at ECIPE The mention of China’s One Belt One Road initiative, also known as Belt and Road, brings to mind the Indian fable of the three blind men and the elephant. The men have never seen an elephant, so have no idea what one looks like. One grasps its trunk and insists it is a tree. Another puts his arms...»

«Inga Jasinskaja-Lahti PSYCHOLOGICAL ACCULTURATION AND ADAPTATION AMONG RUSSIAN-SPEAKING IMMIGRANT ADOLESCENTS IN FINLAND Helsinki 2000 ii Sosiaalipsykologisia tutkimuksia Socialpsykologiska studier Social psychological studies Kustantaja / Publisher: Helsingin yliopiston sosiaalipsykologian laitos / Department of Social Psychology, University of Helsinki Toimituskunta / Editorial Board: Klaus Helkama, puheenjohtaja / chair person Karmela Liebkind Rauni Myllyniemi Anna-Maija Pirttilä-Backman...»

«The International Journal of Indian Psychology ISSN 2348-5396 (e) | ISSN: 2349-3429 (p) Volume 3, Issue 2, No.9, DIP: 18.01.164/20160302 ISBN: 978-1-329-97719-8 http://www.ijip.in | January March, 2016 Impact of Yogic Practises on Risk Taking Behavior of Attension Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Children Piyush Dubey1*, Garima Singh Kathait1, Dr. Anita Puri Singh 2 ABSTRACT Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is one of the most common childhood disorders and can continue through adolescence...»

«TECHNISCHE UNIVERSITÄT MÜNCHEN Lehrstuhl für Aquatische Systembiologie Bioindication tools for measuring the success of stream restoration Joachim Wolfgang Pander Vollständiger Abdruck der von der Fakultät Wissenschaftszentrum Weihenstephan für Ernährung, Landnutzung und Umwelt der Technischen Universität München zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades eines Doktors der Naturwissenschaften genehmigten Dissertation. Vorsitzender: Univ.-Prof. Dr. A. Melzer Prüfer der Dissertation: 1....»

«ARTICLE IN PRESS Behaviour Research and Therapy 44 (2006) 807–817 www.elsevier.com/locate/brat A pilot study of two-day cognitive-behavioral therapy for panic disorder Brett Deacona,Ã, Jonathan Abramowitzb a Department of Psychology, University of Wyoming, Dept. 3415, 1000 E. University Ave., Laramie, WY 82071, USA b Department of Psychiatry & Psychology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St. SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA Received 14 February 2005; received in revised form 13 May 2005; accepted 23 May...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.