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«AUTHOR’S INTRODUCTION O thou that buttest the high mountain, seeking to dislodge it with thy horns, take pity, not on the mountain but on thy head ...»

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At the end of the third chapter he reiterates his mischievous and unsubstantiated statement without giving even a correct resume of any of the recensions mentioned in his thesis by authoritatively asserting: “A careful survey of the early manuscripts reveals that there was no one version of Adi Granth, Ranjit Singh abolished the institution of gumatta (collective decision of the Khalsa Panth) and tried to down play the doctrine of Guru Panth. He also made efforts to bring forward the doctrine of Guru Granth. Maharaja Ranjit Singh appointed a council of prominent Sikh scholars to prepare an authorized version of Adi Granth (Thesis Chap. 3, p. 82).” Pashaura Singh is not tired of repeating this utterly stupid suggestion without giving an iota of evidence: Guru Arjun frequently revised the received texts in the interest of establishing a canonical scripture. During the editorial process, Guru Arjun achieved linguistic refinement through substitution of synonyms for certain words,” which he presumes Guru Arjun did not have in earlier drafts. Pashaura Singh mindlessly follows the absurd suggestions of his Guide Dr McLeod but he does not give a single line or a single word from the text to prove what he so loudly asserts.




This chapter opens with a passage from an essay of Dr Loehlin, which was originally written by him “long ago. But after his death Hew McLeod clique prepared a distorted form of it, introducing in it passages to which he never subscribed during his life time. They have got it published under a new title “The Need For Textual and Historical Criticism” to suit their purpose.”13 These three chapters move around one lamp-post in the blind-alley in which Pashaura Singh ventures to enter. This lamp-post is his Light-house, and whenever he gropes in the darkness of bluff, blustering deception, he follows the lighthouse repeatedly asserting: McLeod says, McLeod thinks, McLeod suggests, McLeod concludes’. With such back-seat driving of his learned Guide, Pashaura Singh 352 again and again jumps out of the frying pan into the fire of hostile and ignominious postures constructed by his guide. But a scholar with academic interests looks for some concrete internal or external evidence in support of his much trumpeted theory that GNDU MS/1245 is an early draft prepared by Guru Arjun.


Many people like me do not believe in magic, but when you happen to see a magical show you are impressed by the art of illusion. But Pashaura Singh and his learned Guide Dr Hew McLeod have evolved a novel magical formula for upgrading and downgrading sacred scriptures and fake documents to whatever position they desire. Besides giving a newly constructed Geneological Table, historically incorrect and misleading from top to bottom ( Thesis p. 23) he introduces a new magical formula in Toronto University academic studies by making the following statement.

“If the standard rule of textual criticism that “the shorter reading is to be preferred to the longer one (Brevior lectio praeferenda verbosiori) is considered the text of this manuscript comes out to be earlier than the famous Kartarpur manuscript. Another rule that “the more difficult reading is generally preferable” (Proclivi lectioni praestat ardua) may be equally applied to GNDU text since it contains archaic linguistic expressions which were standardized in the Kartarpur volume.”14 If some learned Christian scholar like Dr Hew McLeod applies an abracadabra magic formula and some Latin or Greek so called standard rules of criticism, to the Bible and places the Fourth Gospel before the First, and Epistles of St.

Paul before the birth of Jesus Christ, his Christian colleagues of Berkley and Toronto Universities might consider Dr Hew McLoed and his students and admirers genuses of a new genre, but all those eminent scholars who devoted a life time to the study of the Bible might turn in their graves on hearing of this new methodology 353 of studying sacred scriptures. Even orthodox Sikhs are very tolerant people but no one in his normal senses can tolerate such gibberish nonsense.

Both Dr Hew McLeod and Pashaura Singh might have been on better grounds if they had taken shelter under such Latin or Greek phrases to protect and propagate their preju’dices and errors as: argumentium and ignorantium (arguments based on the adversary’s ignorance; or individiam (peoples hatred and prejudices). These universities have lowered their own prestige by instituting such unacademic research which only ventilates the ignorance, contempt and prejudices of a hostile Christian scholar and a stupid Sikh student.


Mul-mantar and Gur-mantar in Sikh scriptures have been one and the same ever since they were revealed to Guru Nanak. They have come down to us only through written tradition. Cult-groups virtually disassociated from Sikhism even during the Guru-period have tried to corrupt Mulmantar, Gurmantar and also distort Gurbani, but the Mulmantar and Gurmantar of Guru Nanak has been recorded in all authentic recensions of Adi Granth, historically acceptable Janamsakhis and Gurbilases is absolutely correct. The

correct Mulmantar is :

Ek: The One Trasnscendent God Omkar. All-pervading Immanent Spirit Satnam: His Name is Eternal Truth Karta Purkh: Creator, Perfect Being Nirbhau: Without Fear Nirvair : Without Enemity Akal murti: Immortal His divine Image Ajuni: Unborn Saibhan: Self-Existent Gurparshad: By His Grace attained The Mulmantar is based on Guru Nanak’s experience and vision of the Unmanifest Absolute One and only One God, and His Manifest Immanent, All-pervading Light Omkar This Ek Omkar is also called the Bij Mantar and is present in all 354 invocations. The divine Attributes of God are given in the Mulmantar. It embodies the luminosity of the Unmanifest Absolute God and His All-pervading Light which gives Life and divine spark to all living creatures. It unfolds a vision of the Ultimate Reality and the Creative Power behind the universe.

Contemplation and meditation on the Mulmantra opens the inner-most being of man to the spiritual con-sciousness of the Immanent and Transcendent Presence of God. In the Gum Granth we find it in 33 places. Besides being placed at the opening of new Ragas, it is particularly attached to two major compositions of Adi Granth namely Japji and Asa-Ki-Var. It appears it was inseparably associated with these compositions from the time of Guru Nanak.


For invocations as minor sub-headings a part of it ek omkar satnam kartapurkh gurprashad is used only eight times; while a still shorter invocation ek orhkar satgurprashad is used 525 times. These minor invocations are not Mulmantras. They are used even while writing a letter. For writing encyclic letters (Hukamnamas) these invocations were still reduced to brief statements and ekornkar gum sat. Guru Gobind Singh introduced a number of other invocations such as Vahguru-ji-ki Fateh, tav prashad, Akal Sahai. These invocations are not rnantras and are not used for meditations.

Bhai Gurdas has explained in detail the significance of Mulmantra in two of his verses in such a way that the distortions can easily be detected. Bhai Gurdas, the co-compiler of Adi Granth authoritatively confirms what the real Mulrnantar in Sikh Scriptures is and what it means.

ekamar-akang likh Ura Omkar lakhaya satnam karta purkh nirbhau hoe niroair sadaya akal murat partakh soe nau ajuni saibham bhaya 355 Autograph of Guru Arjun with Correct Mul-Mantar, in Kartarpur recension of Adi Granth.

gurprashad sit adi sach jugeh jugantar honda aya After writing the numerical akang (one) Symbolizing ekamkar. the Transcendent God.

The letter Ura was written along with it Symbolizing Omkar : All-pervading Immanent Spirit Satnam: Eternal Truth is His Name Karta-purkh: He is Creator, perfect Being Nirbhau hoe, being Ever Fearless Niroair Sadaya: He is known as “Without Enemity”.

Akal-murat His Immortal image is Visible Presence.

His attribute is Ajuni: Unborn He is ever Self-Existent: Saibham By the grace of Eternal Guru (Gurprashad) He is achieved: The Primal Truth Who ever exists from age to age.

Bhai Gurdas: Var 39, pauri 1.

Bhai Gurdas repeats this confirmation of Guru Nanak’s Mulmantar in Var 26.

As break away cults like Minas who were condemned as highway robbers had already started corrupting Gurbani, distorting Millmantar and Gurmantar, So Bhai Gurdas not only clearly states what mill-mantar in Sikh Meditations is, but also gives clear expression to Guru Nanak’s gurmantar when he says, “Vah-Guru Gurmantar hai jap haumai khoi.

Vah-Guru is the gurumantar contemplating which the disciple gets rid of all I-am-ness, (ego-consciousness).


MANUSCRIPT: GNDU MS /1245 Guru Nanak Dev University bought this manuscript from curio dealers Harbhajan Singh and Harcharan Slngh Chawla.

Dr Piar Singh and Dr Madanjit Kaur of Guru Nanak Studies Department of the University certified it as a very rare and unique manuscript of Adi Granth. A micro-film copy of this manuscript was specially provided to Dr Hew McLeod, perhaps on the strong recommendation of Dr Piar Singh and Dr Madanjit Kaur, two of the four or five strong admirers of Dr Hew McLeod and uncritical 356 supporters and propagators of his bluff-blunder books allegedly called academic.

The claim of the dealers or those who have commit-ted the forgeries that there is Nishan mangal of Guru Hargobind are utterly false. A Mul-mantar written by the clearly discernible hand-writing of Guru Tegh Bahadur is pasted on it afterwards.


It is shocking to note that Professors who recommended it as a rare Manuscript of Adi Granth, in their rash enthusiasm to promote this completely fake eigh-teenth century document as an early and rare draft of Adi Granth failed to note that the crude hand in which this hymn falsely attributed to Bhai Buddha is a recent forgery pasted on it to give it historical colouring and increase its sale value.

A hymn is pasted on the Manuscript which is attributed by those who forged it to Bhai Buddha’s handwrit-ing.

Pashaura Singh says, “The attribution of this hymn to Bhai Buddha is based on the family tradition. See the Manuscript Note by Harbhajan Singh and Harcharan Singh Chawla” (p 27-28 f.n.). Pashaura Singh writes “the manu-script contains a hymn written in Bhai Buddha’s hand on the third decorated page, which may show his involve-ment in the creation of the scriptures. It is quite possible that his descendants may have preserved the manuscript through the process of handing it over to the next generation. “

The forgery is clear from the following, facts:

(1) During the course of my researches I have maintained a regular contact with the deras and villages con-nected with Bhai Buddha’s life. These deras and shrines never had any recension of Adi Granth or any document having anything written by Bhai Buddha’s hand.

(2) These lines written with a rustic hand are from a distorted hymn of Guru Amar Das. They have nothing to do with Bhai Buddha.

357 (3) Bhai Buddha was the first teacher who taught the punjabi alphabet first to Guru Arjun and then formally to Guru Hargobind. No man in his proper senses would believe that Bhai Buddha wrote in such a clumsy and crude handwriting.

Bhai Buddha was the most honoured and the First Patriarch of Sikh history who was not only the most loved and respected disciple of Guru Nanak, but he was appointed by the Founder of Sikhism to anoint his successor. God granted him such long life and spiritual strength that he anointed five successors of Guru Nanak. When the compilation of Adi Granth (Pothi Sahib) was completed, he was asked to install it in the Rari Mandir (Golden Temple). He was appointed the first High Priest of this most sacred shrine because of his first hand knowledge and experience of the durbars of Guru Nanak, Guru Angad, Guru Amar Das and Guru Ram Das. Those who have presented a forged hymn under his forged handwriting deserve to be condemned for such blasphemous act.


If there was anyone whom the Mina-Cult rival gurus hated it was Bhai Buddha and Bhai Gurdas, who cam-paigned against the aggressive and mischievous schismatic activities of Prithi Mal and his son Meharban, who were condemned by them as Minas (Highway robbers). They bribed the Masands and indirectly plundered the tithes before they reached the legitimate Guru. They corrupted and plagiarized Gurbani, and thus committed literary thefts in many ways. When Guru Ram Das handed over the articles of spiritual regalia to Bhai Buddha and asked him to anoint his youngest son Arjun Mal as his successor, Prithi Mal rudely confronted Bhai Buddha and said, Listen O old Man, I know you very well;

You are praised As companion of Guru Nanak;

I am the eldest son, And deserved to be set 358 On the pontific throne of the Guru.

You have not done the right thing;

You are an old man now, And have lost al1 sense of discrimination;

I conducted al1 the administration, What have you done old Man.

You have anointed Arjun as the successor.

If I do what I must do You wiII have to face dishonour and humiliation;

I will wrest control of the pontific throne.

Kavi Santokh Singh: Sura} Prakash, Ras 2, Ansu 22 The hostility of the Mina Sodhis (Prithi Mal and Meharban continued to the end of the life of the great Patriarch who was respected as a great Apostle and comtemporary of Guru Nanak by all the Sikh Gurus.



It is an established fact that the decision to compile an Adi Granth (Pothi : Holy Book) was made when it was detected that the Mina Sodhis had started mixing their own hack-work and imitation verses in authentic Gurbani, Kesar

Singh Chhiber in his Bansavalinama writes:

“Meharban son of Prithi Mal started composing poetry.

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