«AUTHOR’S INTRODUCTION O thou that buttest the high mountain, seeking to dislodge it with thy horns, take pity, not on the mountain but on thy head ...»
Inspite of this friendly attitude of the emperors we find a very strong protest against ruthless kings, corrupt ministers, greedy judges and religious exploiters like Brahamins, Mullas. But when Jahangir ascended the throne he was determined to eliminate many friends of Akbar and his liberal rule to win over fanatic Mullas and courtiers. The enemies of the Gurus made a false case against Guru Arjun and was tortured to death. Foreseeing the things to come, Guru Arjun employed eminent Sikhs who had worked as trained soldiers in Mughal or Rajput armies and discplined his son to be saviour with the Sword who was to defend the Faith and helpless people. In 1606 A.D. Guru Hargobind had a full fledged army. When he was anointed Guru he had put on two swords, one symbol of the Guru as Defender of Faith (the sword of Piri) and the other as Defender of Political freedom and integrity of the Sikhs (Called the sword of the Miri) If anyone sat on a raised platform 2 or 3 feet high and kept an army and a war drum he was considered a rebel who challenged the political authority of the Emperor. In 1609 A.D. Guru Hargobind built a throne resembling the throne of Mughal emperors, but higher than it, kept a war drum right in front of the Harimandir (Golden Temole). While the temple was meant for prayers, worship, Kirtan from dawn till late night, Akal Thakat was the place where National gatherings of the Sikh Gurus took place, and where after formal prayers the Gurus gave audience.
Akhand Path: The word Akhand means continuous and uninterrupted Path means reading of the Scriptures. A reading of the Guru Granth within seven or more days, by individual or group readers is known as Sadham Path. But a reading of the Gum Granth by a team of readers, lasting 48 hours is known as Akhand Path.
Recit-ing the Koran continuously is a well known tradition in Islam. The Sikhs follow the same tradition. Baba Narayan Singh father of the eminent lexicographer Bhai Kahn Singh could recite the whole Guru Granth in one continuous sitting.
Amrit means Nectar, Ambrosia, Elixir of life. In the Sikh scriptures it is used in many senses.
Amrit-Vela : ambrosial hours, dawn most suitable for meditation Amrit-sar Pool of nectar Amrit-Jal : ambrosial water Amrit-bachan : ambrosial word. Gurbani. Amrit-Bani : the embrosial hymns. Amrit-shabad : the word of God as elixir of life.
Arnrit-Pahul : the water of Baptism. Water was used as a medium for preparing baptismal water (Amrit form Guru Nanak to Guru Gobind). From Guru Nanak to Guru Gobind Singh’s life till 1699 all ten Guru baptized as originally instituted by Guru Nanak. He touched a bowl full of water with his right foot and recited com-positions. It was known as Charan-pahul. In 1699 A.D.
Guru Gobind Singh introduced the baptism of double-edged sword which was prepared by five religious and spiritually discplined Sikhs, which continues to this day.
Anand-marriage rites: (Anand: bliss: joy) name of Sikh marriage rites quite distinct from Hindu Vedic rites of marriage. In this cer-emony four hymns known as Lanvan are read and sung which the couple circumambulate around the Guru Granth. The actual marriage ceremony takes about half an hour.
Amritsar : the holiest city of the Sikhs.
Ardas : (persian) Arz-dasht a humble - supplication. Name of congrega-tional prayer original pertain composed by Guru Gobind Singh, followed by rememberance of five Beloved ones, the four sons of the tenth Master, Saints, martyrs, hermits sages of all religions, and closing with actual individual or congregational supplication.
Arya Samaj movement was started by a Gujrati monk named as Swami Dayanand Sarswati (b:1824) who did not have much success in making his ideas acceptable in the South or Bengal where Sanskrit 394 studies were far beyond his own reach. Swami Ramakrishna record his meetings with Swami Dayanand thus: “I found that he had acquired a little power; his chest was always red. He was in a state of Vaikhar, speaking on scriptural subjects night and day, by the application of grammar, he w» twisting the meaning of many words. He had in his mind the egoism.” When Sri Ramakrishna applied his ears to his chest, he said to Swami Dayanand, “You are a learned Scholar but you.are empty within.” This Sanskrit Scholar who was spiritually and ethically empty from within found a recently conquered British State of Punjab a fertile ground for attacking all religions in the worst language and defeating the Muslim, Christian and Sanatan Dharama leaders who were always on the defensive. But Giani Dit Singh a young Sanskrit Scholar took the offensive and unseated him from the pedestal of an unchallangable Sanskrit scholar of Hinduism.
Under this movement of the Aryasamajis, they have always pit-ted themselves against Sikhs even in the last four decades on every issue that was politically and culturally favourable to them. Even though some liberal,Aryasamajis have resumed these moves in recent years, the official Aryasamajis with a complete hold on Urdu and Hindu Press of Jullundar have opposed Punjabi lan-guage (their mother tongue), Punjabi culture (their own culture) and have helped Delhi Rulers in establishing the most ferocious Hindu hegemony and Hindu linguistic imperialism which is the root cause of all the present day political religious and cultural troubles in Punjab.
Avtar: manisfestation of a Deity into human or less than human form, which is not God. In Sikh scriptures even the descent of human soul into lower spirit as rebirth in animal souls is called avtar. The avtars of Vishnu, Brahama, Shiva are mentioned but it is considered a sin to call these deities God. An Ansh Avtar is the partial manifestation of a Deity or a cosmic divine Power created by God.
Avtars are creatures of God and never God the Supreme Being. In the Guru Granth it is generally used in an etymological sense.
Baba : (Persian) : Father, Grandfather: Head of a Religious order one who is renouned for virtues and uprightness. Turkish, missionary, Preachers, Sheikh. In Mughal courts the princes were addressed as Baba. Before they became kings jahangir and Shah jahan were addressed as Babajahangir and Baba Shahjahan. This custom was adopted in the durbar of the Sikh Gurus. The Guru was addressed as Sacha Patshah the true King and his sons were addressed as Baba (Princes). We have Baba Sri Chand, Baba Gurditta, Baba Ajit Singh, Baba Fateh Singh.
Bairagi : Vairagi : The word Viaragi means apathy towards wordly interests, stoicism, awakening of the spiritual consciousness in 395 ones mind. When Ramanand’s followers broke away from ortho-dox Vaishnaism they formed a Varigi sect open to all lower caste.
Baisakhi : Indian New Year Day. During the Guru period it fell in the last week of March. These days it falls in the second week of April. Guru Amar Das fIxed it as National Assembly Day when Sikhs from distant places assembled at the feet of the Guru. For those who were not able to come on Baisakhi day, came to the Guru on Diwali day in October. It was during one such annual gathering on the Baisakhi (New Year Day) in 1699 Guru Gobind Singh or-dained the Khalsa Holy Order.
Bani : lit-speech, word, language; sound, voice, utterance, a literary work or composition; hymns; divinely inspired poetical composition. In the Guru Granth there are two major divisions made by Guru Amar Das: Sachi Bani, Hymns inspired by truth and revela-tion of higher mystical experiences. Kachi Bani, poetical expres-sions based on immitations and false and hypocritical pretentation; it may be inspired by devotion to petty gods and goddesses or it may be utterance of false prophetic and hypocritical cult saints.
All the hymns is Guru Granth and cannonized Scriptures are considered Bani. The works of Bhai Gurdas and Bhai Nand Lall have the status of Pramanik Bani authentic cannonized Scriptures. The hymns of the Gurus are classifIed as Mahalla (Mansion) I,II,III,IV, V, IX and X. All Gurus being one in Spirit use the signature name of Nanak. The hymns of medieval saints coming from Hindu tradition are called Bhakta-Bani and are addressed as Bhakta (Bhagat) Bani. The hymns of SufIs is called Sheikh (Pir) Bani.
The hymns of the ministrels is called Doom-Bani. All are collectively called Gurbani because they are part of Holy Book which is revered as the living embodiment of the Ten Gurus.
Bhagta (Bhagat) : One who believes in Love is the sole guarding spirit to higher spiritual life. In Hinduism there are Devi Bhaktas, Krishna Bhaktas, Ram Bhaktas, Shiva Bhaktas and Vaishnav Bhaktas.
Each system has its own rulers, ceremonies and devotional patterns. In Sikh ism true Bhakti is the intense love of God alone, and the Sikh Guru accepted and always treated SufIs and low caste Hindu Bhaktas as a part of the Sikh Brotherhood.
Bhai : Revered Brother and saints, sufIs in Sikh history were addressed as Bhai. The word saint was never used for saints till the middle of nineteenth century when the saint-cults emerged like mush-rooms and died a natural death after a good deal of Cheap pro-paganda.
Bir: A bound volume of sacred scriptures is called Guru Granth Bir, Dasm Granth Bir Buddha (Bhai) born in a poor Jat family of Kathunangal in 1506 A.D..
396 Father’s name Sugha Randhawa, mother’s name Guarain. Came into contact with Guru Nanak at the age of 10. He married a peasant girl named Morvan. He passed away in the village in 1631 A.D. during the life time of the sixth Master Guru Hargobind.
Bhai Buddha is the first of the most sacred Patriarch of Sikh history who was appointed the master of ceremonies. The first five successors of Guru Nanak were anointed by Baba Buddha.
Guru Nanak established a unique precedent by appointing anenlightened Sikh Saint from a Shudra Jat family as master of ceremonies which throughout India was performed mostly by Brahamins or at the most by Kashtryas. After the death of Baba Buddha his decendents sons, grandsons became the Masters of ceremonies. As a Patriarch of first order he was so much respected by Guru Nanak’s successors that they bowed before him, touched his feet in reverence and would never say “no” to any suggestion coming from him.
Charan Pahul : Baptism of the Lotus Feet i.e. the initiation ceremony of the Sikhs, instituted by its founder Guru Nanak, which was replaced by initiation with the double edged sword by Guru Gobind Singh in 1699. The new baptism was to create the Khalsa Holy Order. See Khalsa Holy Order.
Darbar Sahib: popular name for Golden Temple Complex see Golden Temple, Harimandir, Akal Takhat.
Darshan ; lit (l) Vision of divine Presence (2) philosophic system, Chhe Darshan Six Hindu Systems, Gurmat Darshan Sikh Philosophy.
Dasm Granth : Guru Gobind Singh was a Poet-historian and philosopher of wide vision. He wrote many diferent types of works (1) Philosophic works like Jap, Akal Ustat, Gyan Prabodh etc. (2) Historical; works which include his own Autobiography and all great figures of ancient history which are referred in the Guru Granth. (3) A Dicitionary of the Names of weapons. (4) Triya Charitra, which depict the social, cultural and historical role of women at their best and worst through stories resembling the stories of Bocucaus Decameorn and Arabian Nights. Many stories have historical background. These separate works were first com-piled by eminent contemporary Apostles; Bhai Mani Singh and Baba Binod Singh. There are pages of original manuscript. There is a third copy prepared by Baba Dip Singh.
There are a few other quite authentic copies prepared from these original codes, short-sighted ‘writers’ and scholars who have neither cared to study the whole Dasm Granth nor have the equipment and ability to understand and interpret, even such well known Philosophic Composition as Akal Ustat and Gyan Prabodh, have displayed their intellectual and literary shortcoming by projecting their rejection slips without understanding any composition.
397 Dervish, Fakir: Sufism centers around “poverty” and mystical path.
Poverty is called faqir and for it are formed the words faqir, poor and dervish “poor mendicant”. Outward poverty was considered essential for inward spiritual richness.” He who has no wish for himself in this world and the next, is considered a true faqir in sufism and Sikhism. Guru Nanak insists that a dervish is one who knows patience (Sabr), contentment (riza) and lives in devotion and prayer.
Dharma: The word is used by the Sikh Gurus and Bhaktas in Guru Granth Sahib in various senses such as social and cultural duties, religion, faith, scriptUral laws, higher moral and spiritUal laws, ethical conduct and the rightousness in personal and social life, Ultimate Justice Truth and Righteousness Doctrines and spiritUal practices which led to enlightenment.
Dharam Raj: A Cosmic Being created by God who is Judge of the dead, who holds up the mirror of conscience in which every one faces the reward and punishment of his own deeds. Dharam Raj bows before saints and considers himself their servant.