«INTRODUCTION My first introduction to Fessenden was sometime in the 1950’s whilst collecting gulls eggs near the Inneans. I remember asking “what ...»
My first introduction to Fessenden was sometime
in the 1950’s whilst collecting gulls eggs near the
Inneans. I remember asking “what were the gi-
gantic concrete structures near the Gauldrans."
The answer was either “they were something to
do with the war” or “something to do with the
nearby airfield.” This answer seemed to satisfy
me at that time….
Next meeting was in the late 1980’s - whilst sit-
ting in a dentist’s surgery in Wick I picked up the Scots Magazine and there in front of me was an article adorned with a photo of the site in 1906, including one of the mast. Having a career in Electronics in Civil Aviation, this article always remained at the back of my mind.
Many years later whilst on the internet, I searched for the name Fessenden and was pre- sented with, all I can say, was a bewildering amount of information about a man I felt I should have known more. This internet find led me to the website of Dave Riley in Marshfield/ Brant Rock - the location of the site in USA mir- rored by Fessendens Machrihanish station. I sent a few comments to Dave and by return found that he had been in correspondence with local man Duncan McMillan. This was about the site and in particular how to raise the profile of Fes- senden, especially as it was approaching the 100th anniversary of the site and his achieve- ments. Since then we’ve been involved in much work with the Laggan and Campbeltown Com- munity Councils, TV and Radio interviews both here and across in Massuchusetts, plus had much Newspaper coverage again here and in Massa- chusetts. This work still goes on however will be ending at Christmas 2006 - hopefully
WHO WAS REGINALD A FESSENDEN?Reginald Aubrey Fessenden was born in Lakeside Drive Knowlton, Broome County Quebec, in 1866. His descendents were from Kent and his father, an Episcopalian Minister, headed a well respected family. Reginald’s father expected his son to follow in his footsteps. Reginald however, from an early age, didn't agree and as his Grandfa- ther said "this lad is of finer clay."
In fact Reginald is quoted as saying "my parents dispared of me." Reginald would close his eyes and dream of being able to send voices around the world without wires, to which his mother said “there’s no future in that.” Reginald's idea of the voices were spawned from attending lectures by Alexander Graham Bell and conversations with his Uncle Cortez - a Physics teacher, also well respected.
From an early age Reginald appeared to show a most logic and intitutive mind. At 15, he entered Trinity College School where he excelled in Maths and was always the head of his class. At 17, he left to become the Head of Whitney Institute in Bermuda where he met his beloved Helen, later to become his devoted wife. Helen said of his upbring- ing "he came from a loving house plus all his relatives had strong traits in medicine, law and held a strong belief in the Diety."
Reginald left Bermuda and worked for Thomas Edison soon being promoted to his Chief Chemist. Whilst with Edison, he devised the still used method of heat sealing the base of the glass envelope whilst still maintaining the wires in a vacuum through the base. He also pioneered the use of cheaper filament metals making the bulbs much more affordable to the public. His main interest however was always investigating the science of electromagnitism and reading the papers produced by the prominent scientists in this field.
Throughout his career, Fessenden seemed to have difficulty in working with people, possibly verging on the eccentric. He certainly struck a fine figure, being over 6ft, sporting a head of ginger hair and a full beard. He is also reported to have had the habit of walking about with a large flowing cloak, formidable to say the least, and not to be argued with.
In 1890 Fessenden moved again and worked with the U.S. Weather Bureau, where he devised a simpler method of morse code and established a network of radio stations along the Eastern seaboard using the “cutting edge” spark transmitters, now making their appearance. He was by this time, devising again new and I suppose “earth shattering” breakthroughs in this new science.
In the years 1850 to 1900 many people were investigating “wireless waves” or Hertzian waves and names such as Braun, Brady, Pokov and Marconi all closely watched each others' progress in this new science. Earlier, the very possibility of wireless waves had been founded by Clerk-Maxwell researching into the maths of electromagnetism. Those research’s were so perfect and their maths so precise, that it took mathematicians 40 years to appreciate their significance. Even years before Maxwell, Lord Kelvin found that whilst discharging a Leyden jar, unmistakable “external” electromagnetic waves were produced. Those famous names and many others were contempories of Fessenden and their work closely followed.
In 1900 there is documentary evidence that Fessenden had already devised a crude method of sending speech on a rough spark transmission, whilst he worked with the weather bureau. The contact was with Cobh Island MD on December 3rd 1900. He had already invented insulating tape by this time incidently.
In a spark transmitter, very simply, the radiation is produced by the discharge of high energy across a small “spark gap”that is controlled not so basically by a morse key press the key make the spark!!…. Unfortunately the process of keeping the spark going for any length of time presents problems and although alright for morse, would never be any use for speech transmission.
Fessenden realised this and was determined to devise a new system able to carry speech. Years before when out with his Uncle Cortez, he had reasoned that the radio wave must propagate like ripples from a stone thrown into a pond and not as Marconi had envisaged like a “whiplash effect.” In other words, the wave must be continuous and thus “spark” would never be any use in sending speech.
In 1900, Fessenden again moved on and this time established his own firm called the National Electric Signalling Company (N.E.S.C.O.) He was backed by two American millionaires, Given and Walker. However he found that Government red tape was rearing its head and he was refused a license to erect radio masts in his own country of birth Canada. In fact Marconi was given the license. Fessenden tried to establish a company in Canada at that time but his millionaire friends refused to back this venture and it came to little.
All through this time Fessenden was amassing patents under his belt, some of those being used by his rivals, however through business ineptude, little money was coming to him. Apparently Fessenden was more interested in the experimentation side than in the finance. At this time, basic spark transmitters existed and Fessenden indeed used those again, developing more advanced methods of both transmitting and receiving signals.
His method of heterodyning signals is still in use today. Telegraphic undersea cables existed across the Atlantic at this time, however were not reliable and were also costly to utilise. To cross the Atlantic by “wireless” would bring in well needed funding and so the target was in the sight… but also for his rivals. Fessenden was indeed in this race but still dreamed of the voice and speech over the radio that was the way to the future as he saw it In 1901, Marconi backed by the UK Government and who now had his masts in Newfoundland at Signal Hill, was reputed to have sent a signal the letter(s) from Poldhu in Cornwall. This was however a “claim” and many say the “jury remains out” as to whether he indeed managed this. In any case it was only one way if anything. This was of course using “spark” technology. Marconi never went down the speech path even in later years.
The Fessenden’s few years of moving into the business environment took them to Newark N.J. Pittsfield MA and Pittsburgh PA. During those moves he must have met many kings of industry and finance. Fessenden took the chair at Allegheny College and this led him to meet the greatest academic minds of the time. Names like J.P.
Morgan and George Westinghouse, Baldwin and many others. Whilst he was there, he published a major study of the “Deluged Civilisation” of the Caucausus Isthmus through the Massachusetts Bible Society. This was a massive work however it was helped by a system he invented - microfilm..
Fessenden throughout his life did not suffer the legal system well and as a result must have left some of his life and health behind him in sometimes futile courtroom bickering and dramas.
In 1905, a piece of land was leased from Capt Mac Neal of Losset Estate near Uisead Point for a period of 6 years, Lord Strathcona being involved in the transactions. Why there??
In those days, it was not clear whether radio waves would clear hills etc and this was the best “track” available from the UK to Brant Rock, Fessendens main station. Plus they also thought that a mythical wall of water 120ft high existed between them due to the curvature of the earth. The Kennelley Heavyside layer not been credited as yet. Incidently Fessendens son was called Kennelley after the later.
The station in Machrihanish was begun after Glasgow Fair in 1905. The N.E.S.C.O. company used the Brown Hoisting Machinery Company of Cleveland to erect the mast. The firm Locke Insulator Company of Victor N.Y. supplied the antenna insulators and Neil McArthur was used to cut the roads and other work at the site as a sub-contractor.
Using predetermined times and wavelengths signals were received in the beginning of January 1906 (Jan.2nd) loud and clear. Machrihanish was soon ready to transmit and to the delight of Fessenden at Brant Rock, signals were soon and repeatedly sent both ways Machrihanish to Brant Rock and vice versa. Cables were continually sent for weeks for onward passage from Campbeltown Telegraph office onto the existing cable network. There is some conjecture as to who actually heard the first messages.
Credit was given to Mr Armor but the Head Operator, a Mr Beakes was also present and listening. It should be noted that this was the First repeated crossing of the Atlantic by radio.
Signals however dropped out during springtime due to the longer daylight hours with their higher absorption. Autumn 1906 and the stations would be preparing to commence the telegraphic service once again. As mentioned earlier Fessenden was always dreaming of the speech over the radio systems and had been experimenting in this area. He had developed what is called a High Frequency Alternator - a large rotary machine capable of producing high voltage outputs, the frequency of which rises into the radio spectrum and this will, with additional components, produce a radio wave the frequency which is dependent on the speed the machine is run., thus avoiding the “spark gap”system. After much work on this system and constructing machines with unheard of wooden armatures, he now, to cut the story short, had his Continuous Wave method of producing the “wireless" signal as opposed to the on-off method of the spark. Progress indeed again and another first for Fessenden. This system was indeed used until superseded by the thermionic valve invented by Sir Ambrose Fleming in London in 1904 and complemented by Lee De Forrest in U.S.A.
in 1907 could be utilised commercially.
In November 1906 Brant Rock and Machrihanish were operational but both undergoing some engineering modifications.Brant Rock was modifying a new system between itself and another station in Plymouth Mass. about 12 miles away. Machrihanish on the other hand was listening and obtaining various data as to the absorpsion levels to be expected when communication re-commenced per the schedules. They were also listening in case any cables were by chance sent to them to avoid the high cable charges by land.
Brant Rock was often on the air with the Plymouth station with a new wireless telephone system between them. Fessenden and his engineers incidently had often noticed a strange and remarkable phenomenon which showed that speech could be transmitted by speaking in close proximity to his rotary spark gap but never investigated it at the time.
You can imagine Fessendens surprise to receive later in Nov. a registered letter marked and this proved to be correct. “personal” from one of the Machrihanish operators in which he detailed the time and date of reception of the voice, loud and clear of Mr Stein one of his engineers, instructing the Plymouth station on how to run up their generators. The report was not sent by cable so as not to run any risk of premature disclosure.
This was the first time human voice had ever been heard across the Atlantic by radio.
The records were checked and there was no doubt it had been heard at Machrihanish It must be said however that the quality left much to be desired for broadcasting music. The operator at Machrihanish was again Mr Armor.. Also in this document (Scientific American 1918 Sept. 8th) Fessenden makes reference to the “false claim that signals were sent from Poldhu in Cornwall to New Foundland in 1901” by Marconi. Mr Armor when he heard the speech at Machrihanish wrongly thought that it was the above phenomena of speaking near the spark gap causing the modulation, however it was Fessenden using his new very recently perfected H.F. Alternators, his microphone being in series with the antenna proper. Later checks were conducted to verify that the spark gap phenomena did exist as explained.
However on December 6th, due to a gale, one of the mast guys broke, and unfortunately, due to the increased pressure on the remaining guys, they each broke in turn, the mast buckling. Two sections landed near to the operators hut and the remaining structure landed in the direction of where the lifeboat shed is now situated. Photos exist of the mast on the ground but unfortunately are of poor quality. This was a disaster, when Fessenden was so successful in the project and although they claimed the mast would be re-erected it never came to place due to financial constraints upon N.E.S.C.O in U.S.A. Fessenden wasn't finished yet however and his finest triumph was yet to come - unfortunately without Machrihanish's help this time.