«By CAROLE ANNE HAMBY A thesis submitted to the University of Birmingham for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Department of Theology and Religion ...»
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Arminianism: A teaching regarding salvation, which rejects the notion of predestination, thus affirming the freedom of the human will, based on the ideas of Jacobus Arminius (1560-1609). See his five Articles of Remonstrance concerning: Salvation, Atonement, Holy Spirit, [Christian] Grace and Scripture.
Attender: A regular attender at Meeting for Worship, who is not a member of the Society of Friends.
Birthright Friend: Term applied to children of Members in earlier years of Quakerism, laid down in 1960.
British Quakers: Those who belong to Britain Yearly Meeting, which is the final “Constitutional Body” of the Society in Britain.
Centring down: Quaker term for a process in which the group of people attending a Meeting for Worship gather into inward silence, and use silence as the basis in which they seek corporately to be open to the leadings of God: a process of gathering together.
Certificates: Authority given to an individual Friend, by a Local Meeting, to take action on behalf of the Society.
Concern: Not to be confused with being concerned. For Quakers ‘a concern’ denotes a divine leading or imperative to action. If this is individually discerned, it must be tested corporately in a religiously valid way within the Religious Society of Friends.
Conversion/conviction: For Fox, a spiritual experience that followed Convincement.
Convincement : ‘Convincement’ is the term most frequently used by Quakers to refer to a transforming experience: a uniquely Quaker enlightenment as the individual is ‘convinced of one’s sin’. It is now a term used to indicate spirit led acceptance of Quaker faith and practice.
Elders: Those people within a Meeting given responsibility for the Spiritual oversight and nourishment of its members and attenders.
Gathered Meeting: A Meeting for Worship in which members and attenders experience together a deep phase of silence. Once individuals have centred down a sense of togetherness in unity in the Inward Light may arise facilitating a gathered meeting.
Gospel living/ Gospel Order: For early Friends Gospel order was reference to the order established by God that exists in every part of creation concerning the right relationship of all things, which mankind is called to uphold.
261 Inward Light/Light: Distinguished from ‘inner light’. ‘Inward’ implies shining into, whereas ‘inner’ implies dwelling within. The shift from one understanding (inward) to the other (inner) has come into Quaker vocabulary with the growth of liberalism. Inner is now more frequently used. Use of the term light is not a reference to the physical quality of brightness.
Inwardness: A state of self-referring consciousness in which the individual experiences a restful alertness that gives rise to an extended and fully silent calm. This state engages quietened listening to and witnessing of the state of consciousness itself, ‘leaning into’ ‘That of God Within’.
Leadings: Spirit led guidance familiar to Friends.
Liberal Quakerism: Arising following the Manchester Conference of 1895 and the growth in knowledge of the Period–biblical criticism and scientific thought in particular–which affected the Society at large.
Light: see Inward Light (above).
Liturgical observances and practices: Customary public worship performed by a group according to beliefs, customs and traditions.
Manchester Conference (1895): Conference called to address the apparent need to reinvigorate the Religious Society of Friends. (See also: the Quaker Essay Competition).
Measure: Quaker term used to refer to ‘weight’ and ‘depth’ of spiritual knowing and experiencing, expressed in everyday life. In this thesis the understanding of growth of measure is discussed in terms of expansion of consciousness.
Meeting for Worship: A silence-based gathering for religious observance in the manner of Quakers. This Meeting is relatively free of ritual and liturgy but, over time, it has gained a gained a regular form of practice. (See Table 1).