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«Lehrstuhl für Aquatische Systembiologie Bioindication tools for measuring the success of stream restoration Joachim Wolfgang Pander Vollständiger ...»

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TECHNISCHE UNIVERSITÄT MÜNCHEN

Lehrstuhl für Aquatische Systembiologie

Bioindication tools for measuring the success of stream restoration

Joachim Wolfgang Pander

Vollständiger Abdruck der von der Fakultät Wissenschaftszentrum Weihenstephan für

Ernährung, Landnutzung und Umwelt der Technischen Universität München zur Erlangung

des akademischen Grades eines

Doktors der Naturwissenschaften

genehmigten Dissertation.

Vorsitzender: Univ.-Prof. Dr. A. Melzer

Prüfer der Dissertation:

1. Univ.-Prof. Dr. J. P. Geist

2. apl. Prof. Dr. R. Gerstmeier Die Dissertation wurde am 12.06.2012 bei der Technischen Universität München eingereicht und durch die Fakultät Wissenschaftszentrum Weihenstephan für Ernährung, Landnutzung und Umwelt am 30.07.2012 angenommen.

Bioindication tools for measuring the success of stream restoration Contents Table of contents I List of Tables

II List of Figures

III Preface

IV Summary

V Zusammenfassung

1 The need for river restoration and how to measure its success

1.1 The importance of aquatic biodiversity

1.2 The role of European legislation in the restoration of river ecological function.............13

1.3 The complexity of river restoration success

1.4 The role of bioindication in river restoration

2 Objectives

3 Salmonid-egg floating boxes as bioindication for riverine water quality and stocking success

3.1

Abstract

3.2 Introduction

3.3 Material and Methods

3.4 Results

3.5 Discussion

4 The ‘egg sandwich’: a method for linking spatially resolved salmonid hatching rates with habitat variables in stream ecosystems

4.1 Abstract

4.2 Introduction

4.3 Material and Methods

4.4 Results

4.5 Discussion

5 Seasonal and spatial bank habitat use by fish in highly altered rivers – a comparison of four different restoration measures

5.1 Abstract

5.2 Introduction

5.3 Material and Methods

Study area

Comparison of bank habitat types

Fish sampling

Statistical analysis

Contents

5.4 Results

Fish habitat use

Seasonal effects

5.5 Discussion

Fish habitat use

Seasonal effects

Restoration recommendations

6 Ecological functions of fish bypass channels in streams: migration corridor and habitat for rheophilic species

6.1 Abstract

6.2 Introduction

6.3 Material and Methods

Study area

Fish community assessment

Fish sampling

Physicochemical habitat characteristics

Statistical analysis

6.4 Results

Structural habitat characteristics

Fish community composition

Fish movement

6.5 Discussion

Fish habitat use

Fish movement

Conclusions and recommendations for fish bypass construction

7 The effects of weirs on structural stream habitat and biological communities..........70

7.1 Summary

7.2 Introduction

7.3 Material and methods

Study area

Physicochemical habitat characteristics

Periphyton

Macrophytes

Macroinvertebrates

Fishes

Univariate data analysis

Multivariate data analysis

Contents

7.4 Results

Physicochemical habitat characteristics

Periphyton

Macrophytes

Macroinvertebrates

Fishes

Multivariate data analysis

7.5 Discussion

Differences between taxonomic groups and rivers

Periphyton

Macrophytes

Macroinvertebrates

Fishes

Implications for management

8 Synthesis: a new integrative approach to improve the course of action for river restoration and the efficiency control of restoration measures

8.1 Challenges of using bioindication for measuring the success of stream restoration....90 Aquatic indicator organisms for bioindication

Indicator systems for bioindication (active bioindication)

Combining active and passive bioindication

The suitability of passive bioindication

The suitability of multivariate analysis of passive bioindication

8.2 New ways for an integrative assessment of target species oriented restoration success and overall river ecological functioning

8.3 A standardised restoration protocol “The Proceeding Chain of Restoration”...............96 The pre-restoration proceeding

The post-restoration proceeding

8.4 Recommendations for future research

9 References

List of Tables I List of Tables 1 The need for river restoration and how to measure its success Table 1.1: European directives and national regulations of Germany and USA Table 1.2: Assessment of river restoration measures in Bavaria Table 1.3: Examples bioindication assessment tools and indices in stream ecology 3 Salmonid-egg floating boxes as bioindication for riverine water quality snd stocking success Table 3.1: Characteristics of the four different study sites 5 Seasonal and spatial bank habitat use by fish in highly altered rivers – a comparison of four different restoration measures Table 5.1: Summary of seasonal fish species composition, biomass and diversity 6 Ecological functions of fish bypass channels in streams: migration corridor and habitat for rheophilic species Table 6.1: Structural habitat characteristics Table 6.2: Species list of the fish habitat assessment.





7 The effects of weirs on structural stream habitat and biological communities Table 7.1: Characterization of the five study streams Table 7.2: Physicochemical habitat characteristics Table 7.3: Ecological traits of macroinvertebrates and fishes Table 7.4: Codes of the environmental variables displayed in Figs 7.5 & 7.6 Table 7.5: Beta diversity for each taxonomic group and for all taxa

–  –  –

II List of Figures 1 The need for river restoration and how to measure its success Fig. 1.1: River restoration is affected by ecological, technical and socio-economic factors 3 Salmonid-egg floating boxes as bioindication for riverine water quality snd stocking success Fig. 3.1: Construction schematic of the salmonid-egg floating box (SEFLOB) Fig. 3.2: Comparison of hatching rates of H. hucho 4 The “egg sandwich”: a method for linking spatially resolved salmonid hatching rates with habitat variables in stream ecosystems Fig. 4.1: Construction scheme of the “egg sandwich” Fig. 4.2: Schematic side view of the exposed “egg sandwich” in the stream bed Fig. 4.3: Proposed evaluation key for the “egg sandwich” Fig. 4.4: Comparison between different egg exposure treatments Fig. 4.5: Pairwise differences in hatching rates between three different depth layers 5 Seasonal and spatial bank habitat use by fish in highly altered rivers – a comparison of four different restoration measures Fig. 5.1: Map and magnification of the study area Fig. 5.2: Schematic of the four assessed habitat types Fig. 5.3: Cumulative fish biomass and number of specimens in four habitat types Fig. 5.4: Characterization of biodiversity in the four habitat types Fig. 5.5: Multi dimensional scaling analysis (MDS) of the four habitat restoration measures Fig. 5.6: Size-dependent seasonal habitat use of chub (Squalius cephalus)

–  –  –

6 Ecological functions of fish bypass channels in streams: migration corridor and habitat for rheophilic species Fig. 6.1: Magnification of the study area Fig. 6.2: Differences of total fish lengths in the sampled reaches Fig. 6.3: Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) performed for all three study sites Fig. 6.4: Regression between discharge and fish movements 7 The effects of weirs on structural stream habitat and biological communities Fig. 7.1: Location and map of the study area Fig. 7.2: Schematic of the sampling design with Fig. 7.3: Characterization of periphyton and macroinvertebrate abundance Fig. 7.4: Comparison of species richness and diversity Fig. 7.5: Non-metric multidimensional scaling performed for different taxonomic groups Fig. 7.6: Non-metric multidimensional scaling of the sampling sides Fig. 7.7: Non-metric multidimensional scaling for different levels of taxonomic resolution 8 Synthesis: a new integrative approach to improve the proceeding and efficiency control of river restoration Fig. 8.2: The proceeding chain of restoration (PCoR) Fig. 8.3: Flow chart of an integrative efficiency control of restoration measures or ecosystem assessments

–  –  –

III Preface This PhD-thesis “Bioindication Tools to Measure the Success of Stream Restoration” is intended to contribute to a target oriented and more effective approach to measure stream restoration success and therefore help to protect aquatic biodiversity whilst contributing to an improvement of the ecological functionality of rivers.

The thesis is structured in nine chapters as follows: A general introduction (chapter 1) which describes the importance of aquatic biodiversity and the reaction of the European Legislation to its predicted loss is followed by sections which explain the complexity of river restoration and the role of bioindication in river restoration. In chapter 2 the main objectives of the work are stated. The following chapters (3-7) contain five case studies in which tools for active and passive bioindication were developed and described. In addition, for active bioindication two toolboxes are described: At first the assessment of water quality using a salmonid-egg floating box and afterwards the assessment of spawning ground quality through measures of spatial resolved salmonid egg hatching success. Methods for passive bioindication were developed through analysing restored bank habitats in a highly modified model stream, ecological functions of fish bypass channels as migration corridors, and habitats for fish and the effects of weirs on structural stream habitat and biological communities. In chapter 8 the five case studies are discussed in general and a new integrative and target oriented practice for river restoration and the assessment of river restoration success is presented. In this general discussion, challenges of using bioindication are linked to the synthesis of new ways for an integrative evaluation of target species oriented restoration success and overall river ecological function, also including a standardised restoration protocol called “The Proceeding Chain of Restoration” (PCoR).

Acknowledgements This PhD-thesis could not have been realised without the knowledge and help of many people and I am grateful to all who contributed to the success of this work. Naturally the shortcomings of this thesis are mine and mine alone.

I am particularly grateful to my supervisor Prof. Dr. habil. Jürgen. Geist. Prof. Geist managed to support and guided me in a structured scientific course of action. Obviously, a long-term project like a PhD thesis has its temporarily motivational fluctuations: I am therefore very

4Preface

grateful for his ability to provide freedom in academic thinking while keeping up the necessary ambitional goals at the same time. His great help in providing access to and also limiting the number of questions which arose during the course of events leading to the final thesis has been of great importance and cannot be valued enough. His ideas and the countless discussions were of significant importance while developing the ideas mentioned in the following. Thank you very much. In addition, I also would like to include all the staff at the Aquatic Systems Biology Unit for the excellent working conditions, the atmosphere in an international research orientated group, and the numerous occasions I had in sharing and developing my ideas in discussions with my colleagues here. I particularly want to thank M.

Ache, and J. Brandner who shared most of the time with me in the office. I thank Dr. B. Gum for reading earlier versions of the manuscript and M. Müller for her tireless efforts during almost all field sampling surveys, the on-going projects, and for her constructive contribution and the aid in providing the clear line of argumentation in areas where I almost got lost in the manuscript.

I would like to thank to the head of the PhD examination commission, Prof. Dr. A. Melzer and to the jury committee members Prof. Dr. habil. J. Geist, and Prof. Dr. R. Gerstmeier for their contributions. In addition my acknowledgements go to Dr. Dr. h.c. J. Bauer (Lehrstuhl für Tierhygiene) and Dr. habil. R. Kühn (AG Molekulare Zoologie) for their support in the early planning stages of the PhD-Thesis.

To carry out all the case studies many people contributed on a practical as well as theoretical stage to the success of this work. Extensive field sampling is often teamwork and so I want to thank everybody who contributed to the electrofishing surveys and the collection of physicochemical data. I thank J. Steinhilber for his support to organise the technical equipment for the electrofishing and to look after the laboratory references of the fisheggs.

Since the field work required a variety of special licenses e.g. for the electrofishing and the accessibility of protected areas I am grateful to Dr. O. Born (Fachberatung für Fischerei, Schwaben), J. Hoch (Fachberatung für Fischerei, Niederbayern), Dr. W. Silkenat (Fachberatung für Fischerei, Unterfranken) and R. Lauer (Landkreis Hassberge). The validation of the eggboxes could not have been possible without the support of B. Hornauer (state fish hatchery Mauka) and P. Aschenbrenner (state fish hatchery Lindbergmühle) who provided the fisheggs for the field and laboratory surveys. I want to thank K.H. Billmeier and J. Schiener for their assistance during field survey for the “SEFLOB”-study and K. Sternecker for the provision of field data for the “egg sandwich”. The habitat restoration in the river Günz was initiated by the local owner of the fishery rights, F.J. Schick and the investigation on the Nassach and the Riedbach was initiated by the head of the local fishery association, V.

5Preface



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