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Gorsuch, R. L., & Barnes, M. L. (1973). Stages of ethical reasoning and moral norms of Carib youths. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 4, 283-301.

Haan, N., Smith, M. B., & Block, J. H. (1968). Moral reasoning of young adults:

Political-social behavior, family backgrounds, and personality correlates. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 10, 183-201.

Hair, J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (1987). Multivariate data analysis with readings. New York: McMillan.

Hanks, R. (1985). Moral reasoning in adolescents: A feature of intelligence or social adjustment? Journal of Moral Education, 14, 43-55.

Harris, S., Mussen, P., & Rutherford, E. (1976). Some cognitive, behavioral, and personality correlates of maturity of moral judgment. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 128, 123-135.

Henderson, A. D., & Denison, D. R. (1989). Stepwise regression in social and psychological research. Psychological Reports, 64, 251-257.

Hofer, B. K. (2002). Personal epistemology: An introduction. In B. K. Hofer & P. R.

Pintrich (Eds.), Personal epistemology (pp. 3-14). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Hofer, B. K., & Pintrich, P. R. (1997). The development of epistemological theories:

Beliefs about knowledge and knowing and their relation to learning. Review of Educational Research, 67, 88-140.

Hong, Y. (2001, April). Group discussion in Korean kindergarten classrooms. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Seattle, Washington.

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Huberty, C. J., & Petoskey, M. D. (1999). Use of multiple correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis. Journal of Vocational Education Research, 24, 15Icerman, R., Karcher, J., & Kennelley, M. (1991). A baseline assessment of moral development: Accounting, other business and nonbusiness students, Accounting Educator’s Journal, 3, 46-62.

Jaffee, S., & Hyde, J. S. (2000). Gender differences in moral orientation: A metaanalysis. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 703-726.

Jeffrey, C. (1993). Ethical development of accounting students, non-accounting business students, and liberal arts students. Issues in Accounting Education, 8, 86-96.

Jehng, J. J., Johnson, S. D., & Anderson, R. C. (1993). Schooling and students’ epistemological beliefs about learning. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 18, 23-35.

Ji, C. C. (1997). Collectivism in moral development. Psychological Reports, 80, 967-975.

Johnson, J. A., Hogan, R., Zonderman, A. B., Callens, C., & Rogolsky, S. (1981). Moral judgment, personality, and attitudes toward authority. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 40, 370-373.

Johnson, J. L., Insley, R., Motwani, J., & Zbib, I. (1993). Writing performance and moral reasoning in business education. Journal of Business Ethics, 12, 397-406.

Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1979). Conflict in the classroom: Controversy and learning. Review of Educational Research, 49, 51-70.

Kardash, C. M., & Scholes, R. J. (1996). Effects of preexisting beliefs, epistemological beliefs, and need for cognition on interpretation of controversial issues. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 260-271.

Kim, J. M. (1998). Korean children’s concepts of adult and peer authority and moral reasoning. Developmental Psychology, 34, 947-955.

Kim, S. (1999). CIA: A computer program for classical item analysis. Retrieved June 18, 1999, from http://www.arches.uga.edu/~shkim/cia.txt.

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King, P., & Kitchener, K. S. (2002). The reflective judgment model: Twenty years of research on epistemic cognition. In B. K. Hofer & P. R. Pintrich (Eds.), Personal epistemology (pp. 37-62). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

King, P., Kitchener, K. S., & Wood, P. K. (1991, November). Moral and intellectual development beyond the college years: A ten-year study. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Moral Education, Athens, Georgia.

King, P., Kitchener, K., Wood, P., & Davison, M. (1989). Relationships across developmental domains: A longitudinal study of intellectual, moral, and ego development. In M. L. Commons, C. Armon, L. Kohlberg, F. A. Richards, & J. D.

Sinrott (Eds.), Comparisons and applications of developmental models (pp. 57New York: Praeger.

King, P., & Mayhew, M. J. (2002). Moral judgment development in higher education:

Insights from the Defining Issues Test. Journal of Moral Education, 31, 247-270.

Kitchener, K. S., & King, P.A. (1981). Reflective judgment: Concepts of justification and their relationship to age and education. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 2, 89-116.

Kitchener, K. S., King, P. M., Parker, C., & Wood, R. (1984). A longitudinal study of moral and ego development in young adults. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 13, 197-211.

Kitchener, K. S., King, P. M., Wood, P. K., & Davison, M. L. (1989). Sequentiality and consistency in the development of reflective judgment: A six-year longitudinal study. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 10, 73-95.

Kohlberg, L. (1969). Stage and sequence: The cognitive-developmental approach to socialization. In D. Goslin (Ed.), Handbook of socialization theory and research (pp. 347-480). Chicago: Rand-McNally.

Kohlberg, L. (1971a). From is to ought: How to commit the naturalistic fallacy and get away with it in the study of moral development. In T. Mischel (Ed.), Cognitive development and epistemology (pp. 151-235). New York: Academic Press.

Kohlberg, L. (1971b). Stages of moral development as a basis for moral education. In C.

Beck, B. Crittenden, & E. Sullivan. (Eds.), Moral education: Interdisciplinary approaches (pp. 86-88). New York: Newman Press.

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Kohlberg, L. (1975). Continuities and discontinuities in childhood and adult moral development revisted. In B. Baltes & W. Schaie (Eds.), Life-span developmental psychology: Research and theory. New York: Academic Press.

Kohlberg, L. (1976a). Moral stages and moralization: The cognitive-developmental approach. In T. Lickona (Ed.), Moral development and behavior: Theory, research, and issues (pp. 31-53). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Kohlberg, L. (1976b). The cognitive-developmental approach to moral education. In D.

Purpel & K. Ryan (Eds.), Moral education (pp. 176-195), Berkeley, CA:

McCutchan Publishing.

Kohlberg, L. (1981). The philosophy of moral development. New York: Harper & Row.

Kohlberg, L. (1984). Essays on moral development: Vol. 2. The psychology of moral development. San Francisco: Harper & Row.

Kohlberg, L. (1987). Child psychology and childhood education: A cognitivedevelopmental view. New York: Longman.

Kuhn, D. (1991). The skills of argument. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Kuhn, D. (1993). Science as argument: Implications for teaching and learning scientific thinking. Science Education, 77, 319-337.

Kuhn, D., & Weinstock, M. (2002). What is epistemological thinking and why does it matter? In B. K. Hofer & P. R. Pintrich (Eds.), Personal epistemology (pp. 121Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Kurtines, W. (1982). Moral behavior as rule governed behavior: A psychological roletheoretical approach to moral decision making. Paper presented at the annual convention of the American Psychological Association, Washington DC.

Laupa, M. (1991). Children’s reasoning about three authority attributes: Adult status, knowledge, and social position. Developmental Psychology, 27, 321-329.

Lee, B. (1995). Differences in the epistemological beliefs of Korean and American graduate students and their influence on an academic writing task written in Korean and English (Doctoral dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, 1995).

Dissertation Abstracts International, 56, 2152.

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Lei, T. (1989). To make up my mind morally in Mandarin: Do Sino-students' societal schemata supersede self schemes? Academia Sinica, 63, 51-98.

Lei, T. (1990). Geisteswissenschaft of Sititlichkeit and political Umwelt: Sinnverstehen in East. Pacific Focus, 5, 19-59.

Maclean, B. M. (2001). The relation among principled moral reasoning, employment, campus residency, and informal academic and social experiences (Doctoral dissertation, University of Houston, 2001). Dissertation Abstracts International, 62, 0461.

Moir, J. (1974). Egocentrism and the emergence of conventional morality in preadolescent girls. Child Development, 45, 299-304.

Montgomery, D. C., & Peck, E. A. (1992). Introduction to linear regression analysis (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.

Moon, Y. (1986). A review of cross-cultural studies on moral judgment development using the Defining Issues Test. Behavior Science Research, 20, 147-177.

Moon, Y. (1994). A study for the assessment of Korean adolescents’ moral judgment development. Seoul: Korea Research Foundation.

Narvaez, D. (1993). High achieving students and moral judgment. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 16, 268-279.

Narvaez, D., Getz, I., Rest, J., & Thoma, S. J. (1999). Individual moral judgment and cultural ideologies. Developmental psychology, 35, 478-488.

Nisan, M., & Kohlberg, L. (1982). Universality and variation in moral judgment: A longitudinal and cross-sectional study in Turkey. Child Development, 63, 865Olejnik, S., Mills, J., & Keselman, H. (2000). Using Werry’s adjusted R2 and Mallow’s Cp for model selection from all possible regressions. The Journal of Experimental Education, 68, 365-380.

Pai, Y. (1997). Cultural foundations of education. Columbus, OH: Merrill.

Paradice, D. B., & Dejoie, R. M. (1991). The ethical decision-making processes of information system workers, Journal of Business Ethics, 10, 1-21.

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Park, C. (1989). Using the DIT to assess Koreans’ moral judgment and behavior selection. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Gunguk University, Korea.

Park, J. Y., & Johnson, R. C. (1984). Moral development in rural and urban Korea.

Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology, 15, 35-46.

Pascarella, E., & Terenzini, P. (1991). How college affects students: Findings and insights from twenty-two years of research. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Payne, D. A. (1997). Applied educational assessment. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.

Pedhazur, E. J. (1997). Multiple regression in behavioral research. Fort Worth, TX: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Pedhazur, E. J., & Schmelkin, L. P. (1991). Measurement, design, and analysis: An integrated approach. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Perry, W. G. (1970). Forms of intellectual and ethical development in the college years.

New York: Academic Press.

Perry, W. G. (1981). Cognitive and ethical growth: The making of meaning. In A.

Chickering (Ed.), The modern American college (pp. 76-116). San Francisco:


Piaget, J. (1997). Moral judgment of the child. New York: Free Press Ponemon, L. A., & Gabhart, D. R. (1994). Ethical reasoning in the accounting and auditing professions. In J. Rest & D. Narvaez (Eds.), Moral development in the professions: Psychology and applied ethics (pp. 101-119). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Presley, S. L. (1985). Moral judgment and attitudes toward authority of political resisters.

Journal of Research in Personality, 19, 135-151.

Qian, G., & Pan, J. (2002). A comparison of epistemological beliefs and learning from science text between American and Chinese high school students. In B. K. Hofer & P. R. Pintrich (Eds.), Personal epistemology (pp. 365-386).

Mahwah, NJ:


Rest, J. (1973). The hierarchical nature of moral judgment. Journal of Personality, 41, 86

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Rest, J. (1979). Development in judging moral issues. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Rest, J. (1983). Morality. In P. H. Mussen (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology (pp. 556New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Rest, J. (1986). Moral development. New York: Praeger.

Rest, J. (1990). Manual for the Defining Issues Test: Third Edition (8/90 revision).

Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Center for the Study of Ethical Development.

Rest, J. (1994). Background: Theory and research. In J. R. Rest & D. Narvaez (Eds.), Moral development in the professions: Psychology and applied ethics (pp. 1-26).

Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Rest, J., Cooper, D., Coder, R., Masanz, J., & Anderson, D. (1974). Judging the important issues in moral dilemmas-an objective measure of development.

Developmental Psychology, 10, 491-501.

Rest, J., & Narvaez, D. (1991). The college experience and moral development. In W. M.

Kurtines & J. L. Gewirtz (Eds.), Handbook of moral behavior and development (pp. 229-246). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Rest, J., Narvaez, D., Bebeau, M. J., & Thoma, S. J. (1999). Postconventional moral thinking: A neo-Kohlbergian approach. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Rest, J., Narvaez, D., Thoma, S. J., & Bebeau, M. J. (2000). A neo-Kohlbergian approach to morality research. Journal of Moral Education, 29, 381-395.

Rest, J., & Thoma, S. J. (1985). The relation of moral judgment development to formal education. Developmental Psychology, 21, 709-714.

Rich, J., & DeVittis, J. (1994). Theories of moral development (2nd ed.). Springfield, IL:

Charles C. Thomas Publishers.

Ryan, M. P. (1984a). Conceptions of prose coherence: Individual differences in epistemological standards. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 1226-1238.

Ryan, M. P. (1984b). Monitoring text comprehension: Individual differences in epistemological standards. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 249-258.

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Schommer, M. (1990). Effects of beliefs about the nature of knowledge on comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 498-504.

Schommer, M. (1993a) Comparisons of beliefs about the nature of knowledge and learning among postsecondary students. Research in Higher Education, 34, 355Schommer, M. (1993b). Epistemological development and academic performance among secondary students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85, 406-411.

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