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Schommer, M. (1994). An emerging conceptualization of epistemological beliefs and their role in learning. In R. Garner & P. A. Alexander (Eds.), Beliefs about text and instruction with text (pp. 25-40). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Schommer, M. (1998). The influence of age and education on epistemological beliefs.

British Journal of Educational Psychology, 68, 551-562.

Schommer, M. (2002a). Epistemological beliefs and thinking about everyday controversial issues. The Journal of Psychology, 136, 5-20.

Schommer, M. (2002b). An evolving theoretical framework for an epistemological belief system. In B. K. Hofer & P. R. Pintrich (Eds.), Personal epistemology (389-414).

Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Schraw, G., Bendixen, L. D., & Dunkle, M. E. (2002). Development and validation of the Epistemic Belief Inventory (EBI). In B. K. Hofer & P. R. Pintrich (Eds.), Personal epistemology (pp. 261-276). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Selman, R. (1980). The growth of interpersonal understanding: Developmental and clinical analyses. New York: Academic Press.

Simpson, E. L. (1974). Moral development research: A case study of scientific cultural bias. Human Development, 17, 81-106.

Shweder, R. A., Goodnow, J., Hatano, G. LeVine, R. A., Markus, H., & Miller, P. (1998).

The cultural psychology of development: One mind, many mentalities. In W.

Damon (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 1. Theoretical models of human development (pp. 865-937). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Snarey, J. (1982). The social and moral development of kibbutz founders and Sabras: A longitudinal and cross-sectional study (Doctoral dissertation, Harvard University, 1982). Dissertation Abstracts international, 43, 3416.

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Snarey, J., Reimer, J., & Kohlberg, L. (1984). The development of social-moral reasoning among kibbutz adolescents. Developmental Psychology, 21, 3-17.

Snodgrass, J., & Behling, R. (1996). Differences in moral reasoning between college and university business majors and non-business majors. Business and Profession Ethics Journal, 15, 79-84.

Snyder, P. (1991). Three reasons why stepwise regression methods should not be used by researchers. In B. Thompson (Ed.), Advances in educational research: Substantive findings, methodological developments (Vol. 1, pp. 99-105). Greenwich, CT: JAI.

SPSS Inc. (2002). SPSS base 10.0: Application guide. Chicago: SPSS Inc.

St. Pierre, K. E., Nelson, E, S., & Gabbin, A. L. (1990). A study of ethical development of accounting majors in relation to other business and nonbusiness disciplines.

Accounting Educators’ Journal, 3, 23-35.

Stevens, J. (1996). Applied multivariate statistics for the social sciences (3rd ed.).

Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Stewart, L., & Pascual, L. (1992). Mental capacity constraints and the development of moral reasoning. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 54, 251-287.

Tasaki, K. (2001). Culture and epistemology: An investigation of different patterns in epistemological beliefs across cultures (Doctoral dissertation, University of Hawaii, 2001). Dissertation Abstracts International, 62, 0463.

Thompson. B. (1995). Stepwise regression and stepwise discriminant analysis need not apply here: A guidelines editorial. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 55, 525-534.

Triandis, H. C. (1989). The self and social behavior in differing cultural contexts.

Psychological Review, 96, 506-520.

Triandis, H. C., Bontempo, R., Villareal, M. J., Asai, M., & Lucca, N. (1988).

Individualism and collectivism: Cross-cultural perspectives on self-ingroup relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 323-338.

Turiel, E. (1994). Morality, authoritarianism, and personal agency in cultural context. In R. J. Sternberg & P. Ruzgis (Eds.), Personality and intelligence (pp. 271-302).

Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

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VanSickle, R. L. (1986b). A quantitative review of research on instructional simulation gaming: A twenty-year perspective. Theory and Research in Social Education, 14, 245-264.

Walker, H. A., Rowland, G. L., & Boyes, M. C. (1991). Personality, personal epistemology, and moral judgment. Psychological Reports, 68, 763-772.

Walker, L. (1990, November). Moral universals and specifics: The case of China. Paper presented at the International Symposium on Values, Rights, and Responsibilities.

University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN.

Walker, L. (1984). Sex differences in the development of moral reasoning: A critical review. Child Development, 55, 677-691.

White, C. B. (1975). Moral development in Bahamian school children: A cultural examination of Kohlberg's stages of moral reasoning. Developmental Psychology, 11, 535-536.

White, C. B. (1986). Moral reasoning in Bahamian and United States adults and children:

A cross-cultural examination of Kohlberg's stages. Behavior Science Research, 20, 47-70.

White, C. B., Bushnell, N., & Regnemer, J. L. (1978). Moral development in Bahamian school children: A 3-year examination of Kohlberg's stages of moral development. Developmental Psychology, 14, 58-65.

Wood, P. K. (1993). Generalized growth curve analysis for cross-sectional skill theory.

Unpublished manuscript, University of Minnesota.

Wilkinson, L. (1979). Tests of significance in stepwise regression. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 168-174.

Zeidler, D. L., & Schafer, L. E. (1984). Identifying mediating factors of moral reasoning in science education. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 21, 1-15.

Zeidner, M., & Nevo, B. (1987). The cross-cultural generalizability of moral reasoning research: Some Israeli data. International Journal of Psychology, 22, 315-330.

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The purpose of this questionnaire is to help us understand how people think about social problems. Different people have different opinions about questions of right and wrong.

There are no “right” answers to such problems in the way that math problems have right answers. We would like you to tell us what you think about several problem stories.


In Europe a woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. There was one drug that doctors thought might save her. It was a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The drug was expensive to make, but the druggist was charging ten times what the drug cost to make. He paid $200 for the radium and charged $2,000 for a small dose of the drug. The sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get together about $1,000, which is half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying, and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said, "No, I discovered the drug and I'm going to make money on it." So Heinz got desperate and began to think about breaking into the man's store to steal the drug for his wife. Should Heinz steal the drug? __Should Steal __Can't Decide __Should not steal Please rate the following statements in terms of their importance.

(1=Great importance, 2=Much importance, 3=Some Importance, 4=Little importance, 5=No importance) __1. Whether a community's laws are going to be upheld.

__2. Isn't it only natural for a loving husband to care so much for his wife that he'd steal?

__3. Is Heinz willing to risk getting shot as a burglar or going to jail for the chance that stealing the drug might help?

__4. Whether Heinz is a professional wrestler, or had considerable influence with professional wrestlers.

__5. Whether Heinz is stealing for himself or doing this solely to help someone else.

__6. Whether the druggist's rights to his invention have to be respected.

__7. Whether the essence of living is more encompassing than the termination of dying, socially and individually.

__8. What values are going to be the basis for governing how people act towards each other.

108 __9. Whether the druggist is going to be allowed to hide behind a worthless law which only protects the rich anyhow.

__10.Whether the law in the case is getting in the way of the most basic claim of any member of society.

__11.Whether the druggist deserves to be robbed for being so greedy and cruel.

__12.Would stealing in such a case bring about more total good for the whole society or not.

Now please rank the top four most important statements. Put the number of the statement

in the blank:

__ Most important item __ Second most important item __ Third most important item __ Fourth most important item


A man had been sentenced to prison for 10 years. After one year, however, he escaped from prison, moved to a new area of the country, and took on the name of Thompson. For eight years he worked hard, and gradually he saved enough money to buy his own business. He was fair to his customers, gave his employees top wages, and gave most of his own profits to charity. Then one day, Mrs. Jones, an old neighbor, recognized him as the man who had escaped from prison eight years before, and whom the police had been looking for. Should Mrs. Jones report Mr. Thompson to the police and have him sent back to prison? __Should report him __Can't Decide __Should not report him Please rate the following statements in terms of their importance.

(1=Great importance, 2=Much importance, 3=Some Importance, 4=Little importance, 5=No importance) __1. Hasn’t Mr. Thompson been good enough for such a long time to prove he isn’t a bad person?

__2. Everytime someone escapes punishment for a crime, doesn’t that just encourage more crime?

__3. Wouldn’t we be better off without prisons and the oppression of our legal system?

__4. Has Mr. Thompson really paid his debt to society?

109 __5. Would society be failing what Mr. Thompson should fairly expect?

__6. What benefits would prisons be apart from society, especially for a charitable man?

__7. How could anyone be so cruel and heartless as to send Mr. Thompson to prison?

__8. Would it be fair to all the prisoners who had to serve out their full sentences if Mr.

Thompson was let off?

__9. Was Mrs. Jones a good friend of Mr. Thompson?

__10.Wouldn’t it be a citizen’s duty to report an escaped criminal, regardless of the circumstances?

__11.How would the will of the people and the public good best be served?

__12.Would going to prison do any good for Mr. Thompson or protect anybody?

Now please rank the top four most important statements. Put the number of the statement

in the blank:

__ Most important item __ Second most important item __ Third most important item __ Fourth most important item DOCTOR’S DILEMMA A lady was dying of cancer which could not be cured and she had only about six months to live. She was in terrible pain, but she was so weak that a good dose of pain-killer like morphine would make her die sooner. She was delirious and almost crazy with pain, and in her calm periods, she would ask the doctor to give her enough morphine to kill her.

She said she couldn’t stand the pain and that she was going to die in a few months anyway. Should the doctor give her an overdose of morphine that would make her die?

__He should give the lady an overdose that will make her die __Can't Decide __Should not give the overdose.

Please rate the following statements in terms of their importance.

(1=Great importance, 2=Much importance, 3=Some Importance, 4=Little importance, 5=No importance) __1.Whether the woman’s family is in favor of giving her the overdose or not.

__2. Is the doctor obligated by the same laws as everybody else if giving an overdose would be the same as killing her.

110 __3. Whether people would be much better off without society regimenting their lives and even their deaths.

__4. Whether the doctor could make it appear like an accident.

__5. Does the state have the right to force continued existence on those who don’t want to live.

__6. What is the value of death prior to society’s perspective on personal values.

__7. Whether the doctor has sympathy for the woman’s suffering or cares more about what society might think.

__8. Is helping to end another’s life ever a responsible act of cooperation.

__9. Whether only God should decide when a person’s life should end.

__10.What values the doctor has set for himself in his own personal code of behavior.

__11.Can society afford to let everybody end their lives when they want to.

__12.Can society allow suicides or mercy killing and still protect the lives of individuals who want to live.

Now please rank the top four most important statements. Put the number of the statement

in the blank:

__ Most important item __ Second most important item __ Third most important item __ Fourth most important item

–  –  –

Please indicate how strongly you agree or disagree with each of the statements listed below. Please circle the number that best corresponds to the strength of your belief.

1. It bothers me when instructors don’t tell students the answers to complicated problems.

–  –  –

9. Some men are beekeepers. All beekeepers are bankers.


a) all men are bankers

b) some men are bankers

c) all men are beekeepers

d) none of these conclusions are valid

10. If there is a solar eclipse, all of the streets will be dark. There is a solar eclipse.


a) some of the streets are not dark

b) some of the streets are dark

c) all of the streets are dark

d) none of these conclusions are valid

11. Glasses bounce when they fall. Everything that bounces is made of rubber.


a) glasses are made of rubber

b) glasses do not bounce

c) glasses are not made of rubber

d) none of these conclusions are valid

12. Some children are Canadians. All Canadians are happy.


a) some children are happy

b) all children are happy

c) all children are Canadians

d) none of these conclusions are valid

–  –  –

1. Gender ________Male ________Female

2. Age _______

3. Class Status _______Freshman _______Sophomore _______Junior _______Senior

4. Your Current Major _______________________________

5. Current GPA at UGA ____________

6. Ethnic Background _______White/European American ______Asian _______African American Other ____________________________________

–  –  –


The following questionnaire is part of a research project undertaken to fulfill doctoral requirements in the Department of Social Science Education at the University of Georgia.

Any undergraduate student from the College of Education is eligible to participate. Your anonymous participation is invited and very much appreciated, but it is not required and you can withdraw at any time. We will only use completed questionnaires.

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships among epistemological beliefs and moral reasoning between Korean and U.S. college students.

While there are no direct benefits to you from participating in this survey, the results will be useful in future research in human behavior. The results of this study may be published in appropriate journals and/or presented at appropriate professional meetings.

There will not be a penalty or any negative effect on your grade or standing in your class or department if you choose not to participate. Your participation is entirely voluntary. It is expected that completing the questionnaires will take less than 40 minutes.

Changwoo Jeong, Social Science Education, University of Georgia, will answer any further questions about the research, now or during the course of the study, and can be reached by telephone (706-542-4135) or by e-mail (cjeong@coe.uga.edu). Jeong’s advisor is Ronald VanSickle, Ed.D., Social Science Education, University of Georgia, 628 Aderhold Hall, 706-542-6486.

For additional questions about your rights please call or write: Chris A. Joseph, Ph.D., Human Subjects Office, University of Georgia, 606A Boyd Graduate Studies Research Center, Athens, Georgia 30602-7411; Telephone (706) 542-6514; E-Mail Address IRB@uga.edu.

–  –  –

Dear Mr. Jeong I grant you permission to collect data necessary for conducting a study on “Cross-cultural similarities and differences in the relationship among epistemological beliefs and moral reasoning between Korean and U.S.

college students”. Please feel free contact me if you need any further assistance.

정창우의 박사 학위 논문 “개인의 인식론과 도덕적 추론 능력의 문화간 비교 연구”를 위해 서울대학교에서 자료 수집을 할 수 있도록 허가합니다. 도움이 필요한 경우 언제든지 연락바랍니다.

Seoul National University 서울대학교 Department of National Ethics Education 국민윤리교육과

–  –  –

Dear Mr. Jeong I grant you permission to collect data necessary for conducting a study on “Cross-cultural similarities and differences in the relationship among epistemological beliefs and moral reasoning between Korean and U.S.

college students”. Please let me know if I can be of any further assistance to you.

정창우의 박사 학위 논문 “개인의 인식론과 도덕적 추론 능력의 문화간 비교 연구”를 위해 본 대학에서 자료 수집을 할 수 있도록 허가합니다.

도움이 필요한 경우 언제든지 연락바랍니다.

Incheon National University of Education 인천교육대학교 Department of Ethics Education 윤리교육과 Department Head 학과장 Yong Gyeong Im 임용경

–  –  –

Dear Mr. Jeong We are indeed delighted to grant you permission to collect data at Chuncheon National University of Education. We look forward to the final report of your study (i.e., Cross-cultural similarities and differences in the relationship among epistemological beliefs and moral reasoning between Korean and U.S college students) and are most pleased that you have chosen our school for your research. Please let me know if I can be of any further assistance to you.

춘천교육대학교에서 정창우 씨의 박사 논문을 위한 자료 수집을 허락하게 되어 대단히 기쁘게 생각합니다. 우리는 정창우 씨의 연구 결과를 기대하며, 본 대학을 선택하신 점에 대해 감사 드립니다. 자료 수집 과정에서 도움이 필요할 경우 언제든지 연락바랍니다.

Chuncheon National University of Education 춘천교육대학교 Department of Ethics Education 윤리교육과

–  –  –


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