WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 17 |

«SONGWRITING IN THERAPY BY JOHN A. DOWNES A Final Project submitted to the Campus Alberta Applied Psychology: Counselling Initiative In partial ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

ATHABASCA UNIVERSITY

UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY

UNIVERSITY OF LETHBRIDGE

SONGWRITING IN THERAPY

BY

JOHN A. DOWNES

A Final Project submitted to the

Campus Alberta Applied Psychology: Counselling Initiative

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

MASTER OF COUNSELLING

Alberta August 2006 i ii iii Abstract Songwriting addresses therapy on multiple levels: through the process, product, and experience of songwriting in the context of a therapeutic relationship. A literature review provides the background and rationale for writing a guide to songwriting in therapy. The resource guide illustrates 18 techniques of songwriting in therapy. Each technique includes details regarding salient features, clinical uses, client prerequisites, therapist skills, goals, media and roles, format, preparation required, procedures, data interpretation, and client/group-therapist dynamics. An ethical dilemma illustrates the need for caution when implementing songwriting in therapy. Examples of consent forms are included in the guide. The author concludes by reviewing what he has learned in the process of researching and writing the guide, and evaluates his research.

iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter I – Songwriting in Therapy………………………………………….………..1 Rationale………………………………………………………………………….……...1 Identifying the Need…………………………………………………………….1 Creating a resource……………………………………………………..………2 Data analysis…………………………………………………………….………2 An ethical question…………………………………………………….………..3 Implications………………………………………………………………………3 Chapter II –Songwriting: A Useful Therapeutic Tool….……………………………..5 Chapter III – Writing and Its Impact………………………………………………….11 Narrative Influences…………………………………………………….……..11 Poetry and Journals…………………………………………………………...15 Facilitating Songwriting………………………………………………………..18 Summary………………………………………………………………………..20 Chapter IV – Methodology: Searching for How To… …………………………….22 Design…………………………………………………………………………..23 Data Collection and Analysis…………………………………………………23 The Final Product……………………………………………………………………...24 Chapter V – Songwriting in Therapy: A Guide for Music Therapists and Counsellors………………..…………………………………….……………….….…25 Introduction………………………………………………………..……………26 Contents………………………………………………………………...………27 Chapter VI – Conclusion…………………………………………………………….145

–  –  –

Research Evaluation…………………………………………………….…..148 Recommendations…………………………………………………………...157 At Last…………………………………………………………………………………159 References……………………………………………………………………………160

–  –  –

This final project resulted in the creation of a guide for songwriting in therapy. For the purposes of this project, songwriting in therapy is defined as songwriting that is guided by the goals of therapy as agreed upon by the client and music therapist or counsellor in a music therapy or counselling setting.

This chapter explains the rationale behind the project, identifies the problem and includes a literature review. This is followed by an exploration of songwriting in research and theoretical issues. The final section of this chapter explains the methodology for obtaining material for the project.

–  –  –

Identifying the Need Research that includes songwriting as a means of intervention appears to demonstrate the beneficial results of its use. Though numerous methods exist for songwriting in therapy (Wigram, 2005), no single resource has been developed that brings many of the techniques together in one document. When such a document exists, music therapists and counsellors will have a valuable resource that uses a common language for songwriting in therapy and gives explanations of various techniques. A thorough exploration of songwriting in therapy techniques in terms of required skills and materials, client characteristics, ethical issues, and data analysis will help standardize practice and provide more opportunities for researching the benefits of songwriting as a therapeutic tool.





–  –  –

diverse music therapy methodology in a single resource (Bruscia, 1987). In his book, Bruscia provides a form of documentation that explains more than a dozen improvisational methods of music therapy as well as their variations in form and technique. In doing so, Bruscia encapsulates the diversity represented by various improvisational techniques into one succinct resource. This provides music therapy practitioners with a resource to guide and inspire their clinical work or research using the tool of musical improvisation in therapy. A resource written for songwriting in therapy may serve a similar purpose.

Data analysis. Currently, using clients’ creative writing as data presents a challenge for music therapists and counsellors (Shapiro, 2004). The guide for songwriting in therapy identifies factors that affect interpretation of the data and suggests means for avoiding or reducing the chances of misinterpretation. A constructivist framework (Mertens, 1998) for implementation and analysis will be helpful in this area of research. Constructivism “emphasizes the subjective ways in which each individual creates a perception of reality” (Mertens, 1998, p. 463).

Therefore, the primary suggestion for data analysis focuses on the meanings clients bring to their own work, and respect for their individual worldviews. The emancipatory paradigm (Mertens, 1998) is also important when suggesting means for measuring data. Instructions for all the songwriting techniques emphasize the voices of clients and the lessening of power differentials between clients and therapists so that voices of oppressed individuals are heard and represented. Data that is created in songwriting in therapy aims to be a true

–  –  –

analysis of that data takes place. This means that clients’ voices are equal to, if not more important than, the voice of therapists, as clients remain the experts on their lives, from the beginning of the songwriting in therapy process until the very end and beyond.

An ethical question. Finally, this project explores ethics in songwriting so music therapists and counsellors have an understanding of the implications of co-creating what is traditionally thought of as a work subject to copyright. When co-creating works with artistic merit, the parties involved need to understand the limits and freedoms placed on the creation itself and the co-creators. Agreements regarding how songs are to be treated and used will need to be in place so as to avoid misunderstandings and ethical dilemmas. Documents such as consent and release forms, as well as advice that assure protection for both music therapists/counsellors and clients are presented as part of this final project.

Implications The potential exists for songwriting to be accessible, meaningful and purposeful for many clients. This guide for songwriting in therapy presents information and techniques for bringing that potential to fruition with various client populations in many settings. Exploration of songwriting in therapy techniques along with suggestions for use helps standardize practice and provide more opportunities for researching the effectiveness of songwriting as a therapeutic tool. Clients who consult counsellors and music therapists can benefit from this guide, as it increases the accessibility to songwriting in therapy. Ethical

–  –  –

songwriting techniques. Discussion of the options for managing the resulting product according to professional standards and copyright law is also presented.

The Canadian Association for Music Therapy (CAMT) can benefit from the research on the ethical and copyright implications in songwriting in therapy since the CAMT Code of Ethics (CAMT, 1999) does not address these issues.

Therapists and clients remain at risk for litigious actions if attention to ethical and copyright issues is not taken into consideration when cooperatively creating what could be termed expressive works of art within a therapy setting.

–  –  –

Suggestions to use songwriting as a therapeutic method abound in the music therapy literature. The examples included in this section present work by various practitioners and the limited instructions they have provided for using songwriting as a therapeutic intervention.

Priestley (1985) suggests that therapists encourage clients to speak their lyrics or a poem aloud, and then use the inflection of speech as a guide in constructing melody. O’Callaghan (1996) requests that patients make as many choices as possible to guide the songwriting process through choosing topics, keys, rhythms, moods, melodic elements, accompaniment patterns, and titles.

Ficken (1976) approaches songwriting in a psychiatric setting through steps of approximations. His approach utilizes popular songs with lyrical substitutions as a means of introducing songwriting. In writing original songs Ficken suggests beginning with the pitch of speech, and then exploring those pitches through improvisation. Melodic fragments, harmonies and words can then be joined together to produce a finished song.

Mayers (1995) also uses the modification of existing songs and choicemaking procedures to write songs with children who have experienced trauma.

She recognizes that some children may be threatened by writing from personal experience, and therefore suggests the use of projective techniques.

Rickson and Watkins (2003) rely on the standard form of the 12-bar blues when songwriting with aggressive adolescent boys. They suggest that the

–  –  –

boys, allowing them to take the risk of sharing a simple idea.

The literature suggests that songwriting is a valuable tool in therapy.

Creative experiences help people remember, feel emotions, drop their defenses, and become willingly engaged in the therapeutic process (Carson & Becker, 2004). Songwriting encourages verbal sharing, emotional experiences, and issue resolution in a flexible, creative and approachable framework (Curtis, 2000;

Hatcher, 2004). Additionally, songwriting can provide the motivation for some clients to work through and resolve their issues in an expedient manner (Miles, 1993). Songwriting may be a valuable intervention to offer those clients who respond well to creative approaches in therapy. It may help clients engage in the therapeutic process from initial assessment to termination of their treatment.

Goldstein (1990) performed a pilot study with eight adolescents to test the effectiveness of her Songwriting Assessment for Hopelessness (SAH). She adapted the true/false questions from the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS; Beck, Weissman, Lester & Trexler, 1974) by using a fill-in-the-blank lyrical structure paired with a twelve bar blues musical form. Goldstein recognized the limitations of her study due to the small sample size; therefore generalization of the findings may only be applied to psychiatric inpatient adolescents with “depression and/or a history of suicidal ideation or attempts” (Goldstein, 1990, p. 188). Both the SAH and BHS were administered to the adolescents in the pilot study. To confirm the validity of the SAH, scores from the assessment were correlated to the scores of the BHS. Goldstein (1990) concluded that the “significance of the

–  –  –

have potential as a tool for assessing hopelessness” (p. 121).

Robb and Ebberts (2003) presented an exploratory case study where they examined how anxiety and depression levels vary with phase of bone marrow transplantation and how a music therapy protocol affected anxiety and depression levels. A descriptive case study design with quantitative measures was used to examine changes in anxiety and depression levels according to phase of treatment. Random assignment to the conditions of music therapy or no-music contact controlled for possible effects of attention. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC) developed by Speilberger (as cited in Robb & Ebberts, 2003) and the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI) developed by Kovacs (as cited in Robb & Ebberts, 2003) served as outcome measures for both groups.

Songwriting played an important role in the brief model of music therapy intervention constructed by Robb and Ebberts (2003). Songwriting afforded the patients the opportunities to “make independent choices and decisions, express feelings related to self-identity and/or hospitalization, provide multisensory stimulation, and engage in a goal-oriented intervention that encourages mastery” (Robb & Ebberts, 2003, p. 6). Although the authors warned readers not to make generalizations from their study due to the small sample size, they reported that four of the six bone marrow transplant patients experienced decreased anxiety following a majority of the music therapy sessions.

–  –  –



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 17 |


Similar works:

«The Real Thing 1. The Taste Test There’s something very special about a school fair. It’s the excitement of the weeks building up to it, and all the work that the kids do in the classroom, painting posters and making signs. It’s the colour and the bustle of the day itself, and how it always seems to be sunny, and the fact that on school fair day all the rules about what you’re allowed to eat, and not to eat, go straight out the window, and you’re allowed to stuff yourself with toffee...»

«CHAPTER 1 Qualitative Research and Habits of Mind Story is far older than the art of science and psychology and will always be the elder in the equation no matter how much time passes. —Clarissa Pinkola Estes Women Who Run With the Wolves (1996) B ecause the researcher is the research instrument in qualitative research projects, it is important for the researcher to practice and refine techniques and habits of mind for qualitative research. Habits of mind in this text will include observation...»

«ELYSIUM BOOKS Shortlist 12 ACUN A DE FIGUEROA, Francisco ( attributed). Nomenclatura y apología del carajo. Para la circulaclón [sic] privada. Mon1. tevideo (1922). 14pp. An amusing priapic poem employing numerous synonyms for the word “penis” allegedly written by the nineteenth century Uruguayan poet. $100. AGUIRRE, Luis M. La Lujuria Humana (Estudio Médico-Social). Barcelona: La Vida Literaria (1903?). 95pp. 2. One of a series of pseudo-scientific publications on salacious sexual...»

«VARIATION OF FEEDING REGIMES: EFFECTS ON GIANT PANDA (AILUROPODA MELANOLEUCA) BEHAVIOR A Thesis Presented to The Academic Faculty By Estelle A. Sandhaus In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Psychology Georgia Institute of Technology September, 2004 Variation of Feeding Regimes: Effects on Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) Behavior Approved by: Dr. Terry L. Maple, Advisor School of Psychology Georgia Institute of Technology Dr. Mollie A. Bloomsmith...»

«FEMINIST AWARENESS AND NARRATIVE CHANGE: Suicide and Murder as Transitional Stages toward Autonomy in Women's Protest Writings RACHEL GIORA Suicide and murder are considered two facets of the same coin: they originate in anger. Whereas suicide is the result of turning one's anger against oneself, murder is acting it out against others. Reviewing women's protest writings before and after the feminist revolution in the 1970s, the argument is made that the suicidal heroine in women's protest...»

«Citation: Fitton, Daniel, Read, Janet, Horton, Matthew, Little, Linda and Toth, Nicola (2012) Constructing the Cool Wall: A tool to explore teen meanings of cool. PsychNology, 10 (2). pp. 141-162. ISSN 1720-7525 Published by: PsychNology Journal URL: http://www.psychnology.org/File/PNJ10(2)/PSYCHNOLOGY_JOURNAL_10_2_FITTON. pdf This version was downloaded from Northumbria Research Link: http://nrl.northumbria.ac.uk/10922/ Northumbria University has developed Northumbria Research Link (NRL) to...»

«David Barlow and Panic Disorder 1 RUNNING HEAD: DAVID BARLOW AND PANIC DISORDER The Contribution of David Barlow to the Understanding and Treatment of Panic Disorder Brett J. Deacon, Ph.D.* Tamer I. Fawzy, M.A. University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY University of Wyoming, Department of Psychology, Dept. 3415, 1000 E. University Ave., Laramie, WY 82071, USA *Corresponding author, Tel: 1-307-766-3317, fax 1-307-766-2926 e-mail address: bdeacon@uwyo.edu David Barlow and Panic Disorder 2 The...»

«1 Pierrette Meisch, criminologue, Baptiste Antoine, licencié en licenciée en santé publique, formée sciences psychologiques, formé en en approche familiale systémique et médiation, Centre de Consultation et en médiation, directrice à la de Médiation Familiale de la Fondation Pro Familia Fondation Pro Familia Fondation Pro Familia A la recherche des significations des violences en milieu scolaire touchant les enfants « souffre-douleur » Abstract. L’article propose une réflexion...»

«Forthcoming in A Field Guide to the Philosophy of Mind symposium, http://www.uniroma3.it/kant/field/tyesymp.htm. DON’T PANIC: Tye’s intentionalist theory of consciousness* Alex Byrne, MIT Consciousness, Color, and Content is a significant contribution to our understanding of consciousness, among other things. I have learned a lot from it, as well as Tye’s other writings. What’s more, I actually agree with much of it—fortunately for this symposium, not all of it. The book continues the...»

«COGNITIVE SCIENCE 8, 1-26 (1984) Discrimination Nets as Psychological Models* LAWRENCE W. BARSALOU Emory University GORDON H. B O W E R Stanford University Simulations of human cognitive processes often employ discrimination nets to model the access of permanent memory. We consider two types of discrimination netsEPAM and positive-property-only netsand argue that they have insufficient psychological validity. Their deficiencies arise from negative properties, insufficient sensitivity to the...»

«Bandolero Buyers Guide A Guide to Bando Basics and Inspection The Cars The Bando has been carefully designed with safety in mind. They are built by 600 Racing in Harrisburg NC. Racing is sanctioned by INEX. More information on INEX and 600 Racing can be found at www.600racing.com. Some areas of the car are designed to “crush” and absorb energy in an impact. This “crush” also makes the cars somewhat fragile. Be prepared to repair/replace body panels, bumpers, frame horns and occasionally...»

«DISSERTATION Titel der Dissertation Ethics in Mind Ethiopian Journalism and Ethics Verfasser: Worke Hailemarkos Ayalew Angestrebter akademischer Titel Doktor der Philosophie (Dr. phil) Wien, im 2011 Studienkennzahl lt. Studienblatt: A 092 301 Matrikelnummer: a0749672 Dissertationsgebiet lt. Studienblatt: Publizistikund Kommunikationswissenschaften Betreuer; Univ.-Prof. Dr. Thomas A. Bauer II To Fiori (Eminet Hailemarkos Ayalew), my cute Daughter For all the joy with which you fill my life. III...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.