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«The ongoing wars around the world have led to an ever increasing exodus of refugee populations for resettlement in developed countries, including the ...»

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Additionally, descriptive statistics indicating African adolescent refugees‟ means and standard deviations on study measures by gender, country/or region of origin, age, and length of stay in the U.S. are presented. Statistical analyses for each of the instruments used in this study are presented. These include presentation and discussion of the reliabilities of each instrument. Correlations among the four subscales (SSSC-PAR, SSSC-PEER, SPPA-GSW, SPPA-PSA, and AAQ-subscales) used in this study are presented. A correction for attenuation correlation matrix also is presented and explained.

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Participants in the study were selected from cities in Guilford County, North Carolina. They were invited to participate and informed about the procedures in the study at different times due to different schedules at school and other family commitments.

Two weeks after initial contact, a formal presentation was made to participants who were gathered at two local churches in Greensboro. Participants were informed about the purpose and the reason they had been chosen to take part in the research study. Also, they were informed that upon completion of the study measures, they would receive a $5 WalMart gift card. For those who were under the age of eighteen, they were informed that their parents‟ permission would be required before they participated in the study.

Participants were invited to ask any questions they had about the study at that time and also were informed that they were free to ask any other questions later. After the presentation, two copies of parental consent forms in three languages (i.e., English, Kiswahili, and French) were handed out to each participant who was under 18. They were given 2 weeks within which their parents were to sign both copies and one copy was to be returned to the researcher before they participated in the study.

Copies of one consent form were returned to the researcher at different times ranging from one week to one and a half weeks after they were handed out. After all parental consent forms were collected, participants were gathered again in two churches in Greensboro at different times for completion of study measures. On the day of administration, each participant was given a pencil and assent form to sign to grant permission as participants. Upon completion of signing the forms, each participant was

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Support Scale for Children (12 items), Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents (10 items), and Acculturation Attitudes Questionnaire (20 items). Participants were informed that they were to take thirty to forty five minutes to complete the measures. However, those who wanted more time to complete also were told they would not be penalized for taking longer.

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Participants in this study were a total of 71 African adolescent refugees resettled in Guilford County, North Carolina. After parental consent was provided by participants‟ parents (as needed) and assent forms from participants, a total of 71 study measures and demographic forms were distributed. Of these total, 70 questionnaires were fully completed (which represented 98% participation). One questionnaire was discarded because the participant only completed the demographic form. Participants were boys and girls enrolled in grades seven through twelve (i.e., middle school through high school).

Also, all participants were fluent in English.

As shown in Table 5, participants in this study included fairly equal numbers of girls 54 percent (n = 38) and boys 45 percent (n = 32). The age range was 13 through 19 years with a mean of 16 years (SD = 1.88). The number of participants by age was almost evenly distributed for 16 through 19 year olds. The highest representation was 18 years, 20 percent (n = 14), followed by 16 years, 18 percent (n = 13), 17 years, 15 percent (n = 11), 19 years, 14 percent (n = 10), 15 years, 11 percent (n = 8), 13 and 14 years 10

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(i.e., Burundi, DRC, Rwanda, Somalia, and Sudan). The highest number was from Sudan, 42 percent (n = 30), followed by DRC, 31 percent (n = 22), Rwanda, 14 percent (n = 10), Burundi, 7 percent (n = 5), and Somalia 4 percent (n = 3). The highest representation of participants from Sudan than any other country was not surprising due to the prolonged war between the Northern and Southern Sudan that has lasted for over a decade. Because of this, at any given time, countries of resettlement (including the U.S.) are always receiving Sudanese refugees either directly from Southern Sudan or from refugee camps in other countries where they have been resettled.

At the grade level, the highest number of participants were in 12th grade, 30 percent (n = 21) with an almost equal number of participants in grades 10 and 11, 22 percent (n =

16) and 20 percent (n = 14); and grades 8 and 9, 10 percent (n = 7) and 12.9% (n = 9) respectively. The smallest number of participants were in 7th grade, 4.3 percent (n = 3).

Additionally, participants had to have lived in the U.S. for at least 1 year and no more than 10 years. Table 6 shows the numbers and percentages of the duration lived in the U.S. as follows; the highest number was 10 years, 28 percent (n = 20), followed by 2 years, 20.0 percent (n = 14), 1 year, 12 percent (n = 9), 3 years, 11 percent (n = 8), 6 years, 7 percent (n = 5), 9 years, 5 percent (n = 4), 4 and 7 years tied at 4.3 percent (n =

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The following demographic information also was provided by participants: place of residence before arrival in the U.S. (i.e., refugee camp or directly from country of origin), who their friends were (whether they were American girls or boys, from other refugee groups, or from their own cultural background), other languages spoken at home and school, and religion. From the total number of participants, 62 percent (n = 44) indicated they had lived in refugee camps in different countries and 37 percent (n = 26) said they came directly from their original countries for resettlement in the U.S. Regarding their friends, 28 percent (n = 20) indicated they had friends from all the three categories of groups. About a quarter 25 percent (n = 18) reported they had both American and African boys and girls as friends, 17 percent (n = 12) had Americans only as friends, 15 percent (n = 11) had friends from their own cultural background, and 12 percent (n = 9) did not

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Participants‟ responses concerning the language spoken at home were divided into two categories: native language or English and native language. From the total number of participants, 42 percent (n = 30) spoke their native language, 34 percent (n = 24) spoke English and their native language, and 22 percent (n = 16) spoke English at home. In relation to their religion, the majority of participants 88 percent (n = 62) were Christians, 7 percent (n = 5) were Muslims, and 4 percent (n = 3) did not indicate any form of religion. Additionally, from the total number of those who indicated Christianity as their religion, many came from Sudan and the rest from Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, and Burundi. This was expected because many refugees from Sudan come from the predominantly Christian Southern region in comparison to the Northern region which is more Islamic.

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Table 7 shows possible and actual ranges of scores, means, and standard deviations for the sub-scales administered in the present study as measures of social support, psychosocial adjustment, and acculturation. The results for Social support measures were as follows: SSSC_PAR (possible and actual range of scores 4 to 20, 11 to 24; M = 19.7, SD = 3.4); and SSSC_PEER (possible and actual range of scores 4 to 24, 13 to 24, M = 20.5, SD = 3.1). The results for Psychosocial adjustment measures were: SPPA_GSW (possible and actual range of scores 4 to 20, 8 to 20, M = 16.1, SD = 3.0), SPPA_PSA (possible and actual range of scores 4 to 20, 5 to 20, M = 16.3, SD = 3.0). For the

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of scores 5 to 25, 7 to 25, M = 19.6, SD = 4.1), AAQ_ASS (possible and actual range of scores 5 to 25, 5 to 24, M = 11.7, SD = 4.5), AAQ_MARG (possible and actual range of scores 5 to 25, 5 to 19, M = 9.6, SD = 3.5), and AAQ_SEP (possible and actual range of scores 5 to 25, 5 to 23, M = 13.1, SD = 3.8).

As shown in the table, the highest means were found among social support measures (peer support subscale) and the lowest mean scores were in acculturation measures (marginalization). Among acculturation attitudes, integration was more predominant than the other three subscales. The means and standard deviations for all subscales indicated that participants had very high scores on almost all measures: that is, the majority responded with high values (i.e., 4 or 5) on the subscales and very few responded with lower values (i.e., 1) on specific items on measures, yielding a restricted range.

In Table 8, 9, 10, and 11, the ranges of scores, means and standard deviations of participants in the study by age, gender, region/country, and duration lived in the U.S. are presented. Although participants came from specific countries, as already stated, they were grouped into two groups because of the small numbers represented by some countries (e.g., Burundi, n = 5, Somalia, n = 3). The numbers could have made it impossible to make any comparisons with other highly represented countries such as Sudan (n = 30). Therefore, participants were grouped on the basis of regions as represented by their countries; that is, whether those countries were more from the East

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Note: 1) SSSC_PAR = Social Support Scale for Children_Parent, 2) SSSC_PEER = Social Support Scale for Children_Peer, 3) SPPA_GSW = Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents_ Global Self-Worth, 4) SPPA_PSA = Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents_Peer Social Acceptance, 5) AAQ_INT = Acculturation Attitudes Questionnaire_Integration, 6) AAQ_ASS = Acculturation Attitudes Questionnaire_Assimilation, 7) AAQ_MARG = Acculturation Attitudes Questionnaire_Marginalization, 8) AAQ_SEP = Acculturation Attitudes Questionnaire_Separation 123 Table 9 Range of Scores, Means, and Standard Deviations by Gender (N=70)

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Note: 1) SSSC_PAR = Social Support Scale for Children_Parent, 2) SSSC_PEER = Social Support Scale for Children_Peer, 3) SPPA_GSW = Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents_ Global Self-Worth, 4) SPPA_PSA = Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents_Peer Social Acceptance, 5) AAQ_INT = Acculturation Attitudes Questionnaire_Integration, 6) AAQ_ASS = Acculturation Attitudes Questionnaire_Assimilation, 7) AAQ_MARG = Acculturation Attitudes Questionnaire_Marginalization, 8) AAQ_SEP = Acculturation Attitudes Questionnaire_Separation 124 Table 10 Range of Scores, Means, and Standard Deviations by Region/Country of Origin

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Note: 1) SSSC_PAR = Social Support Scale for Children_Parent, 2) SSSC_PEER = Social Support Scale for Children_Peer, 3) SPPA_GSW = Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents_ Global Self-Worth, 4) SPPA_PSA = Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents_Peer Social Acceptance, 5) AAQ_INT = Acculturation Attitudes Questionnaire_Integration, 6) AAQ_ASS = Acculturation Attitudes Questionnaire_Assimilation, 7) AAQ_MARG = Acculturation Attitudes Questionnaire_Marginalization, 8) AAQ_SEP = Acculturation Attitudes Questionnaire_Separation 125 Table 11 Range of Scores, Means, and Standard Deviations by Duration of Stay in the U.S.

(N=70)

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Note: 1) SSSC_PAR = Social Support Scale for Children_Parent, 2) SSSC_PEER = Social Support Scale for Children_Peer, 3) SPPA_GSW = Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents_ Global Self-Worth, 4) SPPA_PSA = Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents_Peer Social Acceptance, 5) AAQ_INT = Acculturation Attitudes Questionnaire_Integration, 6) AAQ_ASS = Acculturation Attitudes Questionnaire_Assimilation, 7) AAQ_MARG = Acculturation Attitudes Questionnaire_Marginalization, 8) AAQ_SEP = Acculturation Attitudes Questionnaire_Separation 126

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Reliability analyses for the study measures were performed using Cronbach‟s alpha coefficient (α) as the index for internal consistency. Table 12 shows the alpha (α) coefficients for measures in the present study and those reported in previous research studies. For Social Support subscales, parental support demonstrated the highest reliability coefficient (α =.63) and peer support had the lowest (α =.52). For psychosocial adjustment subscales, peer social acceptance had the highest reliability coefficient (α =.65) and global self-worth the lowest coefficient (α =.55). Also as shown in the table, both Social Support subscales (SSSC_PAR and SSSC_PEER) and one of the psychosocial adjustment subscales (SPPA_GSW) had lower reliabilities in comparison to reliability coefficients reported in a previous study (i.e., Kovacev & Shute, 2004).

Acculturation attitudes subscales showed moderate reliability alpha coefficients for integration and assimilation subscales, AAQ_INT (α =.71) and AAQ_ASS (α =.71).

However, reliabilities for marginalization and separation were somewhat low, AAQ_MARG (α =.57) and AAQ_SEP (α =.45). The finding was different from a previous study by Berry et al. (2006) in which reliabilities for integration, assimilation, and marginalization were lower in comparison to the present study except for separation, which was higher than the present study. The reliabilities for social support and psychosocial adjustment measures as well as some acculturation attitudes subscales (i.e., marginalization and separation) were below the minimum limit acceptable for social

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statistics and the relationships among variables in the study. Additional explanations will be provided in Chapter V as a direction for future studies.

Table 12 Reliability Alpha Coefficients of Instruments

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Research Question One What are the relationships among acculturation, social support, and psychosocial adjustment for African adolescent refugees in the U.S.?

Hypothesis one. Hypothesis one stated that there would be a relationship among acculturation, social support, and psychosocial adjustment for the sample. To examine

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