«The ongoing wars around the world have led to an ever increasing exodus of refugee populations for resettlement in developed countries, including the ...»
measures were calculated for all the participants. Table 13 shows the results of the correlation matrices. First, findings from the correlation matrix indicated significant positive relationships among some of the social support and psychosocial adjustment subscales: SSSC_PAR and SPPA_GSW r (68) =.37, p.00, SSSC_PEER and SPPA_PSA r (68) =.34, p.00. There were no relationships between SSSC_PAR and SPPA_PSA r (68) =.10, p.36, and SSSC_PEER and SPPA_GSW r (68) =.18, p 11.
Second, there were no relationships between acculturation attitudes and psychosocial adjustment; SPPA_GSW with AAQ_INT r(68) =.17, p.14, AAQ_ASS r(68) =.06, p =.57, AAQ_MARG r(68) = -.01, p =.88, and AAQ_SEP r(68) = -.09, p.46.
SPPA_PSA with AAQ_INT r(68) =.06, p.60, AAQ_ASS r(68) =.15, p.20, AAQ_MARG r(68) = -.02, p.87, and AAQ_SEP r(68) =.00, p.99. For social support and acculturation attitudes, there were only partial relationships found. Parental support (i.e., SSSC_PAR) showed no relationships with AAQ_INT r(68) =.08, p.48, AAQ_ASS r(68) = -.05, p.67, AAQ_ MARG r(68) = -.05, p.67, and AAQ_SEP r(68) =.06, p.58. Similarly, peer support had no relationships with all acculturation attitudes subscales with the exception of a significant relationship with integration;
SSSC_PEER with AAQ_INT r(68) =.29, p.01, AAQ_ASS r(68)= -.16, p.16 AAQ_MARG r(68) = -.15, p.19, and AAQ_SEP r(68) = -.12, p.36.
Therefore, the hypothesis as stated was only partially supported by the data in the present study. Positive relationships were only observed among parental support and global self-worth, as well as peer support and peer social acceptance. No relationships
self-worth were extremely low. Also, among acculturation attitudes subscales, the only significant relationship was found among peer support and integration. Tables 14, 15, and 16 show a comparison of correlations among study measures in the present and a previous study.
Table 17 shows disattenuated correlations among the measures. These correlations can be interpreted as the level of association you might see if there were no measurement errors. With observed variable, the correlation between two variables is reduced due to errors in the measurement of both variables. Disattenuation of the correlation helps to see what the maximum correlations between the variables would be if they could be measured without error. These correlations for disattenuation have little significance in the present study (i.e., they were not used in the analyses). The numbers of participants in the study were large to enable the finding of significant relationships. Therefore, any major decisions about interventions with the sample may be made with caution based on the very low correlations in.20s and.30s. Implications of these findings will be further
**Correlation is significant at the p.01 level (2 tailed) *Correlation is significant at the p.05 level (2 tailed) Note: 1) SSSC_PAR = Social Support Scale for Children_Parent, 2) SSSC_PEER = Social Support Scale for Children_Peer, 3) SPPA_GSW = Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents_ Global Self-Worth, 4) SPPA_PSA = Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents_Peer Social Acceptance, 5) AAQ_INT = Acculturation Attitudes Questionnaire_Integration, 6) AAQ_ASS = Acculturation Attitudes Questionnaire_Assimilation, 7) AAQ_MARG = Acculturation Attitudes Questionnaire_Marginalization, 8) AAQ_SEP = Acculturation Attitudes Questionnaire_Separation 131 Table 14 Comparison of Correlations between Social Support and Psychosocial Adjustment
Significance added from Table 13 Note: 1) SSSC_PAR = Social Support Scale for Children_Parent, 2) SSSC_PEER = Social Support Scale for Children_Peer, 3) SPPA_GSW = Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents_ Global Self-Worth, 4) SPPA_PSA = Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents_Peer Social Acceptance, 5) AAQ_INT = Acculturation Attitudes Questionnaire_Integration, 6) AAQ_ASS = Acculturation Attitudes Questionnaire_Assimilation, 7) AAQ_MARG = Acculturation Attitudes Questionnaire_Marginalization, 8) AAQ_SEP = Acculturation Attitudes Questionnaire_Separation Research Question Two Among the four acculturation attitudes, which one is the best predictor of psychosocial adjustment?
Hypothesis two. Hypothesis two stated that integration would be the best predictor of psychosocial adjustment, followed by assimilation, separation, and marginalization
a multiple regression analysis. The results showed no significance among acculturation attitudes and psychosocial adjustment subscales, that is, none of the acculturation attitudes were significantly predicted by SPPA_GSW, F(4, 65) =.992, p =.418 and SPPA_PSA; F(4, 65) =.638, p =.637. Thus, acculturation attitudes could not significantly predict psychosocial adjustment. For SPPA_GSW, the proportion of variance accounted for by acculturation was only 6% and for SPPA_PSA it was 4% (See Table 18).
Table 18 Multiple Regression Analysis of Acculturation Attitudes and Psychosocial Adjustment
Note: 1) AAQ_INT = Acculturation Attitudes Questionnaire_Integration, 2) AAQ_ASS = Acculturation Attitudes Questionnaire_Assimilation, 3) AAQ_MARG = Acculturation Attitudes Questionnaire_Marginalization, 4) AAQ_SEP = Acculturation Attitudes Questionnaire_Separation, 5) SPPA_GSW = Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents_ Global Self-Worth, 6) SPPA_PSA = Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents_Peer Social Acceptance 135 Research Question Three Among the social support measures, which one is the best predictor of psychosocial adjustment? (Additional Research Question in Chapter IV) Hypothesis three. Hypothesis three stated that parental support would be the best predictor of psychosocial adjustment followed by peer support. This hypothesis was tested by performing a multiple regression analysis and it was supported in the findings;
parental support significantly predicted global self-worth, SSSC_PAR, F(2, 67) = 6.01, p =.004, and peer support significantly predicted peer social acceptance, SSSC_PEER, F(2, 67) = 4.63, p =.013. However, parental support failed to significantly predict peer social acceptance and similarly peer support failed to predict global self-worth. The model summary indicated that for global self-worth, the proportion of variance accounted for by parental support was 15% and for peer social acceptance, peer support accounted
Research Question Four Do acculturation attitudes influence the amount of social support that adolescent refugees have which in turn influence psychosocial adjustment?
Hypothesis four. Hypothesis Four stated that that the amount of social support adolescent refugees have and/or perceive would mediate the relationship among acculturation and psychosocial adjustment. This hypothesis was not tested because the conditions for a mediation analysis were only partially met in hypothesis one and hypothesis three but and no significant relationships were found in hypotheses two.
According to Baron and Kenny (1989), for a mediating relationship to occur in data analysis, three conditions have to be met. First, there must be evidence of a significant relationship between the independent variable and the mediator variable. In the present study, that means a significant relationship between acculturation attitudes and social
support) and the dependent variable (psychosocial adjustment). Finally, there has to be a significant relationship between the independent (acculturation) and the dependent (psychosocial adjustment) variables.
In order to meet the conditions by Baron and Kenny (1989), evidence of a mediating relationship could have occurred only if the mediator variable (social support) and independent variable (acculturation) simultaneously predicted the dependent variable (psychosocial adjustment). The result of this could have been a reduced or nonsignificant path/relationship between the independent (acculturation) and dependent (psychosocial adjustment) variables. As stated, results from the first hypothesis showed only minimal significant relationships (between parental support and global self-worth;
peer support and peer social acceptance) and the other measures were insignificant.
Therefore, due to the lack of these significant relationships among social support and acculturation attitudes, as well as acculturation attitudes and psychosocial adjustment measures, it was impossible to perform a mediation relationship as hypothesized. More on this will be discussed in Chapter V.
Research Question Five Are there significant mean differences in psychosocial adjustment by gender and duration lived in host country among African adolescent refugees? (Secondary/or Ancillary question).
Hypothesis five. Hypothesis five stated that there would be significant mean differences in psychosocial adjustment by gender and duration lived in the U.S. This
deviations by gender and duration lived in the U.S. on SPPA_TOTAL are presented in Table 20. Factor ANOVA results did not indicate main effect by gender, F(1, 66) =.027, p =.871, eta =.000, power =.053 but indicated main effect by duration lived in the U.S.;
F(1, 66) = 9.91, p =.002, eta =.131, power =.873. Results showed that, overall, for both boys and girls, time spent in the US was associated with higher scores. The scores went from M = 30.58, SD = 5.4 for those who had lived in the U.S. for at least four years to M = 34.36, SD = 4.4 for those who had lived in the U.S. for more than four years, this was one standard deviation better.
Table 20 Factorial ANOVA Results for Duration of Stay in the U.S. and Gender (N = 70)
In this chapter, results of the analyses conducted for the present study were presented.
Demographic description of participants including gender, age, regions/countries of origin, duration of stay in the U.S., and grade levels were described. Descriptive statistics
were presented. Results from the analyses indicated that social support and psychosocial adjustment were only partially correlated; that is, peer support had a significant correlation with peer social acceptance but no relationship was found between peer support and global self-worth. Similarly, parental support had a significant correlation with global self-worth but no relationship was found with peer social acceptance. Also, among social support measures, parental support had no correlations with acculturation attitudes; however, peer support had a significant correlation with integration but no correlations were found with assimilation, marginalization, and separation. Additionally, between acculturation and psychosocial adjustment measures, peer support positively correlated with integration but no correlations were found with assimilation, marginalization, and separation subscales.
In terms of predictor variables, there was no significance between acculturation and psychosocial adjustment measures. However, significance was observed between some social support and psychosocial adjustment measures. Because of the partial relationships and lack of positive significant relationships among some measures as stated above, the mediation model could not be analyzed in the study. Finally, on differences in adjustment by gender and time lived in the host country, results showed participants well-being increased due to lived in the U.S., F(1, 66) = 9.91, p =.002, η2 =.131), but not by gender. An integration of the findings with the literature review, limitations of the study, implications for counselors and service providers, and directions for future research are
On the demographic questionnaire, participants also were asked to state who their friends were (i.e., whether they were American boys and girls, from other refugee groups, or their own cultural background). The overall findings for all participants were as follows: American culture, other refugee groups, and their own culture, 28 percent (n = 20), followed by American culture and their own culture, 25 percent (n = 18), American culture, 27 percent (n = 12), original culture, 15 percent (n = 11), and no response, 12 percent (n = 9). There were some differences in the choices of friends by participants‟ country of origin although these differences were based on very small numbers for some countries and were not tested statistically and thus should be taken with great caution.
From Burundi, a girl had no friends from other refugee groups. However, from Democratic Republic of Congo, the trend was reversed with boys showing no friendships from other refugee groups. Girls from Democratic Republic of Congo indicated more friendships with Americans and their own culture than from other refugee groups. For boys from Rwanda, they had no friendships from the other groups except Americans while the girls indicated they had friendships from all the groups.
Somali had the least number of participants, with one boy indicating having American friends and the two girls showed friendships from their own culture and other refugee groups. The highest number of participants from all categories of friends was recorded by boys from Sudan. The majority of participants from Sudan had friends from
In this Chapter, a discussion and interpretation of the study findings, limitations of the study, suggestions for future research, and implications for counselors, practitioners, and counselor educators are presented.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among acculturation (i.e., integration, assimilation, marginalization, and separation), social support (i.e., parental and peer support) and psychosocial adjustment (i.e., global self-worth and peer social acceptance) with African adolescent refugees resettled in the U.S. An investigation of the relationships among study variables (i.e., acculturation, psychosocial adjustment, and social support) indicated only partial relationships in terms of expected/hypothesized findings among study measures.